Robot map research papers. August 5, 2012
A child, everyone have a comic book or TV to see a sophisticated and flexible robot, have dreamed of: one day, the robot can play with us, or even to accompany our lives. Of course, these dreams, As we grow, and gradually as mementoes.
Life as the years old;’s dream, never stop. Along with the efforts of generations, who exists only in our minds the robot slowly walked into reality – “Deep Blue” and other high-tech artificial intelligence robot, has already demonstrated comparable with the human wisdom; automated handling robots, industrial areas, essential helper; smart and convenient household robot, is into millions of households.
Details of the robotics industry development status and future trends, and sketched out a detailed map of Shanghai robot.
From R & D to see the the Shanghai robot to come out from the laboratory.
Talk about some technical issues, these technology demonstrations, Shanghai’s economic competitiveness in the future.
Industrial robots: the oldest, most mature technology
Shanghai Volkswagen Passat car seat production line, a robot “workers” are intensely busy. Dancing smart “arm”, the nut, accurately, and quickly welded to the car parts.
A robot here, the most by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Institute of Robotics research and development. At present, the world’s largest number of robots, such as Passat production line such industrial robots. Their shape and movement, a lot, but to imitate the human arm.
The early 1960s, the United States gave birth to the first robot in the history of mankind, is the industrial robot. “Tenured professor of Shanghai University, Ming-Lun Fang, director of the Shanghai Institute of Robotics, said that Japan is a pioneer in the industrialization of industrial robots. The introduction of robot technology from the United States, industry and application of industrial robots, the Japanese government, the implementation of active support policies, in just ten years to achieve industrialization and promotion applications.
Shanghai is China first began the development of industrial robots. May 9, 1985, Shanghai Research Institute of Robotics was established in Shanghai University (Shanghai University, one of the predecessors). “Liberation Daily” on the front page the next day, published in the news. The report wrote: people watch – introduced from Japan, two industrial robots operating performance in the laboratory of the newly established Institute of Robotics. A robot, is clutching a brush, dipped in ink and write in BLOCK LETTERS; another robot grasping a tool.
Ming-Lun Fang, who personally participated in the establishment of the Shanghai Research Institute of Robotics, remember that time, the Institute of the most important task is the first to develop Shanghai’s industrial robot prototype.
Soon after, the first industrial robot, in Shanghai, was born. Shanghai Jiao Tong University to develop the “Shanghai”, and “Shanghai No. 3, a welding robot, a painting robot; Shanghai Institute of Robotics Research, issued the” Shanghai “, and” Shanghai “, a general-purpose industrial robot, a pouring of industrial robots; Shanghai University of Science and Technology (Shanghai University, one of the predecessor) developed the “Shanghai” is a bridge-type robot.
Now, in the lab of Shanghai Jiaotong University and Shanghai University, retains its earliest robot prototype. Laboratory at the University in Shanghai, “Shanghai”: yellow body, the most primitive mechanical arm, the operation can still deftly handling the goods, welding and so on. It is said that “Shanghai” who of Santana, welding components. The high quality of welding, visit the French experts at the scene, full of praise.
After 20 years of development, the Shanghai R & D of industrial robots, can do more, welding, spraying, handling, assembly, cutting, etc., are “a piece of cake”.
Industrial robots, the oldest level of technology is already very mature. “Shanghai Jiaotong University Mechanical Engineering Associate Dean, Professor Zhu Xiangyang, director of the Shanghai Jiaotong University Robotics Institute. Today, industrial robots, has been widely used in cars, and auto parts manufacturing industry, machining industry, electrical industry, rubber and plastics industry, food industry, logistics and many other areas. In accordance to their pre-programmed procedures, meticulous work, they are not afraid of fatigue, it will not (like people go wrong due to mental fatigue, or mood swings).
Household robots: one day, walked into the living
Feeling bored, and let the robot aria little song, listen!
Shanghai Machinery Automation and Robotics Key Laboratory, one dressed in costumes, painted the Erhualian the robot, and walked the catwalk, went to the front board, has eyes, sang the Beijing Opera to.
“Third industrial revolution” is approaching!
The famous British magazine “The Economist” recently published “The Third Industrial Revolution” article: the invention and use of new technology, manufacturing digital revolution is happening around us – the software is more intelligent, more robots hands, network services more convenient. This digital revolution will lead the third industrial revolution.
