美国人,政治学专家萨姆·加勒特(Sam Garrett)说,仅凭大笔筹款,并不能决定候选人的得票结果。

美国人,政治学专家萨姆·加勒特(Sam Garrett)说,仅凭大笔筹款,并不能决定候选人的得票结果。

加勒特,3月16日在华盛顿的外国记者中心(Foreign Press Center)谈到竞选资金时说:“金钱绝不是在选举中取得成功的保证。”加勒特是美国国会研究室(Congressional Research Service)研究联邦政府的专家,也是美利坚大学(American University)在华盛顿的国会和总统研究中心(Center for Congressional and Presidential Studies)的研究员和讲师。

加勒特承认,美国的竞选往往耗资相当大,每轮竞选的花费越来越高。他说,2008年,美国总统欧巴马作为民主党总统候选人,其竞选班子筹集了约7.5亿美元。
他的竞选对手,共和党国会参议员约翰·麦凯恩(John McCain)筹集了3亿,到4亿美元。

加勒特说,在最近的选举中,美国参议院获胜候选人平均筹集了 700万,到800万美元;
众议院胜出的候选人平均筹集了100万,到200万美元。

要具备获得公共资金的资格,总统竞选人必须在20个州中的每一个,都筹集到5000美元以上。

在初选中具备资格的竞选人每得到一份个人捐款,其中,头250美元可以获得对等的公共资金。他们获得公共资金的总数,不得超过国家对初选花费的限额的一半。该限额在每个总统选举年,都会根据通膨率调整一次。2012年初选的限额为 4,560万美元,由总统竞选基金(Presidential Election Campaign Fund)拨款。

在2012年的大选中,对总统竞选人的个人捐款在这轮选举中,被限定在5,000美元——初选,和大选阶段各为2,500美元。每个竞选班子都要按要求-披露每位捐款200美元以上的个人的姓名。

赢得党内总统候选人提名者有资格领取一笔经费,以支付大选的一切开支。在经过通胀调整之后,这笔经费在2012年度为 9,120万美元。

政治行动委员会(PAC)在美国的选举制度中十分常见​​,这是一种民间团体,它们可以向个人筹集高达5,000元的捐款,以支持特定的候选人或议题。2012年的选举是第一次有所谓的“超级政治行动委员会”(super PAC)参加的选举,它们被允许可以从捐款人那里-筹集不设上限的资金,捐款人可以选择不透露姓名。这些组织不得直接捐钱给某个竞选人,亦不得协同竞选人或政党进行竞选
超级政治行动委员会可以大笔使用筹集到的钱,来宣传他们自己的好恶,并攻击他们的政治对手。

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Sam Garrett (Sam Garrett), the Americans, political experts said that alone the large amount of fund-raising, can not decide on the results of the votes of the candidates.

Garrett, March 16 at the Washington Foreign Press Center (Foreign Press Center) when it comes to campaign finance, said: “Money is not guarantee of success in the elections.” Garrett is the U.S. Congress Research (the Congressional Research Service) to study the experts of the federal government, but also the American University (American University) in Washington, Congress and the President of the Research Center (Center for the Congressional and Presidential Studies) researchers and lecturers.

Garrett acknowledged that the campaign of the United States tend to cost quite large, each round of the campaign to spend more and more high. He said that in 2008, U.S. President Barack Obama as the Democratic presidential candidate, the campaign has raised about $ 750 million.
His rival, Republican Senator John McCain (John McCain) to raise 300 million to $ 400 million.

Garrett said that in the recent elections, the winning candidates of the United States Senate to raise the average of seven million to eight million U.S. dollars;
Win in the House candidates raised an average of one million to two million U.S. dollars.

To have the qualifications to receive public funds in 20 states, the presidential candidate must raise more than $ 5,000.

Qualified candidates in the primaries each get a personal donation, which, the first $ 250 you can get public funding. Their access to public funds shall not exceed half of the state primary spending limits. The limit in each presidential election year, will be inflation adjusted once. Limit the election in early 2012 for $ 45.6 million funding from the presidential campaign fund (the Presidential Election Campaign Fund,).

In the 2012 general election, the presidential candidate’s personal contributions in this round of elections, is limited to $ 5,000 – primaries and general election stages to $ 2,500. Each campaign should be required – to disclose each donation of $ 200 or more names of individuals.

To win the party presidential candidate nominees are eligible to receive a sum of funds to pay all expenses of the election. After adjustment for inflation, provision is made in the year 2012 to 9,120 million U.S. dollars.

Political action committees (PACs) are very common in the American electoral system, which is a non-governmental organizations, they can raise up to $ 5,000 in donations to individuals to support a particular candidate or issue. The 2012 election is the first time the so-called “super political action committee” (the super PACs) to participate in the election, they are allowed to can raise uncapped funding from donors – donors can choose not to be named. These organizations may not directly donate money to a candidate, nor collaborative candidates or political parties campaign
Super political action committees can be a large amount of use of the money raised to promote their own likes and dislikes, and attack their political opponents.

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