For robots to defeat the “cheap labor?
July 16, 2012 Recently, informed, Asia, the United States George, a clothing company, and the upcoming “robot tailor”. Allegedly, this financial crisis era of technological innovation, can completely change the fate of “Made in America”, and its lower cost. The U.S. It can be reversed, with $ 100 billion a year deficit, and the embarrassment of imported clothing from China, Vietnam and other places.
Computer-controlled automatic sewing machine, you can replace manual sewing needle, first-line “design the clothes, the production line will not see the person. This represents the financial crisis, the United States “re-industrialization” direction. Some call it “automation revolution”, or “robot revolution”.
Steve Dixon, founder of the clothing company said the automated machinery that allows mobile phones, computers and television production, return to the United States “.
It was suggested to ask: Robot foreign manufacturers will kill?
The Washington Post commented that robot development has entered a stage of many applications, including use in medical surgery and manufacturing, “robots do not sleep, vacation, distracted, and would not ask for a raise, ultimately, The robot will be cheaper than human labor cost. ”
They further predicted that artificial intelligence, robotics, and digital manufacturing, contributed to this new industrial revolution, so that U.S. companies can place to set up stores and create a variety of products, the robot of the United States will soon be direct competition with foreign workers ” .
For foreign enterprises in terms of “low profit trap” was into wages rising costs, rising raw material prices, shrinking export orders, this is not good news. Interpersonal competition, you can rely on hard-working less to earn more than dry; pleasant and machine competition, these advantages, I am afraid would cease to exist.
Defeat the “people”, “robot” is one of the methods of the United States to “re-industrialization” strategy.
The international financial crisis, President Obama, as well as many U.S. entrepreneurs are called on to return to manufacturing “, and declared that the next 20 years, through the development of high-end manufacturing, wholesale reconfiguration of global manufacturing competitiveness pattern.
The industrialization process itself is a machine substitute “the process. Humans are to the material age “from” physical age “and then” mental age “evolution, when the machine is to help humanity, the many low-end, heavy, repetitive tedious work, human beings have more time and effort to engage in activities such as learning, innovation, research, communication and the arts. As a machine tool industry veteran said, must understand that to compete with the United States, Europe, Japan and other countries, we can not use someone else’s industrial equipment, That can make their own manufacture, hovering in the low value-added sectors, in order to prevent opponents killed by a robot, we must use their own robot arm themselves. ”
Robots – robots robot (Robot) is a device of the automatic implementation of the machine. It can accept human command, you can run the pre-arranged program, can also be based on artificial intelligence techniques to develop the principles of program actions. Its mission is to assist or replace human work, for example, the manufacturing industry, construction, or dangerous work.
The meaning of words
Term n [C]
A robot; automatic control device; remote control device
Mechanical rigid, machine-like people who work
Robot, it is a product of advanced integrated control theory, mechanical electronics, computers, materials and bionics. Industry (Honda’s ASIMO robot)
, Medicine, agriculture, construction, and even military fields have an important purpose.
Now, the international concept of the robot has been gradually approaching consensus. Generally speaking, people can accept that, that is, the robot is its own power and control to achieve the various functions of a machine. United Nations Organization for Standardization, the adoption of the definition of the American Federation of Robotics to the robot: “a programmable, multifunctional manipulator; in order to perform different tasks, and specialized systems available computer changes and programmable action.” It for human convenience.
robot, robo, meaning the original as a slave, the servant of mankind. Created by writer Robert vocabulary.
Capable of evaluation criteria
The robot the ability of the evaluation criteria, including: intelligence, the feeling and perception, including memory, computation, comparison, identification, judgment, decision-making, learning and logical reasoning; function, refers to the flexibility, versatility or space occupies; physical energy means the power, speed, reliability, combined with, and life. Therefore, we can say that the robot is biologically functional space to run the tool, you can replace human to complete the dangerous or difficult labor, task.
The robot is usually by the executive body, drives, testing devices and control systems and complex mechanical.
The robot body, arms, and generally use the space for open-chain linkage. Joint configuration types and forms of the moving coordinate different robots implementing agencies can be divided into rectangular form, the cylindrical coordinate type, polar type and joint type Coordinate. For anthropomorphic reasons, often to the relevant parts of the robot body, respectively, called the base, waist, arm, wrist, hand (gripper or end effector) and walking, (for mobile robots) .
Driven perform kinematic institutions, in accordance with the control system, issue the command signal, by means of dynamic components, so that the robot action. Enter it, the electrical signal output line, the amount of angular displacement. Robot drive power-driven devices, such as stepper motors, servo motors, etc. In addition, hydraulic, pneumatic drive.
The role of the detection device
Is real-time detection of the robot’s movement and work of the needed feedback to the control system, and setting information to compare the implementing agencies to be adjusted to ensure that the actions of the robot, to meet the predetermined requirements. As a sensor of the detection device can be roughly divided into two categories: one is internal information sensor for the internal situation in various parts of the inspection robot, such as joint position, velocity, acceleration, and the measured information as the feedback signal to the controller form a closed loop control. A class of external information sensors, used to obtain information of the robot’s job object, and the external environment, so that the action of the robot can adapt to changes in external circumstances, so as to achieve a higher level of automation, or even to make The robot has a certain “feel” to the intelligent development, for example, visual, sound sleep, and other external sensors to give the work object, work environment, use the information to constitute a feedback loop, which will greatly enhance the robot the work of precision.
There are two ways of controlling system
Kind of centralized control, robot controlled by a microcomputer. Another, are dispersed (level) control, that is more than one computer to share the control of the robot, such as when using the next two computer together to complete control of the robot, the host is responsible for systems management, communications, kinematics and dynamics calculations, and lower-level computer, send a command information; as a subordinate slave joint, corresponding to a CPU, interpolation operation and servo control processing to achieve a given movement, and feedback to the host. Job tasks require different robot control, position control can be divided into continuous path control and force (torque) control.