With the previous industrial revolution, the third industrial revolution, would be the development of manufacturing, have a tremendous impact, it will change the way of manufactured goods. In the future, the level of manufacturing competitiveness, will no longer depend on the “cost”, but on the “technology”.
Manufacturing countries – China, the third industrial revolution, which means more challenges and opportunities. “Third industrial revolution” by Paul McKee, the wheel of history, almost back to the starting point, a long time ago, China and other emerging countries, post away, may have to return to the developed countries in the hands. However, if the Chinese in the first half of this century, the Third Industrial Revolution infrastructure, may become the next leader of the Industrial Revolution.
Shanghai, always stand at the forefront of China’s economic reform. How to meet the challenges and opportunities of the third industrial revolution, should become the priority areas in Shanghai.
In fact, the core of the third industrial revolution, “artificial intelligence, digital manufacturing technology”, this technology is the most concentrated manifestation is the robot. At present, the robot as the representative of intelligent manufacturing model being formed worldwide. Shanghai, as China’s earliest place for robotics research, but also China’s leading robotics industry gathering area, one of the robotics industry should be to meet the entry point of the third industrial revolution in Shanghai.
Robots, automatic machines for body parts, organ. Its shape can be varied, can be like human beings, or like a person, in accordance with the functionality it needs, stick to one pattern, designed a variety of shapes, as long as this structure, fully play its proper performance, and ease of fabrication.
Field of application and technical characteristics, the robot is divided into industrial robots and service robots.
The industrial robot is used in the field of manufacturing of the robot, is a core part of the manufacturing intelligent.
Service robots, is divided into two kinds of private home. Dedicated robots, specializing in military, public safety, exploration, aviation, and medical and other robots, also known as a special robot. Domestic robots, mainly referring to the rehabilitation, domestic and entertainment robots, medical, help the old and disabled, education and entertainment.
Shanghai robot industrial development, the choice of what path
Shanghai Scientific and Technological Development “second five” plan “referred to: the development of intelligent robots. Focus on intelligent robot mechanical design, manufacturing process, intelligent control and human-computer interaction common technologies, capture the robot modeling, perception, multi-robot coordination, and core technology; the robot body of independent research and development, precision reducers, servo drives and motors, embedded controllers and other core components, the formation of robots complete sets of design, application capabilities and modular features production capacity to achieve the six degrees of freedom of high-speed light load and heavy industrial robots, special robots and service robots industrialization. promote intelligent robots regional R & D center and manufacturing center. ”
“Shanghai, long-term science and technology development plan (2006-2020) mentioned: the development of service robots. Open intelligent service robot platform, to capture the core foundation of technology, cell technology and system integration technology, developed to meet the different needs of various types of service robots, manufacturing to meet the household, education, help the old and disabled, health care, anti-terrorism, disaster relief products needed to form a series model, and display key products at the Expo. ”
An industry can develop, the key lies in the path selection. As the earliest robotics research, but also one of the most of the robot industry cluster area, the development of the robotics industry in Shanghai path, how to choose?
In fact, in the “Shanghai Scientific and Technological Development” 12th Five-Year Plan “, and” Shanghai and long-term science and technology development plan (2006-2020) “has been relatively clear that the development path of the robot Shanghai: First, the capture of intelligent robots involved in the core technical problems; is focused on the development of service robots.
Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Chief Engineer Chen Jie explained that –
Shanghai has become China’s largest robot industry cluster area, four robot giant in the world, invariably China headquarters in Shanghai, local robotics companies, emerging, high growth, the talent team, the conditions of technical reserves and supporting industries, beginning to take shape . Of course, we are soberly aware that China’s robot research and development, a relatively late start, but the overall R & D capabilities, imitating more from Japan, the United States and European countries, there is a big gap between cutting-edge technology and key technology, lack of creativity The concept and original results, although able to achieve system integration, key components, and reliability with foreign considerable gap. In the traditional field of industrial robots, robotics company in Japan, Germany and Switzerland, has been basically dominate the global market, Chinese robot, in order to enter it, very difficult. At present, the Chinese market, critical infrastructure components of the application of industrial robots, mostly imports, product design, materials and technology, system integration, there is a big gap with foreign countries, no formation of the corresponding standardized, modular, and interchangeable of hardware and software, and the function module. Shanghai in technology research and development, this breakthrough, strive for an early developed a key technology, the core components of the same time, the solution standardized, modular, in order to drive the robot system integration technology research and development.
