留住移民人才, 美国议员倡创业签证,时间:2012-05-05

留住移民人才, 美国议员倡创业签证,时间:2012-05-05

堪萨斯州共和党议员莫兰和佛吉尼亚州民主党议员华纳              

美国《 华尔街日报》称,为了留住移民人才,美国的议员们提议:改革签证制度。在扩大给予具有高技术人才,特别是在美国大学学习数学和科学的外国人签证这个问题上,两名美国参议员已经获得了两党的许多支持。许多美国商业团体相当拥护。这,并不表示:今年一定会有成果。

  这两名参议员是堪萨斯州共和党议员莫兰和佛吉尼亚州民主党议员华纳。他们是“起动法案”(Startup Act)的共同起草人,这个法案是为了排除移民创业人士成立新公司的一些障碍。法案的一部分,是使资金募集更为容易。同样重要的是,使吸引对21世纪经济相当重要的脑力-人力资本更为容易,然后,让他们自由地在高科技领域进行创新。这个提案,把给予具有特殊价值技能和教育的外国人的签证配额扩大。

  有效三年的H-1B签证,每年,由美国公司为劳工申请。根据现行法律,每年签发的新签证,最多6万5千件,另外,有2万件,可以发给从美国大学毕业的硕士以上的技术人才。这样的数量,多数时候不符合美国公司的需求。雇主,每年的4月1日起,可以提出H-1B签证申请。2008年,配额,于一天之内用尽。2009年,只花了五天。

  这个结果的问题之一,就是人才外流。因为,美国仍然拥有世界上最好的大学系统,聪明的年轻人,来到美国学习,之后,往往不能留下来,把他们受到的教育用于美国,因为,他们得不到合法身分。最终,他们返回家园,并在那里,建立新的高科技公司。

  因此,两位议员的立法,采取两个步骤。除了H-1B签证之外,制定一个新的签证,发给5万名,从美国大学的科学、技术、工程或数学领域毕业的硕士或博士外国学生。再制定另一种签证,给7万5000名移民创业人士,这些移民创业家可以以现有的H-1B签证或是任何一种新的签证注册美国新公司,或是募集10万美元资本。

  莫兰议员认为,80%的美国参议院共和党同僚都会认为:这个法案是有必要的。美国民主党人不想把高等教育劳工的议题窄化在签证问题上,他们希望更全面地改革移民制度,这是民主党基层重要的西班牙裔团体的强烈希望。如果在高科技签证上让步的话,他们可能会失去推动大范围改革的动力。

  美国共和党不愿意在全面移民改革上让步,因为,他们反对任何给非法移民合法身分的机会。在此同时,其他国家并没有在空等。特别是,加拿大刚刚“显著”提高了高技术劳工的签证数量。

  上周,莫兰和美国电子公司交谈,并促使他们推动美国国会采取行动,以改革美国签证。

留住移民人才, 美國議員倡創業簽證,時間:2012-05-05

堪薩斯州共和黨議員莫蘭和佛吉尼亞州民主黨議員華納

美國《 華爾街日報》稱,為了留住移民人才,美國的議員們提議:改革簽證制度。在擴大給予具有高技術人才,特別是在美國大學學習數學和科學的外國人簽證這個問題上,兩名美國參議員已經獲得了兩黨的許多支持。許多美國商業團體相當擁護。這,並不表示:今年一定會有成果。

這兩名參議員是堪薩斯州共和黨議員莫蘭和佛吉尼亞州民主黨議員華納。他們是“起動法案”(Startup Act)的共同起草人,這個法案是為了排除移民創業人士成立新公司的一些障礙。法案的一部分,是使資金募集更為容易。同樣重要的是,使吸引對21世紀經濟相當重要的腦力-人力資本更為容易,然後,讓他們自由地在高科技領域進行創新。這個提案,把給予具有特殊價值技能和教育的外國人的簽證配額擴大。

有效三年的H-1B簽證,每年,由美國公司為勞工申請。根據現行法律,每年簽發的新簽證,最多6萬5千件,另外,有2萬件,可以發給從美國大學畢業的碩士以上的技術人才。這樣的數量,多數時候不符合美國公司的需求。雇主,每年的4月1日起,可以提出H-1B簽證申請。 2008年,配額,於一天之內用盡。 2009年,只花了五天。

這個結果的問題之一,就是人才外流。因為,美國仍然擁有世界上最好的大學系統,聰明的年輕人,來到美國學習,之後,往往不能留下來,把他們受到的教育用於美國,因為,他們得不到合法身分。最終,他們返回家園,並在那裡,建立新的高科技公司。

因此,兩位議員的立法,採取兩個步驟。除了H-1B簽證之外,制定一個新的簽證,發給5萬名,從美國大學的科學、技術、工程或數學領域畢業的碩士或博士外國學生。再製定另一種簽證,給7萬5000名移民創業人士,這些移民創業家可以以現有的H-1B簽證或是任何一種新的簽證註冊美國新公司,或是募集10萬美元資本。

莫蘭議員認為,80%的美國參議院共和黨同僚都會認為:這個法案是有必要的。美國民主黨人不想把高等教育勞工的議題窄化在簽證問題上,他們希望更全面地改革移民制度,這是民主黨基層重要的西班牙裔團體的強烈希望。如果在高科技簽證上讓步的話,他們可能會失去推動大範圍改革的動力。

美國共和黨不願意在全面移民改革上讓步,因為,他們反對任何給非法移民合法身分的機會。在此同時,其他國家並沒有在空等。特別是,加拿大剛剛“顯著”提高了高技術勞工的簽證數量。

上週,莫蘭和美國電子公司交談,並促使他們推動美國國會採取行動,以改革美國簽證。

Retain the immigration personnel, U.S. lawmakers advocate venture visa time :2012-05-05

Kansas Republican congressman Moran, Virginia Democrat Warner

“The Wall Street Journal said, in order to retain immigrant talent, U.S. lawmakers have proposed: reform of the visa regime. Expanded to give a high-tech talent, especially foreigners visas to study math and science at American universities on this issue, two U.S. senators have received a lot of support of the two parties. Many U.S. business groups is considerable support. This does not mean that: this year there will be results.

The two senators Kansas Republican Party, Mr Moran, Virginia Democrat Warner. They are the co-author of “Start Act” (Startup Act), this bill is to exclude some of the obstacles immigrant entrepreneurs who set up a new company. Part of the bill is to make fundraising easier. Equally important is to make it easier to attract the brain of the 21st century economy is very important – human capital, and then allow them the freedom to innovate in high-tech fields. This proposal, given the special value of skills and education of foreigners visa quota to expand.

Valid for three years of H-1B visas annually by U.S. companies to apply for the labor. Under current law, the new visa issued annually, up to 60005, 20000, distributed more than graduated from American University Master and technical personnel. This number, most of the time does not meet the needs of U.S. companies. Employer, the annual April 1, the H-1B visa applications. The 2008 quota exhausted in one day. 2009, took only five days.

One of the problems of this result is that the brain drain. Because the United States still has the world’s best university systems, intelligent young man, came to the United States to study, then, often can not be left to them to be educated in the United States, because they do not have legal status. Eventually, they return to their homes, and where to create a new high-tech companies.

Therefore, the legislation of the two Members, to take two steps. In addition to the H-1B visa, for a new visa issued 50000, master’s or doctoral foreign students graduating from American University’s science, technology, engineering or mathematics. To introduce another type of visa to 75,000 immigrant entrepreneurs who, these immigrant entrepreneurs to the existing H-1B visa or any kind of new visa registration of the new U.S. company, or to raise a capital of $ 100,000.

The Moran Members that 80 percent of the U.S. Senate Republican colleagues will think: This bill is necessary. U.S. Democrats do not want to labor issues of higher education is narrowing in on the visa issue, they want a more comprehensive reform of the immigration system, which is a strong hope of the Democratic Party’s grass-roots Hispanic groups. Concessions in the high-tech visas, they may lose their power to promote large-scale reform.

The Republicans do not want to compromise on comprehensive immigration reform, because they are opposed to any chance of legal status to illegal immigrants. In the meantime, other countries have not waited in vain. In particular, Canada has just “significant” number of high-tech workers visa.

Last week, Moran and the United States electronics company to talk and encourage them to promote the U.S. Congress to take action to reform the U.S. visa.

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电焊开放分类:基本物理概念建筑施工设备物理学科学自然科学