Robot exhibition contest
No. Name cycles Country / Region
1 RoboCup (Robot World Cup) two years of international
The WRO (International Robot Olympiad) 1-year international
3 IREX (the International Robot Exhibition) in Japan
4 TIROS (Taipei International Robot Exhibition) in Taiwan
5 Loebner 1-year international
World Robot Expo
Day 08-11 June 2010, Munich, Germany, international robotics and automation technology trade fair. International robotics and automation technology trade fair is the world’s largest robot exhibition, to provide customers with a unique set of innovative and specific applications, not the pursuit of the surface of the display of results, but to them, to provide customized solutions that improve a separate proposal.
History of the development
The intelligent robot is the most complex robot, but also the human desire as early as possible to make the machine a friend. However, in order to create a smart robot is not easy to just let the machine simulation of human walking action, the scientists will have to pay tens or even hundreds of years of effort. 1921 Czechoslovakia writer Karel Capek in his science fiction, according to Robota (Czech, the original intent of labor, hard labor “) and Robotnik (Polish original intent was to” workers “), to create a robot “the word. 1939 New York World on display at the Westinghouse Electric Company manufactured household robot Elektro. It consists of cable control, can walk, would say 77 words, or even smoke, but still far from the real chores. But it makes people longing for domestic robots become more specific. 1942 American science fiction master Isaac Asimov Three Laws of Robotics. Although this is only the creation of science fiction, but later became a research and development principles of academia default. 1948 Norbert Wiener published “Cybernetics – the common law on the control and communication in animal and machine science,” on the machine communications and control functions and nerve, and sensory function, first proposed to computer as the core of an automated factory. 1954 American George Devall create the world’s first programmable robot, and registered patents. The robot according to different procedures in different tasks, it has the versatility and flexibility. In the Dartmouth Conference in 1956, Marvin Minsky put forward his views on intelligent machines: intelligent machines, “able to create an abstract model of the surrounding environment, if you encounter problems, to find a solution from the abstract model . This definition, affect the direction of 30-year study of intelligent robots. 1959 Devall create the first industrial robot in conjunction with the American inventor Joseph Ying Ge Boge. Subsequently, the establishment of the world’s first robot manufacturing plant – Unimation, the company. Ying Ge Boge R & D and promotion of industrial robots, he is also known as the “father of industrial robots. 1962 AMF produced the VERSTRAN “(meaning universal handling), and the Unimation produced the Unimate as the real business of industrial robots, and exported to countries around the world, setting off a worldwide boom for robots and robotics research. 1962 -1963 years the application of sensors to improve the operability of the robot. People try to install a variety of sensors on the robot, including the 1961 Ernst tactile sensor, pressure sensors are used in the Tomo Popovich and Boni, 1962 in the world’s first “smart hands”, while McCarthy 1963 in robot vision sensing system in 1964 to help MIT launched the world’s first with a vision sensor that can identify and locate the building blocks of the robot system. Beast robot developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in 1965. Beast has been through the sonar systems, photoelectric devices, and their position according to the environmental correction. The mid 1960s, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, United Kingdom University of Edinburgh has been set up in the robotics lab. The United States the rise of second generation with sensors, “feel” of robots and artificial intelligence embarked. 1968 Stanford Research Institute, USA announced that they successfully developed a robot Shakey. It with a visual sensor that can discover and crawl under the instruction of building blocks, but to control the computer in a room is so large. Shakey can be regarded as the world’s first intelligent robots, opened the prelude of the third generation of robotics research and development. 1969 Waseda University, Japan Kato Ichiro Laboratory developed the first robot to walk with feet. Kato Ichiro long-term commitment to research humanoid robot, known as “the father of the humanoid robot. Japanese experts have always known in the technical development of humanoid robots and entertainment robots, and later further, gave birth to Honda’s ASIMO and Sony’s QRIO. Sony’s QRIO robot
1973, the world’s first robot and a small computer to work together on the birth of the United States Cincinnati Milacron robot T3. Unimation introduced common industrial robot PUMA in 1978, which marks the industrial robot technology has fully matured. PUMA is still work in the first line of the factory. Helpmate of England Ge Boge again and again in 1984 robot, this robot can be in the hospital for patient meal delivery, drug delivery, send e-mail. In the same year, he predicted: “I let the robot to clean the floor, cooking, went out to help me and wash the car, check the security. 1990 famous Chinese scholar, Professor Zhou Haizhong predicted in an article on the robot: the middle of the 21st century, nano-robots will completely change the human labor and lifestyle. The 1998 Danish Lego robot (Mind-storms) kit, so that the robot manufacturing the same building blocks, relatively simple and can arbitrarily assembled, the robot started to enter the private world. Sony’s AIBO robot
1999 Japan’s Sony Corp. introduced the dog robot Aibo (the AIBO), and immediately sold out, from the entertainment robots to become one of the robot into the way of ordinary families. The 2002 U.S. firm iRobot vacuum cleaner robot, the Roomba, it can avoid obstacles, and automatic design of the route, but also in the lack of electricity, automatic heading charging stand. Roomba is the world’s largest-selling, most commercial home robots. of iRobot Corporation authorized dealers: Beijing piconet Zhihong Technology Co., Ltd.. In June 2006, Microsoft launched Microsoft Robotics Studio, the robot modular, unified platform trend is more and more obvious, Bill Gates predicted that household robots will soon be sweeping the globe. Analog communication robot
Born in science fiction into the robot full of fantasy. Perhaps robot ambiguity in the definition, only to fully imagine and create space. China’s robotics experts from the application environment, the robot is divided into two categories, namely, industrial robots and special robots. The so-called industrial robots for the industrial areas of multi-joint robot or multi-DOF robot. Special robots are a variety of advanced robot than to industrial robots, for non-manufacturing and the service of humanity, including: service robots, underwater robots, entertainment robots, military robots, agricultural robots, robotic machinery. In a special robot, some branch has developed rapidly, the trend of a separate system, such as service robots, underwater robots, military robots, micro-operation robot. At present, the robot on the international scholars, starting from the application environment the robot is also divided into two categories: industrial robots in the manufacturing environment and non-manufacturing environment under the service and humanoid robots, and the classification is consistent. Aerial robot, also known as unmanned machines in recent years, the family of military robots, unmanned aerial vehicles are the most active research activities, technological advances, research and procurement funding up to combat the most experienced field. 80 years, the development of the world UAV, basically the United States as the main line to move forward, regardless of the type and number of the technical level, or UAV, the United States ranking first in the world.