In addition, with the aging society has become increasingly prominent, apply to the family helped the old and disabled, education and entertainment service robots has huge market potential. Globally, the application of service robots, is not widely used, many related technologies, countries are still at the laboratory stage, real overlord of the industry, did not appear. Relatively speaking, the service robots, the gap with foreign countries, and not so big. Shanghai should make arrangements ahead and fight for the future in the field of service robots, grab a seat.
Therefore, the robot development strategy of Shanghai for the dislocation competition, traction machine, the local market, cultivate technical capacity, to avoid the locking effect of foreign companies on the path of robot technology, avoiding the traditional robot market monopoly by the foreign companies (such as the quick access to foreign companies: the automotive and electronics manufacturing), not yet fully monopolized market, Shanghai has applied basic technical requirements for moderate emerging markets (such as: service robots).
“Right now, Shanghai robotics industry, has entered the stage of R & D to promote the application.” Director of the Shanghai Science and Technology high-tech industries, said Guo Yansheng, 2005. ‘To 2011, seven years, the Municipal Science and Technology, a total of the direction of the robot, the layout of 81 projects, total project funding of about 237 million yuan, of which, Science and Technology Commission funding of 55.37 million yuan, through the establishment of major research projects, the establishment of the alliance of industrial innovation enterprises as the mainstay, and the establishment of a technological innovation system to adapt to the development of the robotics industry. 2010 World Expo, Shanghai research and development of cooking robot, HelpAge robot robot band, and a variety of services such as robots, have been a good show, but also increased market acceptance of the industry. The last two years, a number of strong, visionary enterprises, accelerating into the market.
In Chen Jie, Shanghai robotics industry, it should be in the government policy under the guidance of collaborative enterprises as the mainstay, universities and research institutes, the tripartite joint efforts, the bigger the industry. “As the main business, in which the role is particularly important. The future of manufacturing in Shanghai, is bound to green manufacturing, intelligent manufacturing and development of high-end manufacturing direction, embodies one of the core, that is, the application of robots. The Shanghai robot market is huge The key is to look at corporate vision and courage to seize this opportunity, however, technological innovation, not two days made the robotics industry, can not be raised overnight. Therefore, the enterprises in Shanghai with the strategic vision of long-term development, not only determined to do, and to do to prepare long-term development. ”
Dialogue with experts
Shanghai robot to implement the rapid development by leaps and bounds
Ming-Lun Fang, national experts, a tenured professor of Shanghai University, Shanghai director of the Robotics Institute, has been over sixty, he has still busy in the field of robotics research and development. Beginning in the 1980s, Ming-Lun Fang on many occasions as a robotics expert to participate in the formulation of the economic development planning, and witnessed over 20 years, Shanghai robot, grow in the lab, he has repeatedly called for on various occasions : Shanghai to accelerate the intelligent robot research and development. An office of the Shanghai University.
Robotics industry in Shanghai, in the end, how much market potential?
Party: China has a number of industrial robots and density, and Japan, the United States and Germany and other countries, there is a big gap. In absolute terms, the number of robots in China, only 18% of Japan, Germany, 35 percent; the largest automotive industry in the industrial robot applications, the number of robots per million workers, only 90 units; more than 1600 units in Japan, the United States has more than 800 units. From this perspective, industrial robots, a great gap in China.
Specific to the situation in Shanghai. The field of aircraft manufacturing, shipbuilding, automobile manufacturing, nuclear power and electronics, the demand for industrial robots up, Shanghai has been vigorously the development of such precision manufacturing, and the “12th Five-Year” period, Shanghai will continue in these field of force, so the development of industrial robots in Shanghai market has great potential.
In addition, the aging of the population structure of the family robot, resulting in strong demand. Shanghai is the first Chinese to enter the city of an aging population. Statistics show that as of the end of 2011, the city’s household 60 years of age and elderly population, 3,477,600, 24.5% of the total population; “12th Five-Year” period, Shanghai has entered the aging of the population to accelerate the development of, is expected in late 2015 , the household registration 60 years old and over elderly population will be over 4.3 million, or nearly 30 percent. With the further improvement of living standards, the very need to have medical care, the HelpAge disabled, education and entertainment features home robot.