电焊开放分类:基本物理概念建筑施工设备物理学科学自然科学

电弧焊的俗称。通过用电能加热金属件需要连接的地方而实现焊接,利用电能,通过加热加压,使两个或两个以上的焊件熔合为一体的工艺。

摘要

目录

1 电焊
2 正文
3 配图
4 相关连接

电焊 – 正文
  直接利用电能熔化或加热金属工件局部并实现工件间永久式联接的一种电加工工艺。生产中常见的电焊工艺方法有电弧焊、电阻焊、电渣焊和等离子焊接。此外,还有利用高频电流加热的高频感应焊,通过高能量密度电子束熔化金属的电子束焊以及利用微波进行加热的微波焊等。通常所说的电焊仅指电弧焊。
  电弧焊  利用电弧作热源对金属工件进行焊接。焊接时,电极与工件连接到电弧焊电源的两端,当电极与工件之间产生接触短路或高频击穿气隙时,将使周围气体发生电弧放电,即形成焊接电弧。只要电弧焊电源持续供电,电弧将保持连续的燃烧并成为熔化金属的热源。常见的手工电弧焊工艺方法以焊条作为电极,在电弧燃烧过程中,焊条不断自身熔化,并过渡到工件的待焊区域,与工件熔化部分一起形成焊缝。
  电弧焊的质量取决于电弧燃烧的稳定性,即电源-电弧系统的稳定性。通常电弧焊电源的静态工作特性被设计成上升、水平、缓降及陡降等各种外特性形状,以便与不同的电弧负载相匹配。电弧焊电源的动特性是确保电弧焊过程稳定的关键因素。为了改善电源的动特性和其他综合性能,对电弧焊电源进行过多次改进。新型的晶闸管逆变电源(50~100kHz)的动态响应时间仅为整流式焊机的1/300。此外,新研制成功的对电弧进行功率调制的脉冲电弧焊电源,为提高电弧的稳定性创造了良好的条件。
  电阻焊  利用流经工件之间的电阻热来加热工件接头区域,在接头处金属处于熔化或塑性状态下,通过压力实现焊接。常见的电阻焊工艺方法主要有对焊、点焊和缝焊。
  电阻焊的供电电源通常是一个低压大电流的工频带漏抗的变压器,功率从数千伏安到数千千伏安;电流则从几百安到几十万安。交流电阻焊电源广泛用于钢及不锈钢材料的焊接中。在航空、电子等工业部门,为了焊接铝镁合金而发展了直流脉冲和电容贮能脉冲等直流电阻焊电源。60年代又发展了高频(射频)电阻焊电源。近年来,随着功率电子器件的迅速发展,出现了次级整流式电源和晶闸管逆变式电源。晶闸管逆变式电源(260Hz~20kHz)由于可以大幅度减少焊接变压器的体积和重量,因而首先在电阻焊机器人技术领域内得到了应用。
  电渣焊  以电流通过熔渣所产生的电阻热作为热源,对金属工件进行焊接。主要用于大型金属构件的厚板焊接。
  电渣焊工艺原理见图。开始时有一个电弧造渣过程,即通过焊丝与引弧板(工件)之间的电弧热量熔化焊剂,使之形成液态的熔渣。当渣池建立以后,电弧即被熄灭进而转入电渣加热过程。焊接电源以焊丝(电极)经过导电的液态熔渣与工件之间构成供电回路。电流通过渣池产生的电阻热不断熔化焊丝及工件的接头边缘部分,沉积的液态金属在渣池的保护下由水冷滑块强制形成焊缝。
  电渣焊根据电极形状的不同分为丝极电渣焊,板极电渣焊,熔嘴电渣焊和管极电渣焊等。电渣焊过程的稳定性取决于电渣过程的稳定。自动控制熔渣的深度,是电渣焊设备自动化的一个主要课题。目前主要用高温探针、超声探头、放射性同位素等作为传感元件对熔渣进行控制。此外,为了维持焊丝伸出长度不变和防止熔池的溢出,电渣焊设备还要求对机头(滑块)上升速度进行自动控制。
  等离子焊接  用电弧的特殊形式- 等离子弧作为热源对金属工件进行焊接。普通电弧是两个电极之间自由空间产生的气体导电现象,等离子弧则是两个电极之间约束空间内产生的气体导电现象。把一个电极做成圆筒形喷嘴,或者在两个电极之间设置一个圆筒形压缩喷嘴,电弧的气态导体(弧柱)就被约束(压缩)在喷嘴通道内。当喷嘴通道截面足够小(一般直径为几毫米)时,其压缩作用会使气态导体的电离程度和其中所包含的带电质点-电子和离子的运动速度显著提高,因而电弧的温度和能量密度也显著提高。用等离子弧作为焊接热源时,比用普通电弧获得更集中而有效的连接部位局部加热,使焊接加热效率和焊接速度明显提高,而焊接热影响区大为减小,焊接质量容易控制。适合于焊接不锈钢等高合金钢,钛、锆等合金。用于实际焊接的等离子弧是转移型等离子弧,不能直接生成,须先用高频高压引燃非转移型等离子弧,然后再把其中一个电极从喷嘴转移到工件。
  等离子弧除了用于焊接金属工件外,还广泛用于金属堆焊和喷镀。等离子堆焊是用等离子弧作为热源在一种金属表面堆积另一种具有抗磨或抗腐蚀等特殊性能的金属合金。等离子(弧)喷镀用非转移型等离子弧作热源,在一种金属或非金属表面镀上另一种金属或非金属材料。等离子弧还可用于切割金属。不同用途的等离子弧要采用不同的电源电压、压缩喷嘴结构设计及等离子气体介质。

电焊 -相关连接
|焊台;电阻焊机;排焊机;摩擦焊机; 激光焊机;滚焊机;等离子焊机;储能机; 碰焊机;回流焊接机;点焊机;焊锡机;压焊机;焊线机;塑焊机;焊管机;等离子切割机;激光切割机;其他电焊、切割设备;电烙铁;

Welding open: the basic physical concepts of construction equipment Physics Science and Natural Science
Commonly known as arc welding. Electrical energy in heating the metal parts need to be connected and welding, the use of electricity, heat and pressure, so that two or more weldment fusion as one of the process.
Summary
Directory
A welding
Two body
3 with map
4 connection
Welding – the body
Direct use of electricity melted or heated metal workpiece local and workpiece permanent coupling between an electrical process. Production welding process arc welding, resistance welding, electroslag welding and plasma welding. In addition, there are high frequency induction welding of high-frequency current heating by high energy density electron beam electron beam welding, the molten metal and the use of microwave heating microwave welding. Commonly referred to as welding refers only to arc welding.
Arc welding arc as heat source for welding metal workpieces. When the welding electrode and the workpiece is connected to the both ends of the arc welding power supply, when the exposure to short-circuit or high-frequency breakdown air gap between the electrode and the workpiece, will make the surrounding gas arc discharge, namely, the formation of the welding arc. Arc welding power supply power continuously, the arc will maintain continuous combustion and become the source of heat of the molten metal. Common manual arc welding process the electrode as an electrode in the arc burning process, the electrode is constantly its own melting and transition region of the workpiece to be welded together with the workpiece melting part of the formation of the weld.
Arc welding quality depends on the stability of arc burning, that is the power – the stability of the arc system. Usually static operating characteristics of the arc welding power supply is designed to rise in level, slow down and plunged, and other external characteristic shape, in order to match the load with a different arc. The dynamic characteristics of the arc welding power supply is a key factor to ensure the stability of the arc welding process. Several improvements in order to improve the dynamic characteristics of the power supply and other comprehensive performance of arc welding power. New thyristor inverter power (50 ~ 100kHz) of the dynamic response time of only 1/300 of the rectifier welder. In addition, the successful development of the arc power modulation pulse arc welding power supply, in order to improve the stability of the arc to create good conditions.
Resistance welding resistance between the heat flowing through the workpiece to heat the workpiece welded joint, by pressure welding joints, metal is melted or plastic state. Common resistance welding processes welding, spot welding and seam welding.
Resistance welding power supply is usually a low-voltage high-current-band leakage reactance transformer, the power from a few kVA to thousands of kVA; current from hundreds of security to hundreds of thousands of security. AC resistance welding power supply is widely used in the welding of steel and stainless steel materials. Welding of aluminum-magnesium alloy in the aerospace, electronics and other industrial sectors, the development of the DC pulse and capacitor energy storage pulse DC resistance welding power supply. 1960s, the development of high-frequency (RF) resistance welding power supply. In recent years, with the rapid development of power electronic devices, the emergence of the secondary power rectifier and thyristor inverter power supply. Thyristor inverter power (260Hz to 20kHz) can significantly reduce the size and weight of the welding transformer, so first of all in the field of resistance welding robot technology application.
Electroslag welding current through the slag generated by the resistance heat as the heat source for welding metal workpieces. Mainly used for the thick plate welding of large metal structures.
Electroslag welding principle shown in Figure. The beginning of an arc slagging process, melting arc between the wire and arc plate (workpiece) heat flux, so as to form a liquid slag. When the slag pool is established, the arc is extinguished and then transferred to the process of electroslag heating. Welding power supply to the wire (electrode) through the conductive liquid slag between the workpiece constitute the power supply circuit. Resistance heat generated by the current through the slag pool is constantly melting the connector edge portion of the wire and the workpiece, the deposition of liquid metal in the slag pool under the protection of the water-cooled slider to force the formation of the weld.
Electroslag welding electroslag welding, the electrode shape is divided into wire board electroslag welding, melting mouth electroslag welding and tube electroslag welding. Electroslag welding process stability depends on the stability of the electroslag process. Automatic control of the depth of the slag, is a major topic of the electroslag welding automation equipment. Currently mainly used for high temperature probe, ultrasonic probe, radioisotopes, such as to control the slag as the sensing element. In addition, in order to maintain the wire extension length the same and to prevent overflow of molten pool, electroslag welding equipment also requires automatic control of the speed of the head (slider) up.
Plasma welding special form of the arc – plasma arc welding as the source of the metal workpiece. Ordinary arc is the free space between the two electrodes, the gas conductivity, the plasma arc is generated within the constraints of space between the two electrodes gas conductivity phenomenon. An electrode made of a cylindrical nozzle, or set up a cylindrical compression nozzle between the two electrodes, the gaseous conductor of the arc (the arc column) were bound (compression) in the nozzle channel. When the nozzle channel cross section is small enough (diameter of a few millimeters), the compression effect could make the degree of ionization of the gaseous conductor and which contains charged particles – electronic and ion velocity increased significantly, and thus the arc temperature and energy density improved significantly. Plasma arc as welding heat source, than with an ordinary arc to obtain a more focused and effective local heating of joints, welding heating efficiency and welding speed significantly improved, while the weld heat affected zone significantly reduces the quality of welding is easy to control. High-alloy steel, titanium, zirconium alloys suitable for welding stainless steel. For the actual welding plasma arc transfer type plasma arc not directly generate the required high-frequency high-voltage ignition non-transfer type plasma arc, and then one of the electrodes to transfer from the nozzle to the workpiece.
Plasma arc for welding metal workpieces, also widely used in metal surfacing and spraying. The plasma welding plasma arc as a heat source in a metal surface accumulation of another anti-wear or corrosion-resistant special properties of metal alloys. Plasma (arc) spraying with non-transfer type plasma arc as heat source in a metal or non-metallic surfaces coated with another metal or non-metallic materials. The plasma arc can also be used for cutting metal. Different uses of the plasma arc to a different power supply voltage, compression nozzle design and ionized gas media.
Welding – related connection
| Welding; resistance welding machine; Welding Machine; friction welding; laser welder; roll welder; plasma welder; storage machine; Butt Welder; reflow soldering machine; spot welding; soldering machine; pressure welding ; wire bonders; plastic welder; tube welding machine; plasma cutting machine; laser cutting machine; other welding and cutting equipment; electric iron;