Can help people take care of life, to do simple household chores.
Operation of robot
Automatic control can be reprogrammable, multifunctional, there are several degrees of freedom can be fixed or movement for the related automation systems.
Pre-order requirements and conditions, in order to control the mechanical movement of the robot.
Show teaching playback type robot
Through the guide or other means, to teach the robot moves, enter the work program, the robot will automatically repeat operations.
Do not have to make the robot action, values, language, etc. to teach the robot, the robot according to the information after the teach job.
Feeling controlled robot
Sensors to obtain information to control the robot’s actions.
Adapt to the control of robot
Able to adapt to changes in the environment, control its own actions.
Learning control of robot
Can “understand” the experience of working, learning, and “learning” experience for the work.
Robot artificial intelligence to determine its action.
Search and rescue class robot
In large-scale disaster, people can enter to enter the ruins that can not use infrared scanning the scene, in the ruins of the information to send out search and rescue personnel.
One, the special function of the robot
Machine police EOD robots
The so-called ground military robots is the robot system used on the ground, not only in peacetime can help police rule out bomb to complete the important security tasks in time of war instead of soldiers to perform the various tasks of minesweeping, reconnaissance and attack today the United States, Britain, Germany, France, Japan and other countries have developed various types of military ground robots. “Trolley” robot in the Western countries, terrorism has always been a troublesome problem by the authorities. England due to ethnic conflicts, suffering from the threat of explosives, and thus early in the 1960s to the successful development of the EOD robot. Crawler “trolley” and “Super trolleys” robot, developed in Britain has more than 50 national military and police institutions sold more than 800. The British in turn trolley robot to be optimized, the development of prairie dogs and bison two kinds of remote control electric EOD robot, the British Royal Engineers in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo, detection and handling of explosives with them. Prairie dogs, weighing 35 kg, fitted with two cameras on the mast. Bison, weighing 210 kg and can carry 100 kg load. Both the radio control system, remote a distance of about 1 km. “Groundhog” and “Maverick” EOD robot in addition to bombs placed by terrorists, in many war-torn countries in the world, everywhere dotted with unexploded ammunition. For example, in Kuwait after the Gulf War, just as one could explode at any time the ammunition depot. Ico more than 10,000 square kilometers from the border region, 16 countries and 250,000 mines, 850,000 shells, and the multinational force to cast mine-laying bombs and cluster bombs and 25 million bullets, including at least 20% explosion. And until now, even remains of World War I and World War II unexploded bombs and mines in many countries. Therefore, the demand for explosive ordnance disposal robot. Exclude explosives robot wheeled and crawler, they are generally small size, to flexible, easy to work in a narrow place, the operator can control its activities through radio or fiber optic cable in a few hundred meters to several kilometers away. Robot car equipped with a general multi-color CCD camera used explosives to be observed; more than one degree of freedom manipulator with gripper or clamp can be explosives, fuses or detonators screwed down, and transported the explosives ; car is also equipped with shotguns, laser pointer targeting, it can destroy the explosives, timing devices and detonators; some robot is also equipped with water cannons, you can cut the explosives. German EOD robot in France, the Air Force, Army and Police Department to purchase the the Cybernetics development TRS200 medium EOD robot. RM35 robot developed by the DM company selected by the Paris Airport Authority. German peacekeeping in Bosnia and Herzegovina team equipped with MV4 series Telerob robot. PXJ-2 robot developed by China’s Shenyang Institute of Automation has also joined the ranks of the security forces. Remotec Andros series robots welcomed by the national police department, the White House and the Capitol Police have purchased this robot. Before the presidential election in South Africa, the police bought the four AndrosVIA robot in the electoral process, they performed a total of 100 times the task. Andros robot can be used for small random explosive ordnance disposal, it is the U.S. Air Force aircraft and passenger cars used on only the robot. After the Gulf War, the U.S. Navy also used the robot in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait Air Force Base to clean up mines and unexploded ammunition. U.S. Air Force also sent Andros robot to Kosovo for the cleanup of explosives and sub-shells. Of each EOD squad active duty in the Air Force and aviation rescue center extreme operations robot
Equipped with an Andros, VI of China-developed EOD robots EOD robot can not only exclude the bombs, the use of reconnaissance sensors can also monitor the activities of criminals. Surveillance personnel to observe at a distance of criminals day and night, listening to their conversation, do not have to expose themselves can be well aware of the situation. In Waco manor lesson plans in the United States in early 1993, in order to get the activities of the Puritans, the FBI used two robots. One is the the Remotec company AndrosVA type and Andros MarkVIA, robot, another STV robot developed by RST company. STV is a six remote control cars, radio and cable communication. Board can be raised to 4.5 meters of the stent, and fitted with a color stereo camera, day-optic sight, night vision sights, binaural audio detectors, chemical detectors, satellite positioning systems, target tracking forward-looking infrared sensors. The car is only one operator, remote control distance of 10 kilometers. Dispatched three STV, in this operation, the operator remote control robot to travel 548 meters from the Manor to stop rising car bracket, use of cameras and infrared detectors to pry the window, FBI officials around the screen observation sensors send back the image, you can clearly see the activities of the house.