After 20 years of development, Shanghai’s robot R & D capabilities, and at what level?
Side: the global robot R & D level, the highest in Japan, the United States and European countries. Especially in Japan, in the field of industrial robots, the R & D strength is very strong, global, once 60% of industrial robots are from Japan.
U.S. research and development of special robots, a global leader. Not only is the research and development, from the robotics industry in Japan, the United States and European countries, basically in a monopoly position. At present, the international industry, there are four giants: Japan FANUC (Fanuc) YASKAWA (Yaskawa Electric), Switzerland’s ABB, KUKA in Germany (library card), which, before the three companies in the world, robot sales are exceeded 200,000 units, KUKA sales exceeded 150,000 units.
Robot research and development, China started relatively late, the individual is technically able to achieve the advanced level, but the overall R & D strength, distance from Japan, the United States and European countries, there is a big gap.
Shanghai has a good talent team and reserves: research institutions, as represented by Shanghai University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, mainly engaged in the development of industrial robots and special robots; Fudan University, Tongji University, on behalf of research institutions, mainly engaged in the robot intelligent control research and development. A number of private enterprises in Shanghai, with a certain R & D capabilities, such as on the Hai Wodi Technology Co., Ltd. R & D to achieve palletizing functions of industrial robots, last year, the production of 50 sets, but plans to enable the new plant after two years, is expected to years production robot 1000 sets;, Shanghai machine plant, open, security is up to enterprises engaged in the development of the robot controller, motor and drive.
However, the robot R & D level, the relative global, Shanghai Robot individual R & D technology, to achieve the leading level in the country, but the overall R & D capabilities, but do not dare say the most. Look to the north, the strongest, Harbin Institute of Technology and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang Institute of Automation; south to see the rapid development of Guangdong technical level, more recently, robot research strategic alliances; around Shanghai, Jiangsu Province, is pay close attention to the robot R & D, and the momentum of development, almost equal to Shanghai.
Shanghai is the place that first began the development of robots, why develop 20 years later, the overall level of R & D, but not in the country to gain a leading position?
Side: the development of intelligent robots, industrial robotics, has been written into the national “12th Five-Year Plan, I am involved in the preparation of the” 12th Five-Year Plan of Shanghai, it will be the development of intelligent robots, as the development of advanced The core of the manufacturing sector. However, careful analysis of the robot R & D, you can still see a lot of problems.
First, the size of the R & D is not enough, the lack of continuity of research and development. Master robot’s core technology, the need for long-term accumulation and precipitation, but the current research and development, in a fragmented state. R & D technology, the hands of several major universities, a number of private enterprises, and the hands of the central enterprises, but they are not integrated with each other, there is no effective joint force.
Second, the robot core technology and key devices, however hard. Of course, this is not just the problem of robot research and development in Shanghai, China Robot R & D, there is this problem. At present, the really strong core components of robot products in China, but also almost entirely dependent on imports.
Third, the influential Shanghai state-owned R & D capabilities, the central level, not actively involved. They still tend to joint venture or the purchase of imported products, were not enthusiastic about independent research and development, which led to the robot market in Shanghai, and a serious lack of local products, the Shanghai market, almost robotic products monopoly in Japan and Europe.
As you said, the robot R & D in Shanghai, which is not the country’s most leading industrial structure, there are many unreasonable, then, followed by Shanghai, robot how planning and development, in order to seize the commanding heights of the technology, at least to secure domestic robotics the right to speak?
Party: My view is that the Shanghai robot to the implementation of rapid development by leaps and bounds, the emphasis should be developed, there is the brand of “Basic” Intelligent Robot.
Leaps and bounds, is not to follow the route of foreign technology. In the field of industrial robots, Japan and Germany, Sweden and other European countries, the global leader in the field of special robots, the highest level of technology, then, can not talk to them behind, to the development of these robots, it will only fall into the learning , backward, and then learning to lag further behind the cycle of Shanghai to develop intelligent robots, intelligent industrial robots, intelligent household robots, but the premise must be “smart”.