電焊開放分類:基本物理概念建築施工設備物理學科學自然科學
電弧焊的俗稱。通過用電能加熱金屬件需要連接的地方而實現焊接,利用電能,通過加熱加壓,使兩個或兩個以上的銲件熔合為一體的工藝。
摘要
目錄
1 電焊
2 正文
3 配圖
4 相關連接
電焊 – 正文
直接利用電能熔化或加熱金屬工件局部並實現工件間永久式聯接的一種電加工工藝。生產中常見的電焊工藝方法有電弧焊、電阻焊、電渣焊和等離子焊接。此外,還有利用高頻電流加熱的高頻感應焊,通過高能量密度電子束熔化金屬的電子束焊以及利用微波進行加熱的微波焊等。通常所說的電焊僅指電弧焊。
電弧焊利用電弧作熱源對金屬工件進行焊接。焊接時,電極與工件連接到電弧焊電源的兩端,當電極與工件之間產生接觸短路或高頻擊穿氣隙時,將使周圍氣體發生電弧放電,即形成焊接電弧。只要電弧焊電源持續供電,電弧將保持連續的燃燒並成為熔化金屬的熱源。常見的手工電弧焊工藝方法以焊條作為電極,在電弧燃燒過程中,焊條不斷自身熔化,並過渡到工件的待焊區域,與工件熔化部分一起形成焊縫。
電弧焊的質量取決於電弧燃燒的穩定性,即電源-電弧系統的穩定性。通常電弧焊電源的靜態工作特性被設計成上升、水平、緩降及陡降等各種外特性形狀,以便與不同的電弧負載相匹配。電弧焊電源的動特性是確保電弧焊過程穩定的關鍵因素。為了改善電源的動特性和其他綜合性能,對電弧焊電源進行過多次改進。新型的晶閘管逆變電源(50~100kHz)的動態響應時間僅為整流式焊機的1/300。此外,新研製成功的對電弧進行功率調製的脈衝電弧焊電源,為提高電弧的穩定性創造了良好的條件。
電阻焊利用流經工件之間的電阻熱來加熱工件接頭區域,在接頭處金屬處於熔化或塑性狀態下,通過壓力實現焊接。常見的電阻焊工藝方法主要有對焊、點焊和縫焊。
電阻焊的供電電源通常是一個低壓大電流的工頻帶漏抗的變壓器,功率從數千伏安到數千千伏安;電流則從幾百安到幾十萬安。交流電阻焊電源廣泛用於鋼及不銹鋼材料的焊接中。在航空、電子等工業部門,為了焊接鋁鎂合金而發展了直流脈沖和電容貯能脈衝等直流電阻焊電源。 60年代又發展了高頻(射頻)電阻焊電源。近年來,隨著功率電子器件的迅速發展,出現了次級整流式電源和晶閘管逆變式電源。晶閘管逆變式電源(260Hz~20kHz)由於可以大幅度減少焊接變壓器的體積和重量,因而首先在電阻焊機器人技術領域內得到了應用。
電渣焊以電流通過熔渣所產生的電阻熱作為熱源,對金屬工件進行焊接。主要用於大型金屬構件的厚板焊接。
  電渣焊工藝原理見圖。開始時有一個電弧造渣過程,即通過焊絲與引弧板(工件)之間的電弧熱量熔化焊劑,使之形成液態的熔渣。當渣池建立以後,電弧即被熄滅進而轉入電渣加熱過程。焊接電源以焊絲(電極)經過導電的液態熔渣與工件之間構成供電迴路。電流通過渣池產生的電阻熱不斷熔化焊絲及工件的接頭邊緣部分,沉積的液態金屬在渣池的保護下由水冷滑塊強制形成焊縫。
電渣焊根據電極形狀的不同分為絲極電渣焊,板極電渣焊,熔嘴電渣焊和管極電渣焊等。電渣焊過程的穩定性取決於電渣過程的穩定。自動控制熔渣的深度,是電渣焊設備自動化的一個主要課題。目前主要用高溫探針、超聲探頭、放射性同位素等作為傳感元件對熔渣進行控制。此外,為了維持焊絲伸出長度不變和防止熔池的溢出,電渣焊設備還要求對機頭(滑塊)上升速度進行自動控制。
等離子焊接用電弧的特殊形式- 等離子弧作為熱源對金屬工件進行焊接。普通電弧是兩個電極之間自由空間產生的氣體導電現象,等離子弧則是兩個電極之間約束空間內產生的氣體導電現象。把一個電極做成圓筒形噴嘴,或者在兩個電極之間設置一個圓筒形壓縮噴嘴,電弧的氣態導體(弧柱)就被約束(壓縮)在噴嘴通道內。當噴嘴通道截面足夠小(一般直徑為幾毫米)時,其壓縮作用會使氣態導體的電離程度和其中所包含的帶電質點-電子和離子的運動速度顯著提高,因而電弧的溫度和能量密度也顯著提高。用等離子弧作為焊接熱源時,比用普通電弧獲得更集中而有效的連接部位局部加熱,使焊接加熱效率和焊接速度明顯提高,而焊接熱影響區大為減小,焊接質量容易控制。適合於焊接不銹鋼等高合金鋼,鈦、鋯等合金。用於實際焊接的等離子弧是轉移型等離子弧,不能直接生成,須先用高頻高壓引燃非轉移型等離子弧,然後再把其中一個電極從噴嘴轉移到工件。
等離子弧除了用於焊接金屬工件外,還廣泛用於金屬堆焊和噴鍍。等離子堆焊是用等離子弧作為熱源在一種金屬表面堆積另一種具有抗磨或抗腐蝕等特殊性能的金屬合金。等離子(弧)噴鍍用非轉移型等離子弧作熱源,在一種金屬或非金屬表面鍍上另一種金屬或非金屬材料。等離子弧還可用於切割金屬。不同用途的等離子弧要採用不同的電源電壓、壓縮噴嘴結構設計及等離子氣體介質。
電焊 -相關連接
|焊台;電阻焊機;排焊機;摩擦焊機; 激光焊機;滾焊機;等離子焊機;儲能機; 碰焊機;回流焊接機;點焊機;焊錫機;壓焊機;銲線機;塑焊機;焊管機;等離子切割機;激光切割機;其他電焊、切割設備;電烙鐵;