Second, civilian robot
In fact, is not that people do not want to give the robot a complete definition, since the date of birth of the robot people continue to try in the end what is a robot. With the advent of the rapid development of robot technology and the information age, robot covered more and more rich content, the definition of the robot to continuously enrich and innovation. 1886 Montreal Adam, French writer, in his novel “Eve” will look like a human machine named “Andrew Rodin,” (Android), which consists of four components: a life system (balance, walking, voice, body swing, feeling, expression to regulate movement, etc.);, modeling solution quality (joint free movement of the metal cover body, a kind of armor);, artificial muscles (in the above armor, flesh, veins, gender the body’s various forms); artificial skin (containing color, mechanism, contour, hair, vision, dental, grippers, etc.). 1920 Czech writer Karel the Ka Peike published a sci-fi play “Rossum’s Universal Robot. In the script, Ka Peike the Czech “Robota” wrote “Robot,” Robota “meaning of the slaves. Play preview of the tragic impact of the development of robots to human society, the widespread concern as to the origin of the word robot. In the play, the robot in accordance with its master’s orders silently, without feelings and emotions, hard labor in a rigid way. Later, Rossum has made successful, the robot has feelings, resulting in the rapid increase of the robot’s applications department. In factories and housework, the robot has become indispensable member. The robot found that human selfishness and injustice, and finally rebelled, the robot’s physical and mental are excellent, so exterminate the human race. But robots do not know how to make their own, that they will soon become extinct, so they started looking for the survivors of the human, but to no avail. Finally, a pair of male and female robot perception is better than other robots in love. The robot evolution of mankind, the world came to life. The Ka Peike proposed that the robot’s safety, perception and self-propagating. Scientific and technological progress is likely to lead human beings do not want problems. Although the science fiction world just kind of imagination, but human society will likely face this reality. In order to prevent the robot injure a human being, the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov (Isaac.Asimov) in 1940, put forward three principles of “robot”: 1, the robot should not harm human beings; 2, the robot should comply with the human command and the first violation of except the command; 3, the robot should be able to protect themselves, and except for the first phase in conflict. This is the ethical agenda given to the robot. The robot academia has been these three principles as the criteria of the robot development. The first robot Conference held in Japan in 1967, he proposed two representative definition. First, Masahiro Mori and co-Tianzhou Ping: “The robot is a kind of mobility, individuality, intelligence, versatility, cyborg, half human nature, automatic, servile, etc. 7 features flexible machine. From this definition, Masahiro Mori proposed a 10 automatic, intelligent, individual, semi-mechanical semi-human nature, operations, versatility, informative, flexible, limited, mobility and other characteristics to represent the robot image. The other is the machines known as robots Kato Ichiro has the following three conditions: 1, with the three elements of the brain, hands, feet and other individuals;, non-contact sensor (with the eyes, ears accept the distance information) and contact sensor ; 3, has a balanced feel and natural feel of the sensor. The protocol droid This definition emphasizes the meaning of the robot should be humanoid, that it by hand and mobile operations, rely on the foot by the brain to the role of the unified command. The non-contact sensor and contact sensor is equivalent to a person’s facial features, so that the robot can recognize the external environment, balanced feel and inherent feel the robot perception of itself that are indispensable to the sensor. Described here is not industrial robots, but autonomous robots. The definition of the robot is varied, because it has a certain ambiguity. The animals generally have these elements, so to understand the robot humanoid machine at the same time, can also be broadly robot understand the machine for the imitation of animals. Ace Piot in France in 1988 defines a robot as follows: “robotics design based on sensor information to achieve a pre-planned operating system, and the use of the system as a research object. 1987 International Organization for Standardization definition of industrial robots: industrial robot is an automatic control of operation and mobility features programmable operating machine to complete a variety of jobs. “Chinese scientists, the robot is defined as:” the robot is an automated machine, this machine has developed or Xu Yang academicians unicycle robot
Similar biological intelligence capabilities, such as perception, planning ability, motor ability, and collaboration capabilities, is a highly flexible automated machines in the process of research and development of the unknown and the robot operating under an uncertain environment, people gradually recognize the nature of robotics is a combination of perception, decision, action and interaction techniques. knowledge about the intelligent nature of robotics, robotics started tumbling to penetrate the various fields of human activity. combination of these areas of application characteristics of the people to develop perception, decision making, actions and ability to interact with a wide range of special robots and a variety of intelligent machines, such as mobile robots, micro robots, underwater robots, medical robots, military robots, air, space robots, entertainment robots, such as adaptability to different tasks and special environment, but also the important difference of Robotics and automation equipment. these robots from the appearance far removed from the first humanoid robot and industrial robot with the shape, more in line with a variety of the special requirements of different application areas, their function and the degree of intelligence is also greatly enhanced, open up a broader space for development for robotics. Song Jian, Chinese Academy of Engineering, pointed out: “the advancement and application of robotics automatic control of the 20th century convincing achievements of contemporary highest sense of automation. robot technology combines a multi-disciplinary development results, and represents the cutting edge of high-tech development, and continues to expand it in the application areas of human life is caused by the new understanding of international robotics the role and impact of the Beijing Institute of Technology to develop robot BHR-2