To achieve the scale of the robotics industry, it is absolutely necessary to create the big brands of robots. This will need to bid farewell to the situation of the robot R & D “go it alone”, have Shanghai state-owned enterprises, the central rate of participation, and university research strength of the joint. Participation and joint aim is to develop the brand of “Basic” intelligent robots. The so-called “basic” intelligent robot is a “standard”, can be widely applied to various fields, some of the features can be equipped in the top of the “standard”. Like Japan’s FANUC, the core technology is a basic type of industrial robots. Listening to a robot singing, not fun, then come back a robot. I saw the audience, they embark on a robot to walk two laps around the front of the robot, then the two robots, came up with the Beijing Opera props “guns” leisurely rally.
Inside a lot of science fiction, fantasy, family outlined the plot: independence at home for the elderly, and act as a “nanny” role of the robot, chat boredom; living in the astronaut and the accompanying tasks of scientific research robots, singing and dancing; After a hard day people at home can eat the robot cooking delicious meals.
In fact, these major robotics lab in Shanghai, has become a reality.
Remember, Shanghai Jiaotong University Robotics Institute, in the 2010 World Expo, on display cooking robot! Its appearance looks a bit like a home shower room, opened the sliding door, which is a variety of complete equipment. Staff as long as the ingredients put into the special dress box, then add all kinds of condiments, after the completion of the deployment, on the computer, enter the name of the dish, the robot will automatically ignition, fuel, and start cooking. It can even simulate the real chef, shake the pan, Britain spoon, draw the bulk dumping and skillfully use Chinese and Western cooking techniques.
Singing robots and cooking robot, a household robot. Home service robot, as close to the daily lives of ordinary people, is an important object of study in the field of robotics.
In addition to providing entertainment features, domestic robots, more importantly, HelpAge, Handicap and rehabilitation functions. In autonomous robotics lab of Shanghai Jiaotong University, gave birth to grow up the number of “cross-Dragon series of household robots: intelligent wheelchair able to track the master boot, automatic memory map of the environment, with high accuracy and reliability of self-positioning capability complete a wide range of autonomous navigation in the dynamic environment of the people’s movement; integrated service robot wheeled mobile lower extremity and the humanoid arms upper limb, not only can provide a wide range of mobile escort, but also to help the owner tea, pour.
“China has more than 80 million people with disabilities, accounting for 6.34% of the total population; the elderly population over the age of 60, reached 160 million, the issue of aging is the increasing elderly people living alone, disability, mobility, etc., will be beneficiaries of such robots. “Ming-Lun Fang said.
Unlike industrial robots, household robots, are more complex intelligent robot a. Zhu Xiangyang explained that the so-called intelligent robots to ambient temperature variations can produce autonomous robot intelligent response. In layman’s terms, industrial robots, and intelligent robots, can be distinguished: industrial robots, you not only have to tell it to do something through the pre-programmed procedures, to tell it: every step of how to do; on intelligent robots, you Just tell it: do something, do not have to tell it: how to do, it will complete the tasks in their own. Intelligent robots, involving positioning and navigation, path planning, motion control, wireless communications, machine vision, multi-robot collaboration, voice recognition and a wide range of issues.
Major robot R & D labs in Shanghai, to engage in simple family service robots, there are many. For example, some robots, all the items in the room, automatic identification, classification, which can still be used, which for waste disposal, can under the conditions of the unmanned independently. Not only classified, summarized, they can be messy display of goods, cleaning, sorting. These seemingly complex task, and only requires the user clicks on the remote control button, can be done.
Of course, do not “myth” of these domestic robots. “Bill Gates in 2007, predicted that the robots, and PC into the millions of households. But the status quo of the global point of view, the robot a large number into the daily lives of ordinary people, there is still a road to go, of which there are many technical issues still need to be scientists efforts. “said Zhu Xiangyang, domestic robots need a more advanced artificial intelligence technology, more autonomous operational capability, a more friendly man-machine interface, and higher security and reliability, has not yet been to this time. However, we believe that the home machine, not a distant dream, it is a step by step to become a reality.
If we are appropriate to relax the definition of “household robot”, will be able to change according to the indoor environment, change the cleaning mode “sweeping robots, or can help dishwashing dishwashing robot” into the home range of the robot, or even can imagine, robot to enter the first step of the family, not as a function of the assistant or servant, but as toys and pet types of devices, then, the status of the household robot will be more cause for optimism. Because such a relatively simple robotics laboratory in Shanghai, is already very mature.