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焊条的型号、组成及其作用

焊条的型号、组成及其作用
  型号   GMT-ZT20铸铁焊条   冲压模的铸铁模块上焊补,焊层为马氏体,耐磨性优异。   GMT- ZT30铸铁焊条   应用于灰口铸铁、球墨铸铁的焊补,机械加工性能良好。强度是普通焊条的两倍。   GMT- ZT40铸铁焊条   冲压模的铸铁模块上焊补,焊层为马氏体,耐磨性优异。   GMT- ZT50铸铁焊条   主要用于打底缓冲层。强度高   GMT- ZT60铸铁焊条   低温电焊条,主要用于硬面制作打底缓冲层。   GMT- ZT65铸铁焊条   主要用于铸铁,合金铸铁,钢与铸铁焊接等   焊条由焊芯及药皮两部分构成。焊条是在金属焊芯外将涂料(药皮)均匀、向心地压涂在焊芯上。焊条种类不同,焊芯也不同。焊芯即焊条的金属芯,为了保证焊缝的质量与性能,对焊芯中各金属元素的含量都有严格的规定,特别是对有害杂质(如硫、磷等)的含量,应有严格的限制,优于母材。焊芯成分直接影响着焊缝金属的成分和性能,所以焊芯中的有害元素要尽量少.含C量应低于0.10%。例如H08A,含S小于等于O.03%、P小于等于0.03%、C小于等于0.1%。   焊接碳钢及低合金钢的焊芯, 一般都选用低碳钢作为焊芯,并填加锰、硅、铬、镍等成分(详见焊丝国家标准GB1300一77)。采用低碳的原因一方面是含碳量低时钢丝塑性好,焊丝拉拔比较容易,另一方面可降低还原性气体CO含量,减少飞溅或气孔,并可增高焊缝金属凝固时的温度,对仰焊有利。加入其他合金元素主要为保证焊缝的综合机械性能,同时对焊接工艺性能及去除杂质,也有一定作用。   高合金钢以及铝、铜、铸铁等其他金属材料,其焊芯成分除要求与被焊金属相近外,同样也要控制杂质的含量,并按工艺要求常加入某些特定的合金元素。   焊条就是涂有药皮的供焊条电弧焊使用的熔化电极。它是由药皮和焊芯两部分组成,如图3-5所示。在焊条前端药皮有45。左右的倒角,这是为了便于引弧。在尾部有一段裸焊芯,约占焊条总长1/16,便于焊钳夹持并有利于导电。焊条的直径仲实际上是指焊芯直径)通常为2、2. 5、3. 2或3、4、5或6mm等几种规格,常用的是小3. 2、小4、小5三种,其长度“L”一般在250^-450 mm之间。   1.焊芯   焊条中被药皮包覆的金属芯称为焊芯。焊芯一般是一根具有一定长度及直径的钢丝。焊接时,焊芯有两个作用:一是传导焊接电流,产生电弧把电能转换成热能,二是焊芯本身熔化作为填充金属与液体母材金属熔合形成焊缝。   焊条焊接时,焊芯金属占整个焊缝金属的一部分。所以焊芯的{化学成分,直接影响焊缝的质量。因此,作为焊条芯用的钢丝都单势独规定了它的牌号与成分。如果用于埋弧自动焊、电渣焊、气体保护焊、气焊等熔焊方法作填充金属时,则称为焊丝。(1)焊芯中各合金元素对焊接的影响   1)碳(C)碳是钢中的主要合金元素,当含碳量增加时,钢的{强度、硬度明显提高,而塑性降低。在焊接过程中,碳起到一定的脱氧作用,在电弧高温作用下与氧发生化合作用,生成一氧化碳和二氧化碳气体,将电弧区和熔池周围空气排除,防止空气中的氧、氮有害气体对熔池产生的不良影响,减少焊缝金属中氧和氮的含量。若含碳量过高,还原作用剧烈,会引起较大的飞溅和气孔。考虑到碳对钢的淬硬性及其对裂纹敏感性增加的影响,低碳钢焊芯的含碳量一般簇0. 1%。   2)锰(Mn)锰在钢中是一种较好的合金剂,随着锰含量的增加,其强度和韧性会有所提高。在焊接过程中,锰也是一种较好的脱氧剂,能减少焊缝中氧的含量。锰与硫化合形成硫化锰浮于熔渣中,从而减少焊缝热裂纹倾向。因此一般碳素结构钢焊芯的含锰量为0. 30%~0. 55%,焊接某些特殊用途的钢丝,其含锰量高达1 .70%一2. 10%。   3)硅(Si )硅也是一种较好的合金剂,在钢中加入适量的硅能提高钢的屈服强度、弹性及抗酸性能;若含量过高,则降低塑性和韧性。在焊接过程中,硅也具有较好的脱氧能力,与氧形成二氧化硅,但它会提高渣的粘度,易促进非金属夹杂物生成。   4)铬(Cr)铬能够提高钢的硬度、耐磨性和耐腐蚀性。对于低碳钢来说,铬便是一种偶然的杂质。铬的主要冶金特征是易于急剧氧化,形成难熔的氧化物三氧化二铬(Cr203),从而增加了焊缝金属夹杂物的可能性。三氧化二铬过渡到熔渣后,能使熔渣粘度提高,流动性降低。   5)镍(NO镍对钢的韧性有比较显著的效果,一般低温冲击值要求较高时,适当掺入一些镍。   6)硫(S)硫是一种有害杂质,随着硫含量的增加,将增大焊缝的热裂纹倾向,因此焊芯中硫的含量不得大于0. 04%。在焊接重要结构时,硫含量不得大于0. 03%。   7)磷(2)焊芯的分类   焊芯是根据国家标准“焊接用钢丝”(GB 1300-77)的规定分类的,用于焊接的专用钢丝可分为碳素结构钢、合金结构钢、不锈钢三类。   2.药皮   压涂在焊芯表面的涂层称为药皮。焊条的药皮在焊接过程中起着极为重要的作用。若采用无药皮的光焊条焊接,则在焊接过程中,空气中的氧和氮会大量侵入熔化金属,将金属铁和有益元素碳、硅、锰等氧化和氮化形成各种氧化物和氮化物,并残留在焊缝中,造成焊缝夹渣或裂纹。而熔入熔池中的气体可能使焊缝产生大量气孔,这些因素都能使焊缝的机械性能(强度、冲击值等)大大降低,同时使焊缝变脆。此外采用光焊条焊接,电弧很不稳定,飞溅严重,焊缝成形很差。   人们在实践过程中发现如果在光焊条外面涂一层由各种矿物等组成的药皮,能使电弧燃烧稳定,焊缝质量得到提高,这种焊条叫药皮焊条。随着工业技术的不断发展,人们创制出了现在广泛应用的优质厚药皮焊条。
焊条型号与牌号
焊条的牌号
  焊条牌号是对焊条产品的具体命名,它是根据焊条的主要用途及特点来命名的。每种焊条产品只有一个牌号,但多种牌号的焊条可以同时对应一中型号。   以结构钢为例:牌号,编制法。结XXX,结为结构钢焊条,第3个数字,代表药皮类型,焊接电流要求,第1、2数:代表焊缝金属抗拉强度。
焊条的型号
  焊条的型号是按国家有关标准为依据,反映焊条主要特征的一种表示方法。它根据焊缝金属的力学性能、药皮类型、焊接位置和电流种类划分。   以EXXX,以结构钢为例,型号编制法为字母“E”表示焊条,第一、二位表示熔敷金属最小抗拉强度,第三位数字表示焊条的焊接位置,第三、四位数字表示焊接电流种类及药皮类型。
注意事项
  1. 碱性焊前焊条须经350℃左右烘焙1小时,随烘随用。   2. 焊前必须对焊件清除铁锈、油污、水分等杂质。   3. 焊接时须用短弧操作,以窄焊道为宜。   4. 用直流电源时,焊条可接正、负极。   5. 电焊热影响大,不适宜精密、微小铸造缺陷的修补。在精密铸件修复领域可用冷焊来修补砂眼、微孔等细小缺陷。
焊接接头分类
  焊接接头是由两个或者两个以上零件用焊接方法连接的,一个焊接结构通常由若干个焊接接头所组成,焊接接头按接头的结构形状可分为五大类,即:对接接头,T形接头,搭接接头,角接接头,和端接接头等。
焊条电弧焊操作技术
  为了保证焊接电弧稳定燃烧和焊缝的 表面成型,电弧引燃后,焊条要要 作三个方向的运动   (1)焊条不断向焊缝熔池送进   (2)焊条沿焊接方向向前移动   (3)焊条横向摆动   焊条移动时,应与前进方向成70-80度夹角,把以融化的金属和熔渣推向后方,否则熔渣流向电弧的前方,则会造成夹渣缺陷。
运条方法
  为了获得较宽的焊缝,焊条在送进和移动过程中,还要作必要的摆动。通常的运条方法如下:   (1)直线形运条方法   (2)直线往复形运条法   (3)锯齿形运条法
电焊工的相关证
  书电焊工特种作业操作证即IC卡证,是证明你有烧电焊的资格的证书!也要年审的.跟汽车驾驶证的意思差不多:没有汽车驾驶证就不能开车!没有电焊工特种作业操作证就不能烧焊!不管你是几级工!———电焊工职业资格证又称等级证,有初级、中级和高级,技师,高级技师之分,是证明你的能力的!特种作业操作证是安监局发,等级证是劳动局发的.
电焊作业触电事故的预防措施
概述
  电焊作业属于特种作业,对作业人员的作业资格有严格的培训及考核取证制度。虽然在取证换证时经培训掌握了一定的技能,但仍有不少焊工在电焊作业中安全意识淡薄,常有违反《安全操作规程》的不安全行为。由于多数焊工电气专业技术知识及安全用电常识有限,造成电焊作业现场事故隐患较多,如电焊机外壳不接地或接地不可靠、接线柱裸露不按规定做绝缘处理、焊把引线接头导体裸露不按规定做绝缘处理、焊把引线浸泡在水里等。   由此可见,消除电焊作业现场的事故隐患是每个焊工应掌握的工作技能。作业期间不仅要保证自身的人身安全,还要保证他人的人身安全,焊工在电焊作业时必须做好以下防范措施[1]。
使用合格的电焊工具
  作业前应对电焊工具进行认真检查,检查项目如下:   1.电焊机绝缘性能是否良好;   2.电源线及电焊机引出线绝缘层有无破损老化、导线裸露的情况;   3.电焊机一、二次侧接线柱有无松动、严重烧伤的情况;   4.电焊钳及电焊专用手套有无破损漏电的可能,不合格者禁止使用。
接线的程序
  1.选一根绝缘良好的引出线与焊把线(电焊钳引线)可靠连接,接头要拧紧,使其接触良好,防止过热,并用绝缘胶布将接头裸露导体包扎数层使其绝缘良好。   2.将引出线敷设至电焊机处并接于焊机二次侧接线柱上,应压紧螺丝使其牢固接触良好,禁止使用缠绕法连接。敷设引出线时避免焊把特别是接头从有水的地方经过,必要时应架空。焊把线经过金属栏杆或扶梯时,应用绝缘性能良好的细绳将其悬挂。   3.将电焊机金属外壳可靠接地。即:用一根导线一端接至接地网,另一端连接在焊机外壳标有接地标记的螺丝上并拧紧,使其可靠接地,防止外壳带电造成触电事故。   4.将电源线接至电焊机一次侧接线柱,压紧螺丝使其牢固接触良好,禁止使用缠绕法连接。   5.将电源线、焊把线的接头及绝缘老化破损处用绝缘胶布包扎,导线绝缘严重老化者禁止使用,裸露的接线柱应加护罩,防止误碰发生触电事故。   6.检查带熔丝的电源闸刀或带熔断器的断路器是否在断开位置,将电源线接至电源开关熔丝或熔断器下侧,严禁带电接线。   7.再次对所接电源线、引出线、外壳接地线进行仔细检查,确认无误后合上电源开关,合开关时应戴绝缘手套且另一只手不得触摸焊机。
防触电原理分析
  外壳不接地的情况:在电焊机绝缘损坏时焊机外壳将带有电压,如果这时有人触及焊机外壳,人体与大地及电源中性点工作接地线(三相四线制系统中性点一般都接地)构成回路,如上图中带箭头虚线所示,电流将通过人体造成触电事故。   外壳接地的情况:电焊机绝缘损坏焊机外壳带电时,焊机外壳经外壳接地线直接与大地接通构成短路回路(如上图中不带箭头的虚线),这个短路电流将使电源的保护装置(自动开关、熔断器或熔丝)动作,使电焊机的电源断开。电源未切断之前,即使有人接触焊机外壳,由于外壳接地线的电阻几乎为零,几乎没有电流通过人体,也可起到保护人身安全的作用。   1、进入金属容器、井下、地沟等处作业时,严禁将电焊机和照明用的行灯变压器带入,防止一次电压引发触电事故。   2、作业期间特别是更换焊条时必须按规定戴好电焊绝缘手套。   3、在潮湿环境作业应穿绝缘鞋或站在干燥的木板上。工作服、工作鞋、手套要保持干燥,才能保证绝缘性能不会降低。   4、拆除电源线、消除电焊机故障、移动电焊机及焊工离开现场时切记将电源开关断开。   5、焊接作业现场照明不足时应使用行灯,禁止使用220V照明灯,在潮湿环境或金属容器内使用的行灯电压不得超过12V。   6、雨雪天必须在室外露天进行电焊作业时,一定要采取防雨雪措施(如防雨棚等),防止雨水淋湿焊机、导线及焊把,造成漏电伤人事故。
电焊安全操作规程
  1、电焊工必须经过专业训练,考试合格后并持有安全操作证方准进行独立操作(在学徒训练期间可逐步在师傅监护下进行操作)。   2、电焊工必须按规定穿着工作服和使用防护用品(包括绝热手套、绝缘胶靴、面罩)工作场所压符合安全要求。   3、工作前要详细检查电焊机是否正常,绝缘是否良好,电焊机的外壳,必须有良好的接地。、   4、电源线与二次线路必须完整,绝缘良好,不得用其它物件代替。严禁在设备、钢缆、管道、容器以及厂房金属结构上。   5、在禁火区与有易燃易爆可能性的部位或有毒的地方动火必须办理手续和完备的动火许可证,经分析合格批准后方可施工。   6、焊钳必须绝缘良好,接线要牢固且包好,避免松脱引起触电。   7、在焊接工作场所不得存放易燃易爆物品并应有防止焊渣飞落,引起其它危险的措施。   8、接线或电气设备发生故障,应由电工进行检修,其它人员禁止乱动。   9、打火前应告诉辅助人员避开弧光。   10、进行一般检修时,临时照明行灯电压应为36伏以下,在低洼潮湿地方或金属容器内焊接时,其照明电压应为12伏。   11、在容器内焊接时,需办理《容器内作业许可证》外面必须有专人监护并有良好的通风。不得同时进行电焊和气焊工作,如需要时必须采取一定的安全措施。   12、发现触电者应立即拉下电闸,并用木棒胶管等使其脱离电源,迅速进行人工呼吸,在未切断电源前,不准直接用手拉人体裸露部分。   13、严禁焊接未经清洗、置换、分析合格的装过有毒易燃易爆物品的容器、管道等以及带电带压设备。   14、在多人工作,多层作业或固定场所施焊时,应设防护屏障。   15、下雨天气不准露天焊接。必要时必须采取有效的防护措施方可进行。在低洼地方和金属容器内焊接时,除穿戴绝缘鞋、绝缘手套外,并应设有绝缘垫板。   16、在清除铁锈、焊接时,应戴防护眼镜。   17、移动电焊机时,应先切断电源。   18、高处焊接(2米以上)应办理高处作业许可证和遵守高处作业安全操作规程。   19、电焊机在有水易潮处应垫高于地面,露天放置应设防雨棚,夏季应设在通风处,使用时温度不超过60℃。   20、焊接时,工件要放稳,并有防止歪倒和坠落的措施。   21、工作中断和下班时要切断电源,整理设备场地,收好工件,熄灭火种。   22、电焊机应有专人管理,按时检查维护,电焊工应定期进行体格检查。   23、检修转动设备或进入设备内,必须事先办理检修证和进入设备作业证,联系操作工同意后,通知电工切断电源,采取安全措施,并按规定设专人监护方可施工。