China’s robotics experts from the application environment, the robot is divided into two categories, namely, industrial robots and special robots. The so-called industrial robots for the industrial areas of multi-joint robot or multi-DOF robot. Special robots are a variety of advanced robot than to industrial robots, for non-manufacturing and the service of humanity, including: service robots, underwater robots, entertainment robots, military robots, agricultural robots, robotic machinery. In a special robot, some branch has developed rapidly, the trend of a separate system, such as service robots, underwater robots, military robots, micro-operation robot. At present, the robot on the international scholars, starting from the application environment the robot is also divided into two categories: industrial robots in the manufacturing environment and non-manufacturing environment under the service and humanoid robots, and the classification is consistent. The ancient robot robot emergence of the term and the advent of the world’s first industrial robot are of recent decades. However, people’s fantasy and the pursuit of more than 3000 years of history. Humans want to create a humanlike machines to replace human to complete a variety of work. Machine carriage Western Zhou Dynasty, craftsmen Yanshi developed a singing and dancing actor, which is China’s earliest recorded robot. Spring and Autumn Period, a famous Chinese carpenter Lu Ban, the mechanical aspects of an inventor, “ink” record, he had manufactured a wooden bird in flight on the 3rd, no less than “, reflects the Chinese working people wisdom. In the 2nd century BC, Alexander the era of the ancient Greeks invented the most primitive robot ─ ─ automata. It is based on water, air and steam pressure will move the statue of the power, it can open the door, can make use of steam to sing. 1800 years to the Han, the great scientist Zhang Heng not only invented the seismograph invented the meter inside drum cart. Meter inside the drum car line, car Muren drumming about ten miles per row hit the bell. Later Han Dynasty Three Kingdoms period, Shu Prime Minister Zhuge Liang succeed in creating a “wooden ox”, and the delivery of rations to support the front of the war. In 1662, Japan’s Takeda Omi watch technology invented the automatic mechanical doll, and performances in Osaka Dotonbori. In 1738, the French genius technician Jack Day Wacker Johnson invented a machine duck, quack, swimming and drinking water, but also feeding and excretion. The Wacker Johnson’s intention is to want a biological function of mechanization and medical analysis. Write the robot in automatic doll, the most outstanding to the number of the Swiss watchmaker Jack Road, Ross and his son Leigh Louis Road, Ross. 1773 for the introduction of automatic writing dolls, play dolls, etc. automatically, they create an automatic doll is made of gears and clockwork principle. Some of them are holding a brush and color paintings, some holding a goose feather dipped in ink to write, ingenious structure, gorgeous clothing in Europe all the rage. Due to technical constraints, these dolls is one meter tall giant toy. Preserved the earliest robot girl doll in Switzerland Noosa Mohamad History Museum, which produced two hundred years ago, the ten fingers of two hands to press the keys of the organ playing music regularly played its exhibitions, shows the wisdom of the ancient people. Automatic dolls of the mid-19th century is divided into two genres, science fiction camp and mechanical production camp, and each found his place in literature, art and modern technology. 1831 Goethe “Faust”, the shape of the artificial “He Meng Cruise; 1870 Hoffman published automatically doll protagonist works of” Coppelia “; 1883 Collodi’s puppet Trek “have come;” Eve “come out in 1886. Manufacture of mechanical kind, 1893 Moore created a “steam” and “steam” rely on the steam-driven legs walking along the circumference. The 20th century, the robot research and development concern and support of more people have been brought forth, for the robot, 1927, Westinghouse engineers temperature Beardsley made the first robot telegraph box, and New York World’s Fair exhibition. It is an electric robot, equipped with a radio transmitter, you can answer some questions, but the robot can not move. In 1959, the first industrial robot (programmable, circular coordinates) was born in the United States, pioneered a new era in the development of robot.
Third, modern robot
Modern robot began in the mid-20th century, the technical background to the development of computers and automation, as well as the development and utilization of atomic energy. Since 1946, since the advent of the first digital electronic computer, the computer has made amazing progress to the development of high-speed, large capacity, low price direction. The mass production of the urgent need to promote the progress of automation technology, the result is one of the birth of CNC machine tools in 1952. And control of CNC machine tools, mechanical parts for the robot’s development has laid a foundation. On the other hand, the harsh environment of the Atomic Energy Laboratory certain operating machinery instead of dealing with radioactive material. This demand the context of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, Argonne Institute in 1947 to develop a remote control robot, in 1948, developed a mechanical master-slave manipulator. 1954 U.S. Daiwo Er the first to propose the concept of industrial robots, and applied for a patent. The main points of the patent is the use of servo technology to control the robot’s joints, the use of staffing action teach the robot, the robot can achieve the recording and reproduction of the action. This is called teaching-playback robot. The existing robot almost Using this control method. 1962 as the first practical model of robotic products (teaching and playback) USA AMF launched VERSTRAN, and UNIMATION launched UNIMATE “. Control of industrial robots and CNC machine tool is similar, but the shape characteristics of different, mainly due to the similar to the human hand and arm. In 1965, MIT’s Roborts first vision sensor can identify and locate simple building blocks of robotic systems. The robot dog in 1967, Japan set up the artificial hand (now renamed as the bionic bodies), convened the same year Japan’s first robot academic. The First International Industrial Robot Conference was held in the United States in 1970. 1970 after the robot has been rapid and widespread popularity. In 1973, Richard Horn, Cincinnati Milla cloning company, manufacturing the first industrial robot control by a small computer, which is hydraulically actuated, can enhance payload of 45 kg. To 1980, the industrial machines talent really popular in Japan, it said the year for the robot first year. Subsequently, the industrial robot in Japan has been a huge development, Japan also won the good name of the “robot kingdom. With the rapid development of computer technology and artificial intelligence technology, the autonomous submersible robot is a typical representative of functional and technical level has greatly improved mobile robot and the robot’s visual and tactile technology. Due to the development of these technologies, to promote the extension of the concept of robots. 1980s, has a feeling, thinking, decision making and action capabilities of the system known as the intelligent robot, which is a general, broad concept. This concept has not only guided the research and application of robot technology, but also gives the development of robot technology to the broad and deep space, underwater robots, space robots, aerial robots, ground robots, micro robots for various uses robots have come out Many dream become a reality. Proliferation of robot technology (such as sensor technology, smart technology, control technology, etc.) and penetrate into various fields all kinds of new machines – robot machines. And the interaction and integration of IT and produced a “software robot”, “web robot” name, which also shows the robot with the innovative vigor.