Special robots: you can not see the place, quietly working
Slowly into an appearance like a tank car on a vertical surface of the huge iron robot. The robot has autonomous motor function in a complex environment, the sensor system can help it find a job goal, and auto-complete welding and other operations tasks.
In the laboratory scene of Shanghai Jiaotong University Robotics Institute.
Zhu Xiangyang, pointing to a “little guy” that it can be applied to the welding of large engineering structures. Such special operations, the task would be more dangerous, and welding operations area dispersion, intensity and difficult. However, this welding robot with autonomous mobile platform, can help us accomplish this task. It comes with sensors that can automatically find the welding operation area; special chassis design, make it in the wall of a building, driving, also Rulvpingdi.
Of course, this “little guy”, only relatively simple functions of a special robot. A wide range of special robots, can be applied to the military, public safety, exploration, aviation and medical industries. Let Shanghai, developed some of the more powerful special robots.
At present, the ship Ocean and Civil Engineering of Shanghai Jiaotong University R & D “Dragon” underwater robot, represents the leading level of China’s underwater robot. “Dragon” underwater robots dive depth of the largest, most powerful, unmanned remote-controlled robot. It in a depth of 3500 meters underwater observation and sampling. It is successfully applied in the Ocean No. 21, the third leg of the voyage of the deep-sea hydrothermal expedition tasks. “Dragon”, the staff can be more than 3000 m in the eastern Pacific deep sea, the observed 26 m high, diameter of about 4.5 meters rare huge “black smokers”, and sampling. In addition to sampling of seafloor hydrothermal mineral, deep ocean biological genes and extremophiles, “Dragon” can also be used for offshore oil engineering services, underwater pipelines, cables, testing and maintenance, as well as the maritime salvage and other underwater operations.
In addition, in our lives, there are a group of Shanghai R & D of special robots, the silent work. Just because of the sensitive issues of national security, these robots are rarely media reports.
Health and mechatronics robot: the rise of new cutting-edge technology
Hollywood sci-fi blockbusters, often the hero, due to accidents, loss of arm, but, but in the high-tech help, re-fitted with stylish and advanced robotic arm, not only able to fully resume normal activities, since then, but also by mechanical arm heaven into the earth, defeat powerful enemies, to save the world.
Today, the combination of human and machine is experiencing from science fiction to reality across.
This is in the robot frontier areas of technology, students of mechatronics technology: the alternative device of the “fixed in the body of the machine, the development of the nervous system directly controls the motor function of human neural electrophysiological signals to control the prosthetic actions. Simply, is that what you want, it can according to your wishes, do what is equal to restore normal body function.
Led by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Robotics Institute, the National 973 Program “functional reconstruction of human movement born mechanical and electrical integration of the basis is a” multi-purpose smart prosthetics “as the carrier, R & D” Health mechatronic robot.
The main raw Mechatronics Zhu Xiangyang, now a relatively mature technology, the dysfunction of a single degree of freedom prosthetic, multi-purpose smart prostheses, in particular requirements of smart, multi-degree of freedom, be able to restore the function of the “hand” limb movements and perceptual functions recycling, neurological remodeling vitality interaction and functional integration. Today, this multi-purpose smart prosthetics, from the promotion, there is a great distance, but in the laboratory, made prototype has been made in good results.
Seen in the laboratory, on the stump of the disabled who lost arm, paste electrodes, the acquisition of its neural electrophysiological signals, computer character input can be achieved under the control of the nervous system.
“Movement of the prostheses, mainly rely on neural electrophysiological signals to control a common neural electrophysiological signals, including EEG, EMG, a key technology related to this man-machine interface technology.”
Brain-computer interface technology, in recent years, has developed rapidly. Brain-computer interface can be divided into invasive brain-computer interface, and non-invasive brain-computer interface. Invasive brain-computer interface in the central cortex, directly into the sensor to receive nerve signals. Technically speaking, the effect of this brain-computer interface for signal measurement, the information transmission rate is relatively high. Noninvasive brain-computer interface is easier, only by the electrode cap to measure the signal outside the scalp, the security is good, but the information transmission rate is relatively low. The man-machine interface is one of the most critical factor in the level of technological development affect students mechatronics.