焊條的型號、組成及其作用
型號GMT-ZT20鑄鐵焊條沖壓模的鑄鐵模塊上焊補,焊層為馬氏體,耐磨性優異。 GMT- ZT30鑄鐵焊條應用於灰口鑄鐵、球墨鑄鐵的焊補,機械加工性能良好。強度是普通焊條的兩倍。 GMT- ZT40鑄鐵焊條沖壓模的鑄鐵模塊上焊補,焊層為馬氏體,耐磨性優異。 GMT- ZT50鑄鐵焊條主要用於打底緩衝層。強度高GMT- ZT60鑄鐵焊條低溫電焊條,主要用於硬面製作打底緩衝層。 GMT- ZT65鑄鐵焊條主要用於鑄鐵,合金鑄鐵,鋼與鑄鐵焊接等焊條由焊芯及藥皮兩部分構成。焊條是在金屬焊芯外將塗料(藥皮)均勻、向心地壓塗在焊芯上。焊條種類不同,焊芯也不同。焊芯即焊條的金屬芯,為了保證焊縫的質量與性能,對焊芯中各金屬元素的含量都有嚴格的規定,特別是對有害雜質(如硫、磷等)的含量,應有嚴格的限制,優於母材。焊芯成分直接影響著焊縫金屬的成分和性能,所以焊芯中的有害元素要盡量少.含C量應低於0.10%。例如H08A,含S小於等於O. 03%、P小於等於0.03%、C小於等於0.1%。焊接碳鋼及低合金鋼的焊芯, 一般都選用低碳鋼作為焊芯,並填加錳、矽、鉻、鎳等成分(詳見焊絲國家標準GB1300一77)。採用低碳的原因一方面是含碳量低時鋼絲塑性好,焊絲拉拔比較容易,另一方面可降低還原性氣體CO含量,減少飛濺或氣孔,並可增高焊縫金屬凝固時的溫度,對仰焊有利。加入其他合金元素主要為保證焊縫的綜合機械性能,同時對焊接工藝性能及去除雜質,也有一定作用。高合金鋼以及鋁、銅、鑄鐵等其他金屬材料,其焊芯成分除要求與被焊金屬相近外,同樣也要控制雜質的含量,並按工藝要求常加入某些特定的合金元素。焊條就是塗有藥皮的供焊條電弧焊使用的熔化電極。它是由藥皮和焊芯兩部分組成,如圖3-5所示。在焊條前端藥皮有45。左右的倒角,這是為了便於引弧。在尾部有一段裸焊芯,約佔焊條總長1/16,便於焊鉗夾持並有利於導電。焊條的直徑仲實際上是指焊芯直徑)通常為2、2. 5、3. 2或3、4、5或6mm等幾種規格,常用的是小3. 2、小4、小5三種,其長度“L”一般在250^-450 mm之間。 1.焊芯焊條中被藥皮包覆的金屬芯稱為焊芯。焊芯一般是一根具有一定長度及直徑的鋼絲。焊接時,焊芯有兩個作用:一是傳導焊接電流,產生電弧把電能轉換成熱能,二是焊芯本身熔化作為填充金屬與液體母材金屬熔合形成焊縫。焊條焊接時,焊芯金屬佔整個焊縫金屬的一部分。所以焊芯的{化學成分,直接影響焊縫的質量。因此,作為焊條芯用的鋼絲都單勢獨規定了它的牌號與成分。如果用於埋弧自動焊、電渣焊、氣體保護焊、氣焊等熔焊方法作填充金屬時,則稱為焊絲。 (1)焊芯中各合金元素對焊接的影響1)碳(C)碳是鋼中的主要合金元素,當含碳量增加時,鋼的{強度、硬度明顯提高,而塑性降低。在焊接過程中,碳起到一定的脫氧作用,在電弧高溫作用下與氧發生化合作用,生成一氧化碳和二氧化碳氣體,將電弧區和熔池周圍空氣排除,防止空氣中的氧、氮有害氣體對熔池產生的不良影響,減少焊縫金屬中氧和氮的含量。若含碳量過高,還原作用劇烈,會引起較大的飛濺和氣孔。考慮到碳對鋼的淬硬性及其對裂紋敏感性增加的影響,低碳鋼焊芯的含碳量一般簇0. 1%。 2)錳(Mn)錳在鋼中是一種較好的合金劑,隨著錳含量的增加,其強度和韌性會有所提高。在焊接過程中,錳也是一種較好的脫氧劑,能減少焊縫中氧的含量。錳與硫化合形成硫化錳浮於熔渣中,從而減少焊縫熱裂紋傾向。因此一般碳素結構鋼焊芯的含錳量為0. 30%~0. 55%,焊接某些特殊用途的鋼絲,其含錳量高達1 . 70%一2. 10%。 3)矽(Si )矽也是一種較好的合金劑,在鋼中加入適量的矽能提高鋼的屈服強度、彈性及抗酸性能;若含量過高,則降低塑性和韌性。在焊接過程中,矽也具有較好的脫氧能力,與氧形成二氧化矽,但它會提高渣的粘度,易促進非金屬夾雜物生成。 4)鉻(Cr)鉻能夠提高鋼的硬度、耐磨性和耐腐蝕性。對於低碳鋼來說,鉻便是一種偶然的雜質。鉻的主要冶金特徵是易於急劇氧化,形成難熔的氧化物三氧化二鉻(Cr203),從而增加了焊縫金屬夾雜物的可能性。三氧化二鉻過渡到熔渣後,能使熔渣粘度提高,流動性降低。 5)鎳(NO鎳對鋼的韌性有比較顯著的效果,一般低溫衝擊值要求較高時,適當摻入一些鎳。   6)硫(S)硫是一種有害雜質,隨著硫含量的增加,將增大焊縫的熱裂紋傾向,因此焊芯中硫的含量不得大於0. 04%。在焊接重要結構時,硫含量不得大於0. 03%。 7)磷(2)焊芯的分類焊芯是根據國家標準“焊接用鋼絲”(GB 1300-77)的規定分類的,用於焊接的專用鋼絲可分為碳素結構鋼、合金結構鋼、不銹鋼三類。 2.藥皮壓塗在焊芯表面的塗層稱為藥皮。焊條的藥皮在焊接過程中起著極為重要的作用。若採用無藥皮的光焊條焊接,則在焊接過程中,空氣中的氧和氮會大量侵入熔化金屬,將金屬鐵和有益元素碳、矽、錳等氧化和氮化形成各種氧化物和氮化物,並殘留在焊縫中,造成焊縫夾渣或裂紋。而熔入熔池中的氣體可能使焊縫產生大量氣孔,這些因素都能使焊縫的機械性能(強度、衝擊值等)大大降低,同時使焊縫變脆。此外採用光焊條焊接,電弧很不穩定,飛濺嚴重,焊縫成形很差。人們在實踐過程中發現如果在光焊條外面塗一層由各種礦物等組成的藥皮,能使電弧燃燒穩定,焊縫質量得到提高,這種焊條叫藥皮焊條。隨著工業技術的不斷發展,人們創制出了現在廣泛應用的優質厚藥皮焊條。
焊條型號與牌號
焊條的牌號
焊條牌號是對焊條產品的具體命名,它是根據焊條的主要用途及特點來命名的。每種焊條產品只有一個牌號,但多種牌號的焊條可以同時對應一中型號。  以結構鋼為例:牌號,編制法。結XXX,結為結構鋼焊條,第3個數字,代表藥皮類型,焊接電流要求,第1、2數:代表焊縫金屬抗拉強度。
焊條的型號
焊條的型號是按國家有關標準為依據,反映焊條主要特徵的一種表示方法。它根據焊縫金屬的力學性能、藥皮類型、焊接位置和電流種類劃分。以EXXX,以結構鋼為例,型號編制法為字母“E”表示焊條,第一、二位表示熔敷金屬最小抗拉強度,第三位數字表示焊條的焊接位置,第三、四位數字表示焊接電流種類及藥皮類型。
注意事項
  1.鹼性焊前焊條須經350℃左右烘焙1小時,隨烘隨用。  2.焊前必須對銲件清除鐵鏽、油污、水分等雜質。  3.焊接時須用短弧操作,以窄焊道為宜。  4.用直流電源時,焊條可接正、負極。 5. 電焊熱影響大,不適宜精密、微小鑄造缺陷的修補。在精密鑄件修復領域可用冷焊來修補砂眼、微孔等細小缺陷。
焊接接頭分類
焊接接頭是由兩個或者兩個以上零件用焊接方法連接的,一個焊接結構通常由若干個焊接接頭所組成,焊接接頭按接頭的結構形狀可分為五大類,即:對接接頭,T形接頭,搭接接頭,角接接頭,和端接接頭等。
焊條電弧焊操作技術