Self-consciousness of the robot
According to New Scientist magazine, artificial intelligence expert Aaron Sloman (Aaron Sloman) has issued a statement, claiming that they want to invent a mathematician robot. He said he had found the key point is the development of mathematics in order to “. If his thinking is correct, then it should be possible to make the robot like as good mathematics in order to even it might be better. With self-conscious female robot
Sloman (Sloman), University of Birmingham, said: “The human brain is not functioning through magic, the brain can do the same for the robot.” The Sloman invention of the robot does not mean that to lead the mathematical genius of the mathematical community. Sloman hope that “all the way leading to the significance, the new field of mathematics. He believes that the key to human mathematical abilities in childhood, “We will be robots to create a childlike brain, let it gradually develop their own mathematical fate. In order to understand the world, the baby must get a lot of skills. For example, they want to get the kind of knowledge – “toy train into the tunnel in the other end of the exit of the tunnel out; or intellectual jigsaw puzzle, only to find the bump appropriate convergence mouth can be a good fight.
Humans and robots
With the continuous development of society, the division of labor from all walks of life more and more detail, especially in modern industry, and some people a day just to screw the first products on the same site of a nut, and some people days to one thread, like the film “Modern Times” presentation, people feel their own alienation, has the effect of various diseases, so there is a strong hope to use a machine instead of their own work, so people developed a robot, in lieu of people to accomplish those monotonous, boring or dangerous work. Due to the advent of the robot, so that some workers have lost their original work, the robot hostility. “Robot posts, people will be laid-off.” Not only in China, even in some developed countries like the United States, some people hold this concept. In fact, this worry is redundant, advanced machinery and equipment, will increase labor productivity and product quality, create more social wealth, it must provide more employment opportunities, which has been the history of the development of human productive proved. Any new things, both advantages and disadvantages, and only do more good than harm, and soon get the recognition of the people. For example, the advent of the automobile, which not only won the part of the rickshaw pullers, porters business, but also often in a car accident and a threat to human lives and property. Although people see these drawbacks of the car, but it became the essential means of transportation in daily life. A leading British politician for industrial robots have said this to say: the number of robots in Japan ranks first in the world, at least while the unemployed population, the United Kingdom the number of robots in the least developed countries, while the unemployed population is high , from the other side of the robot is not to get people their jobs. The United States is the birthplace of the robot, the robot has far less than in Japan, partly because some workers in the United States does not welcome the robot, thus inhibiting the development of robots. Japan has been able to quickly become a robot big country, there are many reasons, but a very important one is the Japanese labor shortage, the government and the companies hope to develop the robot, citizens are welcome to use the robot. The use of robots, Japan has also tasted the sweetness of its automotive electronics industry is the rapid rise, and soon occupied the world market. From the trend of the world’s industrial development, the development of robot is the only way. Robots, people will turn the machine; With the robot, is still the master.
LEGO RCX NXT robot
The RCX is a programmable building blocks, namely the classroom robot (robot instruction system) of the brain. It is the entire LEGO bricks, motors, a humanoid robot with Lego robot kits
Sensor and so formed the backbone of the build robotic systems, like the brain, control and command the robot’s behavior. ROBOLAB software, people can create, build, programming a real robot, get it moving, exercise, or even to “think”. RCX upgrade! NXT robot! The new assembly robot body covered with a sensor, it can respond appropriately sensitive to the sound and movement, but also make it more sensitive to light and tactile response. The heart of the NXT robot system is a 32-bit microprocessor, via a PC or Mac operating procedures. The optical sensor according to the sensor assists to help your robot to “see”. It allows your robot to distinguish between light and dark skin, as well as determine the light intensity in a room a different color or light intensity. Sound sensor sound sensors allow the robot to hear! Acoustic sensors capable of measuring the noise level dB (decibels) and DBA (frequency of about 3-6 kHz where the human ear is most sensitive), as well as recognize sound patterns and identify tone differences. Exposure and release of the reaction of the touch sensor touch sensor, the robot to create a “feel” that never before! It can detect single or multiple button presses, and report back to the NXT. Ultrasonic sensors ultrasonic sensors “see” objects in place! The ultrasonic sensor is able to detect a target and measures in the vicinity of inches or centimeters.
Robot by the General Assembly
First, Fuwa robot
Fuwa robot capable of sensing the visitors to within one meter, a dialogue with people, photography, pictures, sing and dance, but also to answer related to the Games Olympic Games Fuwa robot
Second, the translation of the robot
Can be achieved at any time and place, on any person and any equipment, multi-language services.
Third, the security robot
An outstanding representative of the EOD robot.