However, due to the mechanical and electrical integration of the Global Health research itself is a late start, China and the world level, the gap between relatively small. Shanghai Health mechatronics research in China started earlier. 2005, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Robotics Institute, began to carry out such studies, has also become one of the first to conduct such research Institute. Domestic engaged in the main body of research in this field, as well as Tsinghua University, Zhejiang University, Harbin University of Technology and so on.
Born as a new discipline, mechatronics technology, facing manufacturing science, information science, neuroscience and neural engineering interdisciplinary challenges, from research and practice are still far from perfect, but this new technology the rise is giving birth to a major change in rehabilitation engineering technology, and may directly affect the future of international science and technology and industry competition pattern.
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China robot R & D gap is pretty big
October 2011. Zhejiang University has developed a humanoid robot to “see” and “empty” officially unveiled, said that this is present, the world’s first successful development of a fast continuous ability to respond to the humanoid robot. The development and popularization of the robot, is an important manifestation of the technology base and manufacturing of a country’s level of development. Level of robot R & D in China in the world, in the end at what level?
To “see” and “empty”, with a higher ability to control and fast continuous response capability, even with a real person, in the table tennis table, play a few rounds. However, the robot, at present, does not have the ability to move the ball, the robot’s walking speed, needs to be raised. It is understood that a humanoid robot, is the current international trend of robotics research, the future, will be used to help the old, disabled, or to provide mankind with the home field of the entertainment services. The so-called humanoid robot is to simulate the morphology and behavior of the robot. As the R & D, machinery, electronics, computers, materials, sensors, control technology involves more than science, a humanoid robot, to a large extent, on behalf of a country’s level of robot development. Japan, the United States, France and other countries, have spared no expense to research humanoid robot, achievements and technology far ahead. Honda, Japan, in 1997, introduced the imitation robot P3, it is not only flat road, but also on the stage, walking the pathway, the soles of the feet injustice, but also to maintain upright posture, walking ability, the world’s leading. Massachusetts Institute of Technology developed a humanoid robot Kege. Humanoid robot, has made some achievements. For example, Changsha University of Defense Technology developed became a biped walking robot, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics developed became a multi-fingered robot hand. In the development of humanoid robots countries, Japan, China and France, more focused on indoor humanoid robot for human life;
The United States tend to develop in the harsh conditions and difficult circumstances, the field of outdoor humanoid robot.
Robotics research started in the early 1970s through the 1970s infancy, the development period of the 1980s and 1990s, practical period. In the 1980s, China in July research programs, industrial robots included in development plans, by the then Ministry of Machinery Industry, the lead organization of spot welding, arc welding, painting, handling and other types of industrial robot research, the formation of China’s industrial robots, the first climax. The “863 Program” of the 1990s, determined the policy of both the development of special robots and industrial robots, developed seven kinds of industrial robot products, 102 kinds of special robots. In the late 1990s, China has established a 9 robot industrial base, and seven research base. At present, China has been able to produce with the international advanced level of the facet joint assembly robot, Cartesian coordinate robots, welding robot, welding robots, handling palletizing robots and AGV automatic guided vehicles and other range of products, of which some species small batch production. However, compared to the world level, the Chinese gap is large: in China to run until the end of 2009, industrial robots, only 36,800 units, the number of Japan’s 10.8%, 25.2% in Germany. China’s industrial robots, the vast majority of imports, the domestic industrial robots, not yet for mass production. In the field of intelligent robots, some of China’s universities, research institutes, have made some progress. China research team in some games, appearance, and had some success and praise, but the strength is still far less developed countries. The “Awakening”, “empty”, highlighting the continuous rapid response “a fresh recruit, but, in the capacity for action, perception and feedback capabilities, but inferior to foreign products, artificial expression, and also stay at a more junior level.