為了保證焊接電弧穩定燃燒和焊縫的表面成型,電弧引燃後,焊條要要作三個方向的運動(1)焊條不斷向焊縫熔池送進(2)焊條沿焊接方向向前移動( 3)焊條橫向擺動焊條移動時,應與前進方向成70-80度夾角,把以融化的金屬和熔渣推向後方,否則熔渣流向電弧的前方,則會造成夾渣缺陷。
運條方法
為了獲得較寬的焊縫,焊條在送進和移動過程中,還要作必要的擺動。通常的運條方法如下:   (1)直線形運條方法(2)直線往復形運條法(3)鋸齒形運條法
電焊工的相關證
書電焊工特種作業操作證即IC卡證,是證明你有燒電焊的資格的證書!也要年審的.跟汽車駕駛證的意思差不多:沒有汽車駕駛證就不能開車!沒有電焊工特種作業操作證就不能燒焊!不管你是幾級工! ———電焊工職業資格證又稱等級證,有初級、中級和高級,技師,高級技師之分,是證明你的能力的!特種作業操作證是安監局發,等級證是勞動局發的​​.
電焊作業觸電事故的預防措施
概述
電焊作業屬於特種作業,對作業人員的作業資格有嚴格的培訓及考核取證制度。雖然在取證換證時經培訓掌握了一定的技能,但仍有不少焊工在電焊作業中安全意識淡薄,常有違反《安全操作規程》的不安全行為。由於多數焊工電氣專業技術知識及安全用電常識有限,造成電焊作業現場事故隱患較多,如電焊機外殼不接地或接地不可靠、接線柱裸露不按規定做絕緣處理、焊把引線接頭導體裸露不按規定做絕緣處理、焊把引線浸泡在水里等。由此可見,消除電焊作業現場的事故隱患是每個焊工應掌握的工作技能。作業期間不僅要保證自身的人身安全,還要保證他人的人身安全,焊工在電焊作業時必須做好以下防範措施[1]。
使用合格的電焊工具
作業前應對電焊工具進行認真檢查,檢查項目如下:   1.電焊機絕緣性能是否良好;   2.電源線及電焊機引出線絕緣層有無破損老化、導線裸露的情況;   3.電焊機一、二次側接線柱有無鬆動、嚴重燒傷的情況;   4.電焊鉗及電焊專用手套有無破損漏電的可能,不合格者禁止使用。
接線的程序
1.選一根絕緣良好的引出線與焊把線(電焊鉗引線)可靠連接,接頭要擰緊,使其接觸良好,防止過熱,並用絕緣膠布將接頭裸露導體包紮數層使其絕緣良好。 2.將引出線敷設至電焊機處並接於焊機二次側接線柱上,應壓緊螺絲使其牢固接觸良好,禁止使用纏繞法連接。敷設引出線時避免焊把特別是接頭從有水的地方經過,必要時應架空。焊把線經過金屬欄杆或扶梯時,應用絕緣性能良好的細繩將其懸掛。  3.將電焊機金屬外殼可靠接地。即:用一根導線一端接至接地網,另一端連接在焊機外殼標有接地標記的螺絲上並擰緊,使其可靠接地,防止外殼帶電造成觸電事故。 4.將電源線接至電焊機一次側接線柱,壓緊螺絲使其牢固接觸良好,禁止使用纏繞法連接。 5.將電源線、焊把線的接頭及絕緣老化破損處用絕緣膠布包紮,導線絕緣嚴重老化者禁止使用,裸露的接線柱應加護罩,防止誤碰發生觸電事故。 6.檢查帶熔絲的電源閘刀或帶熔斷器的斷路器是否在斷開位置,將電源線接至電源開關熔絲或熔斷器下側,嚴禁帶電接線。 7.再次對所接電源線、引出線、外殼接地線進行仔細檢查,確認無誤後合上電源開關,合開關時應戴絕緣手套且另一隻手不得觸摸焊機。
防觸電原理分析
外殼不接地的情況:在電焊機絕緣損壞時焊機外殼將帶有電壓,如果這時有人觸及焊機外殼,人體與大地及電源中性點工作接地線(三相四線製系統中性點一般都接地)構成迴路,如上圖中帶箭頭虛線所示,電流將通過人體造成觸電事故。外殼接地的情況:電焊機絕緣損壞焊機外殼帶電時,焊機外殼經外殼接地線直接與大地接通構成短路迴路(如上圖中不帶箭頭的虛線),這個短路電流將使電源的保護裝置(自動開關、熔斷器或熔絲)動作,使電焊機的電源斷開。電源未切斷之前,即使有人接觸焊機外殼,由於外殼接地線的電阻幾乎為零,幾乎沒有電流通過人體,也可起到保護人身安​​全的作用。 1、進入金屬容器、井下、地溝等處作業時,嚴禁將電焊機和照明用的行燈變壓器帶入,防止一次電壓引發觸電事故。 2、作業期間特別是更換焊條時必須按規定戴好電焊絕緣手套。 3、在潮濕環境作業應穿絕緣鞋或站在乾燥的木板上。工作服、工作鞋、手套要保持乾燥,才能保證絕緣性能不會降低。 4、拆除電源線、消除電焊機故障、移動電焊機及焊工離開現場時切記將電源開關斷開。 5、焊接作業現場照明不足時應使用行燈,禁止使用220V照明燈,在潮濕環境或金屬容器內使用的行燈電壓不得超過12V。 6、雨雪天必須在室外露天進行電焊作業時,一定要採取防雨雪措施(如防雨棚等),防止雨水淋濕焊機、導線及焊把,造成漏電傷人事故。
電焊安全操作規程
1、電焊工必須經過專業訓練,考試合格後並持有安全操作證方准進行獨立操作(在學徒訓練期間可逐步在師傅監護下進行操作)。 2、電焊工必須按規定穿著工作服和使用防護用品(包括絕熱手套、絕緣膠靴、面罩)工作場所壓符合安全要求。 3、工作前要詳細檢查電焊機是否正常,絕緣是否良好,電焊機的外殼,必須有良好的接地。 、   4、電源線與二次線路必須完整,絕緣良好,不得用其它物件代替。嚴禁在設備、鋼纜、管道、容器以及廠房金屬結構上。 5、在禁火區與有易燃易爆可能性的部位或有毒的地方動火必須辦理手續和完備的動火許可證,經分析合格批准後方可施工。 6、焊鉗必須絕緣良好,接線要牢固且包好,避免鬆脫引起觸電。 7、在焊接工作場所不得存放易燃易爆物品並應有防止銲渣飛落,引起其它危險的措施。 8、接線或電氣設備發生故障,應由電工進行檢修,其它人員禁止亂動。 9、打火前應告訴輔助人員避開弧光。 10、進行一般檢修時,臨時照明行燈電壓應為36伏以下,在低窪潮濕地方或金屬容器內焊接時,其照明電壓應為12伏。 11、在容器內焊接時,需辦理《容器內作業許可證》外面必須有專人監護並有良好的通風。不得同時進行電焊和氣焊工作,如需要時必須採取一定的安全措施。 12、發現觸電者應立即拉下電閘,並用木棒膠管等使其脫離電源,迅速進行人工呼吸,在未切斷電源前,不准直接用手拉人體裸露部分。 13、嚴禁焊接未經清洗、置換、分析合格的裝過有毒易燃易爆物品的容器、管道等以及帶電帶壓設備。 14、在多人工作,多層作業或固定場所施銲時,應設防護屏障。  15、下雨天氣不准露天焊接。必要時必須採取有效的防護措施方可進行。在低窪地方和金屬容器內焊接時,除穿戴絕緣鞋、絕緣手套外,並應設有絕緣墊板。 16、在清除鐵鏽、焊接時,應戴防護眼鏡。 17、移動電焊機時,應先切斷電源。 18、高處焊接(2米以上)應辦理高處作業許可證和遵守高處作業安全操作規程。 19、電焊機在有水易潮處應墊高於地面,露天放置應設防雨棚,夏季應設在通風處,使用時溫度不超過60℃。 20、焊接時,工件要放穩,並有防止歪倒和墜落的措施。 21、工作中斷和下班時要切斷電源,整理設備場地,收好工件,熄滅火種。 22、電焊機應有專人管理,按時檢查維護,電焊工應定期進行體格檢查。 23、檢修轉動設備或進入設備內,必須事先辦理檢修證和進入設備作業證,聯繫操作工同意後,通知電工切斷電源,採取安全措施,並按規定設專人監護方可施工