Fourth, the Haibao robot
Welcome Services (1) automatically into a welcome state of language to do the initial greetings. (2) guests on the touch screen to select languages, including bilingual, again, the warm greetings and introduce themselves. (3) of the smooth body movements to achieve dynamic anthropomorphic exchange. Voice services (1) in Haibao guide, visitors can Haibao language interaction and questions and answers. (2) with the body movements, sound and light effects to create a pleasing sense of fashion. Information Services (1) World Expo information platform services for the guests on Shanghai World Expo, the World Expo venue description. (2) guests on the airport, near the station transfer bus routes and famous attractions, as well as the broadcast of the recent weather information. Photographic services (1) to welcome the guests / monitoring to tourists in the long-term stand side of the trunk / in some spots, Haibao will take the initiative to ask the visitors the need for photographic services, including: a photo with tourists for tourists taking pictures. (2) to prepare a photo, the robot will be randomly put on a lovely gesture and facial expressions, and asked the participants are satisfied. Tourist proposal “for a robot will replace another position; tourists said that the” good “satisfaction evaluation, the robot will ask the participants are ready to get a positive response after and participants countdown ready to take pictures . Visitors through the touch screen to select trigger the Haibao photographic services. Haibao voice guide participants stand to a specified location to take pictures. Camera, based on human detection and face detection autofocus. Participants can see the photographs on the touch screen in the robot, if not satisfied with the photos, participants may choose to conduct the remake. ID photo effect, the use of characters to extract the background integration technology for the photos to add interesting effects of the Expo theme, visitors can choose what effects, and effects processing results in real time in the service center to print photos or transfer photos online for visitors to download. (3) friendly and lovely language to remind and control of a single service time. Navigation service (1) both indoors and outdoors, Haibao can always know their exact location. (2) Treasure informed of a tourist destination through voice interaction or touch screen options. (3) for tourists planning a most convenient to reach the path. Talent show (1) performing a variety of dance: the characteristics of Chinese dance, Chinese folk dance, country style dance (2) tell jokes / story-telling (3) song collaboration to lead the visit to the indoor and outdoor exhibition, the robot the completion of this interval leading the mission, visitors will be led to the service robot at the next interval. Service robots in the next interval will continue to lead until the tourists arrive at their destination. Robot changing of the guard ceremony robot power is low maintenance, failure automatically summon spare robot to come to changing of the guard; robot can be designed with a strong ornamental regular changing of the guard ceremony. Haibao family of brothers and sisters of the group dance performances can be collaboration with the completion of the group dance or queue performances.
Five, the woman robot
The female robot band can light Norwegian dance together to play a “Jasmine” or any other music.
Six, the robot
In addition to these, there are robots performing tai chi, and pregnant with Chinese kung fu robot will also appear at the Expo.
VII the Tencent Qrobot robot
The Tencent robot Qrobot is a smart internet robot, it through voice commands, touch, gesture and interact to provide users with a rich and fast network services, users need only voice control, you can get like the weather, news, music, stocks, education intelligent alerts and other information and applications. At the same time, Qrobot is an open platform, users can download the application you want on this platform. Qrobot robot is a “thinking” robots can understand you, respond to your words, understand your emotions, with a variety of funny amused, but it also has its own little emotion; it can help you typing , you need only touch of mouth on the line; can help the important issues need to be reminded you down, just need to tell it can help you keep good; can also customize all kinds of dialogue, it has a learning function … each The Taiwan Qrobot corresponds to a globally unique code, each Qrobot different masters of the set of its own growth system preferences and habits, even if the user replace the Qrobot of the growth of the original robot system can still be loaded into all new the robot.
Existing applications Qrobot robots: 1. Music song voice search information. Entertainment game. Remote expression. Interactive educational stories cartoon poetry Guoxue. Voice-activated Internet voice-activated computer. Weather 11 voice typing 12.SNS reminded 13. office memo
qrobot Atlas (13)
The robot, State Key Laboratory (State Key Laboratory of Robotics) relies on the Shenyang Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang Institute of Automation
The predecessor of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Robotics Laboratory. The laboratory was first established in the field of robotics sector Key Laboratory of Jiang Xinsong academician of Chinese well-known scientists of the field of robotics from 1989 to 1997 served as laboratory director. In the past two decades, laboratory robotics basic theory and methods of simultaneous development with the international advanced level, and made a number of important scientific research in robotics forefront of exploration and demonstration applications, clearly showing that the laboratory has the ability to solve major national scientific and technological issues. And Technological Development Zone in Shenyang Hunnan new song Robot “is the field of scientific research base. The laboratory robotics research and the overall level of the core and take the lead position in the domestic field in robotics research base at home and abroad have an important impact. Robotics State Key Laboratory located in China’s economic and social development, national security and major scientific and engineering robotics and systems to provide the required basic theory and methods of research robotics, the development of viable technologies and platforms prototype system, culture and brings together engaged in robotics high-level personnel to promote the sustainable development of China’s advanced robotics and systems. Mainly for the development of advanced robotic systems for perception, thought and action, robotics basic theoretical approaches, key technology, the robot system integration technology and robotic applications. Laboratories adhere to the outside world, to attract domestic and foreign experts and scholars to carry out exchanges and cooperation in research. Through the establishment of the Foundation of the laboratory and domestic engaged in robotics research nearly 30 universities, research institutes and enterprises to establish contact, covering almost all the units of the country engaged in robotics research. In recent years, the laboratory with their own direction of development, partnership with the well-known domestic and foreign research team. Such co-operation for the laboratory to strengthen discipline construction, the country needs, the establishment of a targeted demonstration system, played an important role. Underwater robots: Rofish for bionic robot fish products, the product of advanced electronic, mechanical, simulated fish swimming way through the new material on its shape for accurate simulation to achieve the effect of the real ones. Rofish structured design methodology, the high stability of the motor to ensure the stability of their products. Control mode has two options: serial / USB control and remote control. Product kernel using the Bootloader wireless programming programming subject to change swimming programs to fit the actual environment. Performance parameters: Ø Body: 20cm – 80cm, need special sizes can be customized. Ø shape: koi, goldfish, dolphins, sharks, etc., can be customized. Ø swimming speed: 1BL / S. BL is body length, swimming speed and body length and swimming speed of 1 times the body length per second. Ø consecutive working hours :3 – 4 hours, lithium battery-powered. Ø means of communication: the communication of RF communications or sonar (Sonar), an optional one. Ø control mode: serial / USB control or remote control, the two optional First. Serial / USB control mode can simultaneously control multiple robotic fish control between many fish chasing each other, playing through a simple programming.