From the 1960s, the world’s first robot was born, and now, the world has appeared in three generations of robots. The first generation, teach reproduce the type of robot, “a perception of the robot, like a precision machine. 60-80 years of the 20th century, the production line in the industrialized countries, and quickly gained popularity. Second-generation-aware robot has the ability to feedback on the external information, such as, tactile, visual, especially for the completion of mine, submarine, high temperature, high pressure, highly corrosive environment exploration, operation, and science inspection and other tasks. Such robots, began in the 1980s, into the mature application of the current, began to spread. The third generation of “smart robots” or “humanoid robot”, it not only looks like people have a variety of perception, but also have human-like judgment, processing capacity. So far, the third generation of robots, have not yet entered the era of large-scale industrialized popularity of. In addition to technical difficulties, this generation of robots, the high cost structure is too delicate, easily damaged, difficult to repair, popularization and promotion of the difficulty. Brake and sensor technology is also important factor restricting the development of robot. Brakes, used to control the robot’s movement, but the brakes, not the poor braking ability, too bulky, that is, the noise is too high. Although some scientists have suggested that the solution of the “artificial muscles”, but in the game of breaking the wrist test, the power of “artificial muscles”, also arrived, but the young girl. ▲
French robot manufacturing industry profiles. July 2012
The latter half of the 20th century, the robot manufacturing industry in France gradually developed. In the 1970s, the French National Institute of Automation (INRIA) and the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), developed the first industrial robot and a mobile robot, by virtue of the Atomic Energy Commission developed the robot used in the nuclear field , France, a leading robot manufacturer in the world.
In the 1980s, the first batch of French service robots enterprise was born, the private sector, began to enter the field of industrial robot development. A variety of robot service market one after another, such as, the disabled, care, industrial cleaning, the nuclear installation of monitoring and so on.
At the same time, the French National Academy of Sciences, the French National Institute of Automation, the French Atomic Energy Commission as the representative of the French research community, setting off a rapid development of the high tide of robotics research, the field of transport robot detection technology. In addition, the French defense industry, began to enter the field of robotics research.
However, due to the lack of social and economic support, the French industrial robotics industry in the late 20th century, the gradual decline in the majority of enterprises, companies from other countries (eg, Italy Comau company, etc.) the acquisition, only a few small businesses retained.
With increasing technological advances, the early 21st century, the French robot manufacturing industry, the gradual recovery of the new generation of service robots, enterprises, came into being. Some large enterprises, but also began to enter the robot manufacturing industry, Dassault, ECA, Sagem, Thales, for example, gradually participate in the field of remote unmanned machines, submarine robots, ground robots.
After a decade of development, the French robot manufacturing industry, mainly by the three types of enterprises: traditional service, and industrial robots, small and medium-sized enterprises, emerging research, small businesses and large defense companies. Overall, small businesses accounted for the majority, but, mostly concentrated in a specific field or technology, only a dozen companies have the ability to produce complete sets of robotic equipment, and weak capital base, the development is limited, corporate restructuring, or bankruptcy thing. Large enterprises, mostly concentrated in the military field.
Relative to private investment enthusiasm, robot manufacturing industry, and later had provoked the French government attaches importance to the 21st century, before being robotics research funded project started. In 2001, the French National Academy of Sciences launched “ROBEA Plan investment in robotics research and development; 2002, the project, providing a total of € 3.2 million to support 32 research projects; 2003, the French laboratory and the Japanese AIST research institutes to establish a “Joint Laboratory of robotics research,” (The JRL), to jointly develop the HRP2 research platform; 2006, a total of 25 projects, € 15.2 million in funding for the French government; 2008, the General Administration of French arms the defense function to determine the robot R & D The primary strategy; 2011, France launched the “Investing in our Future” project, is expected within the next few years will invest 2 million euros, funded 15 laboratory robot research and development work.
In addition to financial support, the French government has also attached importance to the related personnel training. In 2007, the Robotics Research Group, brings together around 60 research laboratories; end of 2010, the French research community, a total of 600 researchers and 300 PhD, consisting of more than sixty research team engaged in robot research industry.
With the development of the robotics industry, more and more robots Industrial Park, followed by the establishment of the famous Ile de France, Ron – Alpine region, Central Pyrenees Regional Industrial Park.
Today, France has the world’s leading robotics research team, especially in service robots in the world, very competitive. To promote the service robotics industry, France in 2007, set up a Service Robot Association (Syrobo); 2011 years in Lyon, France, organized the first service robots international exhibitions.
From scientific research level, according to the classification of the Robotics Research Group, the French service robots, research can be divided into eight categories: medical, automatic means of transport (land or air), automation, advanced robot systems operating structure, robotic systems, and user interaction innovative machinery and mechanical and electrical structure design, the humanoid robot, the robot nerve tissue.
From the application level, the French service robots are mainly used in the medical field, such as, orthopedic and physiotherapy, plastic surgery. In addition, the robot unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, auto transport, personal care applications, also gradually increased.