Model, the composition and role of the electrode
Model GMT-ZT20 cast iron electrode stamping die cast iron module welding repair welding layer is martensite, excellent wear resistance. GMT-ZT30 cast iron electrode used in gray cast iron, ductile iron welding repair, good machining performance. Intensity is twice that of the ordinary electrode. GMT-ZT40 cast iron electrode stamping die cast iron module welding repair, welding layer is martensite, excellent wear resistance. GMT-ZT50 cast iron electrode is mainly used for rendering the buffer layer. Low-temperature welding of high strength GMT-ZT60 cast iron electrode, mainly used for hard surface cover production base buffer layer. GMT-ZT65 cast iron welding rod for cast iron, alloy cast iron, steel and cast iron welding electrode consists of two parts of the welding core and drug skin. The electrode is outside the core of metal welding, coating (drug skin) uniform pressure applied to the welding core carefully. Different types of electrode welding core. Ie, electrode welding core metal core, in order to ensure the quality and performance of the weld, butt the content of metal elements in the core there are stringent regulations, especially the content of harmful impurities (such as sulfur, phosphorus, etc.), there should be strict restrictions, better than the parent metal. Welding core composition directly affect the composition and performance of the weld metal, so the harmful elements in the welding core as little as possible. Containing C content should be less than 0.10%. For example, H08A, with S less than or equal to O. 03%, P less than or equal to 0.03%, C is less than or equal to 0.1%. Welding of carbon steel and low alloy steel welding core, generally use low-carbon steel core as welding, manganese, silicon, chromium, nickel, and fill up the ingredients (see wire national standard GB1300-77). The one hand, low-carbon and low carbon content steel wire plastic, easier to wire drawing, on the other hand can reduce the reducing gas CO concentration, reduce spatter or porosity can be increased weld metal solidification temperature, beneficial to the overhead position welding. Adding other alloying elements in order to ensure the comprehensive mechanical properties of the weld, welding performance and to remove impurities, but also have a certain effect. Other high-alloy steel, aluminum, copper, iron and other metal materials, the composition of the solder core addition to asking the weld metal are similar, the same should also control the content of impurities, according to process requirements often by adding certain alloying elements. The electrode is coated with a drug skin for SMAW consumable electrode. It is a medicated skin and welding core part, shown in Figure 3-5. 45 in the electrode front-end drug skin. Chamfer around this in order to facilitate the arc. Some bare welding core in the tail, about the electrode length of 1/16, to facilitate the welding clamp hold and conductivity. Electrode diameter Chung actually refers to the solder core diameter) is usually 2,2. 5,3. 2 or 3, 4, 5 or 6mm several specifications, it is common 3. 2, 4, 5 its length “L” is generally between 250 ^ -450 mm. Medicine bag overlying metal core is called a welding cored electrodes welding core. Welded core is generally a certain length and diameter of the wire. When welding, the welding core has two effects: First, the conduction of the welding current, arc energy converted into heat, welding core melting as the formation of the weld filler metal with the liquid base metal fusion. Electrode welding, welding core metal part of the whole of the weld metal. Welding core {chemical composition directly affect the quality of the weld. Therefore, as the electrode core wire single potential alone provides for the grade and composition. , Known as the wire for submerged arc welding, electroslag welding, gas shielded arc welding, gas welding fusion welding method for the filler metal. Impact on the welding of various alloying elements in welded core (1) 1) carbon (C) carbon is the major alloying elements in steel, when the increase in carbon content of steel {strength, hardness significantly increased, while the plasticity decreases. In the welding process, the carbon play a certain role in deoxy role in the arc under high temperature and oxygen compounds, to generate carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide gas, arc and pool ambient air excluded, to prevent oxygen in the air, nitrogen harmful gas bath adverse impact of reducing the oxygen and nitrogen content in weld metal. If the carbon content is too high, severe reduction will cause a large splash and stomatal Taking into account the impact of carbon steel hardened crack sensitivity increased, the carbon content is generally of low carbon steel welding core cluster by 0.1%. 2) Manganese (Mn) of manganese in steel is a good alloying agent, with the increase of manganese content, the strength and toughness will be increased. In the welding process, manganese is also a good deoxidizer, can reduce the oxygen content in the weld. Manganese and sulfide co-formation of manganese sulfide float in the slag, thereby reducing the weld hot cracking tendency. General carbon structural steel welding core manganese content of 0.30% 0 55%, welding some of the special purpose of the wire, and its manganese content up to 1. 70% of 2.10%. 3) Silicon (Si), silicon is also a good alloying agent in steel and adding an appropriate amount of silicon can improve the yield strength, flexibility and acid resistance; if the content is too high, then reduce the ductility and toughness. In the welding process, the silicon also has a good deoxidation capacity with oxygen to form silicon dioxide, but it will improve the viscosity of the slag, easy to promote non-metallic inclusions generated. 4) Chromium (Cr) Chromium can increase the hardness, wear resistance and corrosion resistance. For low-carbon steel, chromium is an accidental impurity. Metallurgical characteristics of the chromium is subject to rapid oxidation, the formation of refractory oxides of chromium oxide (Cr2O3), thereby increasing the likelihood of weld metal inclusions. Chromium oxide transition to slag make the slag viscosity increased, decreased mobility. 5) Nickel (NO nickel on the toughness of steel have a more significant effect, the general low-temperature impact value is higher, properly mixed with some nickel. 6) sulfur (S) Sulfur is a harmful impurities, with the increase of sulfur content will increase the tendency of hot cracking of welds, welding core sulfur content not greater than 0.04%. In the welding of important structures, the sulfur content not greater than 0.03%. 7) P (2) the classification of welding core of the solder core is based on national standards “welded wire” (GB 1300-77) classification, the steel wire for welding can be divided into carbon structural steel, alloy structural steel, Stainless steel three categories. Drug leather pressure applied to the surface of the coating of the welded core called coating. The electrode coating plays an extremely important role in the welding process. The use of a drug-free skin, light electrode welding in the welding process, the oxygen and nitrogen in the air will be a substantial intrusion of molten metal, oxide and nitride formation of metallic iron and useful elements carbon, silicon, manganese and other various oxides and nitride, and left in the weld, causing the weld slag or cracks. Melt into the molten bath, the gas may cause the weld to produce a large number of pores, these factors can greatly reduce the weld mechanical properties (strength, impact value, etc.), while the weld brittle. In addition to using the optical electrode welding, the arc is very unstable, serious splash, weld forming poor. Found in the course of practice outside in the light electrode coated with a layer from a variety of minerals composed of drug skin, make arc stability, weld quality is improved, the electrode is coated electrode. With the continuous development of industrial technology, people created a now widely used in high-quality thick coated electrode.
Electrode model and grades
Electrode for grades
Electrode grade is the specific naming of the electrode products, which is named after the main uses and characteristics of the electrode. Only one grade of each electrode products, but a variety of brands electrode at the same time the corresponding one in the model. Structural steel, for example: grades, the preparation method. Results XXX, became the structural steel electrode, the first three figures represent the type of drug skin welding current requirements 1, 2: on behalf of the tensile strength of weld metal.
Electrode for model
Electrode of the models is according to the national standard based on a representation to reflect the main characteristics of the electrode. It is based on the mechanical properties of the weld metal, the type of drug skin, welding position and current types of division. EXXX, structural steel, for example, model preparation method for the letter “E”, said electrode, said deposited metal minimum tensile strength, in the first two of the third digit electrode welding position, and the third, four-digit that type of welding current and the type of drug skin.
Note
A. Basic welding electrodes shall be subject to 350 ℃, 1 hour or so before baking, as baking with. Two. Weldments to remove rust, oil, water and other impurities before welding. 3. Be short-arc welding operation, a narrow weld bead is appropriate. 4. DC power supply, the electrodes can be connected to the positive, negative. (5) the influence of welding heat, not suitable for precision repair of minor casting defects. Available in the field of precision casting repair cold welding to repair small defects such as trachoma, microporous.
Welded joint classification
Welded joint welding method to connect two or more parts of a welded structure is usually composed by a number of welded joints, welded joints according to structure and shape of the connectors can be divided into five categories, namely: the butt joint, T-shaped connector lap joint, corner joint, and termination connector.
The SMAW operating technology
In order to guarantee stable welding arc burning and forming the surface of the weld, the arc is ignited, the electrode for the three directions of movement (1) electrode continuously sent to the weld molten pool (2) electrode to move forward along the welding direction ( 3) electrode lateral oscillation electrode move with the forward direction at 70-80 degree angle to the molten metal and slag to the rear or in front of the slag flow of arc will result in slag defects.
Transport bar method
In order to obtain a wider weld, the electrode in the process of feeding and moving, but also necessary to swing. Usually shipped article is as follows: (1) linear transport method (2) reciprocating linear-shaped transport method (3) serrated shipped France
The relevant certificate of welders
Book welders special operations certificate IC card permits, is to prove that you have a burning welding qualification certificate. Also examined and meaning of a motor vehicle driver’s license is similar: there is no driver’s license can not drive! Welders special operations certificate will not be welding. Whether you are a few levels of work! —– The job qualification of welders, also known as the grading permit, primary, intermediate and advanced technician, senior technician of the points, is to prove your ability! Special operations certificate Safety Supervision Bureau, the grading permit is issued by the Bureau of Labor.
Welding work an electric shock accident prevention measures
Outline
The welding work is a special job, the job qualifications of the workers have a rigorous training and assessment, forensics system. Forensics replacement trained to master certain skills, but there are still a lot of welders in the welding work safety consciousness, often in violation of the unsafe behavior of the “safe operation”. Most welders electrical professional and technical knowledge and safety of electricity common sense, many hidden dangers of welding job site accidents, such as welding machines Shell grounding or unreliable grounding terminal exposed to the required insulation, welding conductor exposed to lead connector do not follow the insulated handle, solder the lead soaked in water. Thus, to eliminate the causes of accidents of the welding work site is to be acquired by each welder skills. During operation to ensure not only their own personal safety, but also to guarantee the personal safety of others, and welders in the welding work must be done the following preventive measures [1].
Use qualified welding tools
Deal with welding tools carefully examination before operation, check the following items: 1. Welding machine insulation performance is good; two power cords and electric welding lead wire insulation layer without damage to the aging of the wire exposed; 3. A welding machine, two secondary side of the terminal is loose, severe burns; welding clamp and welding gloves without damage to the leakage may be, unqualified prohibition of the use.
Wiring program
Choose a reliable connection of the line (welding clamp leads) connectors to be tightened, making good contact and prevent overheating, good insulation Lead solder and insulation tape the joints exposed conductor dressing several layers of insulation. 2 Lead laying the welding machine at and connected to the secondary side terminals of the welder, compression screw it firmly good contact, prohibit the use of the winding method to connect. To avoid laying Lead solder is the connector from the water through, where necessary, overhead. Welding wire through metal railings or escalator, the application of good insulation properties string to hang. (3) welding machine metal shell and reliable grounding. Namely: a wire one end to the grounding grid, the other end connected to the welder shell ground mark the screw and tighten, making it a reliable ground to prevent the live shell cause electric shock. 4 Plug the power cord connected to the welding machine side of the terminal, clamping screw it firmly good contact, prohibit the use of the winding method to connect. The power line, welding line joints and insulation aging defects in insulating tape bandage, wire insulation serious aging prohibit the use of the bare terminal should be added guard to prevent accidental touch electric shock accident. Check the power guillotine with a fuse or fuse breaker is in off position, the power cord to the power switch fuse or fuse side is strictly prohibited live wiring. Again the power cord, pin-out, shell grounding wire carefully examined, verified, close the power switch, co-switch should be wearing insulated gloves and other hand may not touch the welder.
Analysis of electric shock principle
Grounded shell: in the welding machine insulation is damaged when the welder shell with a voltage, if someone touches the welder shell, the body and the neutral point of the earth and power ground wire (three-phase four-wire system the neutral point usually ground) constitute a loop, such as the image above arrowed dotted line, the current will cause an electric shock. Chassis ground: welding machine insulation damage welder live shell, the welder shell by shell ground wire and the earth directly connected to constitute a short circuit (such as the figure above do not arrowed dotted line), will allow the power of this short-circuit current protection device (Auto switch, fuse or fuse) action, the power of the welding machine is disconnected. Before the power is not cut off, even if someone contacts the welder shell, shell grounding line of resistance is almost zero, almost no current through the body, may also play a role to protect the personal safety. 1, into the metal containers, underground trench, etc., operating strictly forbidden line lamp transformer welding machines and lighting into, to prevent a voltage caused by electric shock accident. 2, during operation, especially the replacement of electrodes, welding must be required to wear insulated gloves. 3, operating in wet conditions should wear insulated shoes or standing on dry wood. Clothes, work shoes, gloves to be kept dry in order to ensure insulation performance is not reduced. 4, remove the power cord, eliminating the welding machine failure, mobile welding machines and welders left the scene, keep in mind the power switch is turned off. 5, the welding job site poor lighting should be running lights, prohibiting the use of 220V lighting used in humid environments or metal container line lamp voltage shall not exceed 12V. 6, rain and snow in outdoor open-air welding work must take anti-rain and snow measures (such as anti-canopy, etc.) to prevent rain water welder, wire and welding, resulting in leakage injury accident.
Welded wire for safe operation
, Welders must undergo professional training, after passing the examination and hold a safe operation certificate shall be allowed to conduct independent operations (during the apprenticeship can gradually master the custody of operation). 2, welders must be required to wear uniforms and use of protective equipment (including heat insulation gloves, insulated rubber boots, face masks), workplace pressure to meet the safety requirements. Before work to detailed examination of the welding machine is normal, the insulation is good, the shell of the welding machine must have a good grounding. , 4, power lines and secondary lines must be complete, good insulation, and may not be used other objects instead. Prohibited in the equipment, cable, pipes, containers and plant metal structure. 5, where cut-fire zone with inflammable and explosive possibilities of parts or toxic hot work must complete the formalities and complete hot work permit, qualified approval before construction of the analysis. 6, electrode holder must be good insulation, wiring to firmly wrap, avoid loosening caused by electric shock. 7, in the welding in the workplace must not store inflammable and explosive materials and should prevent the welding slag and fly caused by other risk measures. 8, wiring or electrical equipment failure, maintenance should be carried out by the electrician, and other persons prohibited to tamper with. 9, sparking support staff should be told to avoid the arc. 10, general maintenance, temporary lighting line lamp voltage should be below 36 volts, welding in the low-lying wet areas or metal containers, the lighting voltage is 12 volts. 11, container welding, must apply for “operating license within the container outside to be a personal care and good ventilation. Shall not at the same time welding and gas welding work must take certain safety measures, such as when required. 12, found that electric shock should immediately pull down the gates and use the stick hose etc. make it out of power, rapid artificial respiration, not cut off the power, are not allowed to direct his hand upon the body exposed part. 13, is strictly prohibited welded without cleaning, replacement, analysis qualified packed the containers of toxic and inflammable and explosive materials, pipes, etc., as well as live with the pressure equipment. 14 people work, multi-job or a fixed place of welding, should be set up protective barriers. 15 rainy days are not allowed to open-air welding. Must take effective protective measures can be carried out when necessary. Welding low-lying areas and metal containers, in addition to wear insulated shoes, insulated gloves, and should be equipped with insulation plate. 16, remove rust, welding should wear protective glasses. 17, mobile welding machine, you should cut off the power. 18, high welding (more than 2 meters) should handle the high operating permit and to comply with work at heights and safe operation. 19, the welding machine in the water easily tide at the pad above the ground, open-air place to be fortified canopy in summer should be located in well-ventilated place, the use of temperature does not exceed 60 ℃. 20, the welding, the workpiece to put stability and measures to prevent skew and falling. 21, work interruptions and work to cut off the power, finishing equipment, venues, to close the workpiece, extinguished the fire. 22, the welding machine shall be hand management, inspection and maintenance on time, welders should conduct regular physical examination. 23, repair rotating equipment or the equipment must be handled in the maintenance certificate and access to equipment operating permit, contact the operator consent, notify the electrician cut off the power to take security measures, in accordance with the provisions of the Guardianship of the designated persons before construction.