A. There are one body. Memory or program functions. Brain 1886 Montreal Adam, French writer in his novel “Eve” will look like a human machine named “Andrew Rodin,” (android), which consists of four parts: 1. Living systems (balance, walk, voice, body swing, feeling, expression to regulate movement, etc.); 2. Solution quality (joint free movement of the metal cover body shape, one kind of armor); 3. Artificial muscles (in the flesh, veins, gender, body armor above various forms); Artificial skin (with color, mechanism, contour, hair, vision, dental, grippers, etc.). The 1984 movie “Terminator” robot creative, have a leather-wrapped; 1991 movie “Terminator 2”, with the concept of liquid metal robot; the 2003 movie “Terminator 3″, the solid-liquid mixed state of the robot. Film and television works gradually gave birth to variety of autonomous intelligent biochemical robot, the solid-liquid mixed autonomous intelligent biochemical robots will be the birth.
Japan’s latest robot
Nagoya City Commercial Design combat robot BIGDOG
The Institute has launched a new robot networks rabbit. ” Its ears can change a lot of attitude, according to the human voice to respond. Network rabbits connected through wireless communication with the home computer, e-mail it will read aloud gives hearing, can also play Internet radio program. The most interesting is that different network Rabbit “marriage,” broke up “over a network connection, a the Network rabbit ears to make an action, it is far away” partner “will then make the same actions. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. nanny robot “pill” for several years are a variety of robot show’s star, in this exhibition, it still attracts the audience’s gaze. The “pill” came to the master bed in the morning to report the day’s weather or news headlines. It can also remember the owner’s birthday or wedding anniversary to remind the owner. Manufactured by the Japan Industrial Technology Research Institute used to accompany the elderly and children of the robot, “Paro” Honda’s “Asimo” biped walking robot also continues to be concern. Asimo said, feet walking robot developed by Honda Motor Co. unveiled the first robot to be held in Yokohama International Peace Conference Center at the show, in November 2000. In December 2006, Honda was the improved performance of “Asimo”, increased its joints and motor, a speed of six kilometers per hour, trot, and its height from the initial 1.2 m increased to 1.3 meters. U.S. combat robot dog to the successful development of the Internet caused a stir recently, U.S. officials released a video on the military robot dog, robot dog in the video shows the amazing ability and adaptability, caused a sensation on the Internet in one fell swoop. R & D company that tested, the robot dog to transport ammunition, food and other items for the soldiers on the battlefield.
Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics
Science fiction writer Isaac Asimov in the novel  entered into the “Three Laws of Robotics”. Asimov robot proposed three “law” (law), require all robots must be observed: one: the robot may not injure a human being, or stand idly by to allow a human to be harmed;: Unless contrary to the first rule of procedure, the robot must obey human order;: the first and the second law is not contrary to, the robot must protect its own.
The movie “I, Robot”
“I, Robot” (English name: “I, Robot”), also known as “I, Robot”, release year: 2004. AD 2035, is a social, intelligent robots and robot live in harmony as the best production tools and human partners, gradually penetrated all fields of human life, due to the robot “three rules of restrictions, human robot full of trust, Many robots have even become family members. Headquartered in Chicago USR has developed a more advanced NS-5-type super robot, However, on the eve of the new products to market, the robot created by Dr. Alfred Browning in the company bizarre suicide. The black police detective Dale Spooner (Will Smith decoration) took over the investigation of the case, due to unpleasant past, Spooner, the robot is full of doubts, do not believe that humans and robots can live in harmony. He left within the 3D projector on the front of the Browning doctoral information analysis and exploration of the suicide scene, the suspect locked Browning Dr developed by the NS-5 robot Sonny, Lawrence Robertson, president of the company seems to have relating to this matter. Spooner specializes in robot psychological scientist Susan Kevin (Brigitte · Nainuo, Chinese ornaments) to get to know, With the depth of the two surveys, the truth step by step, exposed: the robots even have the ability to self-evolution they have their own understanding of the “three rules” at the entire human race into “I, Robot. Spooner and Kevin began to fight against the robot’s actions, the war kicked off between a manufacturer and be the manufacturer.
The robots of science fiction
Mostly science fiction, robots with human shape, and even wearing the armor of all kinds of fashion, they are pretty smart. Like “Robot Story,” “I, Robot” and Disney on behalf of such robots. Another type is the machine CPI (A), the protection of human subject to human control, like a heat sink in recent years, “Avatar”, a lot of this robot. Another lovely type, they do not have the prestige of the equipment, there is no cool looks, no wide range of strokes, just brings joy, not war robot, but the peace of the “pseudo people, like the hero in the Sino-Japanese cooperation in the film “Astro Boy” is an example. There is also a class of versatile. Like “Star Wars” R2D2 and C3PO, he can help people do many things.
Robot must be like the people?
Some people think that the most advanced robot to do exactly the same, in fact, Definitely not. In fact, the robot is to use a mechanical transmission, a combination of modern microelectronic technology can mimic the machinery and electronic equipment for people with certain skills, he is evolved on the basis of the electronics, machinery and IT. However, the look of the robot does not have to be like a man, as long as complete autonomy, human tasks entrusted to him with the command, robot-family members.
The world’s first robot
The world’s first truly useful robot industrial robot was born in the early 1960s. It looks like like a tank turret on the base of a robotic arm, he can around the axis of rotation in the base, arm of a robot arm that can “open” and “fist”.