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E-Mail: 1779642876@qq.com
(美利坚合众国)Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.
QQ: 1,779,642,876
E-Mail: 1779642876@qq.com
(美利坚合众国)Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.
QQ: 1,779,642,876
E-Mail: 1779642876@qq.com
Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.Of 美国
QQ: 1,779,642,876
E-Mail: 1779642876@qq.com
Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.Of 美利坚合众国
QQ: 1,779,642,876
E-Mail: 1779642876@qq.com
汉语意译:(美利坚合众国)金发(西洋人,洋人,老外,外国人,女郎,女孩,姑娘,少女,女青年)亿万富豪帝国公司
漢語意譯:(美利堅合眾國)金發(西洋人,洋人,老外,外國人,女郎,女孩,姑娘,少女,女青年)億萬富豪帝國公司
QQ:1779642876
电子邮箱:1779642876@qq.com
(美利坚合众国)金发亿万富翁帝国公司
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金发碧眼的亿万富翁帝国Inc.Of美国
QQ:1779642876
电子邮箱:1779642876@qq.com
中文意譯:金發碧眼的(西洋人,洋人,外國人,老外,女孩,姑娘,少女,女郎,女青年)億萬富豪帝國Inc.Of 美利堅合眾國
中文意译:金发碧眼的(西洋人,洋人,外国人,老外,女孩,姑娘,少女,女郎,女青年)亿万富豪帝国Inc.Of 美利坚合众国
QQ:1779642876
电子邮箱:1779642876@qq.com
(美利堅合眾國)金發億萬富翁帝國公司
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電子郵箱:1779642876@qq.com
(美利堅合眾國)金發億萬富翁帝國公司
QQ:1779642876
電子郵箱:1779642876@qq.com
金發碧眼的億萬富翁帝國Inc.Of美國
QQ:1779642876
電子郵箱:1779642876@qq.com
金發碧眼的億萬富翁帝國Inc.Of美利堅合眾國
QQ:1779642876
電子郵箱:1779642876@qq.com
汉语名称由谷歌自动翻译,特注
(美利堅合眾國)金發(女孩,姑娘,少女,女青年,)億萬富豪帝國公司
QQ:1779642876
電子郵箱:1779642876@qq.com
金發碧眼的(女孩,姑娘,少女)億萬富豪帝國Inc.Of美利堅合眾國
QQ:1779642876
電子郵箱:1779642876@qq.com