Italian R & D garbage truck robot, door garbage

Italian R & D garbage truck robot, door garbage
Time :2012-08. Robot at a fixed time, came home in front of refuse collection.

Italian R & D garbage truck robot, with a laser scanning device and a position sensor.

Italian R & D of a garbage truck robot, with a laser scanning device and position sensors, shape, just like the movie “Star Wars”, the famous “the R2-D2”. The designer’s idea is that people can telephone booking, so that the robot at a fixed time, the home in front of the refuse collection.

Head of biological machinery of the Italian Santa Ana Da Ruiou Professor said, “We hope that showing the value of robots in the factory, the transformation into a home machine, so that they live together with humans.”

University researchers, committed to a broad range of inventions plan, including the door garbage robot can slow down the aging effects of tomatoes, as well as research and development for the global flooding hit areas, the plants can survive in the water.

Santa Ana school president and a professor of bio-mechanical card Sand said, “You can innovate here. No matter who plan, can receive help.”

Italian R & D garbage collection robot telephone booking
2012-07. Garbage collection robot developed by the Italian Santa Ana

Garbage collection robot developed by the Italian Santa Ana

A University in Italy, recently developed a new type of robot, one can make an appointment by phone, making it the designated front door, to collect the garbage.

According to reports, this garbage truck robot, with a laser scanning device and a position sensor, it seems like the movie “Star Wars”, the famous R2-D2 robot. The idea is, you can be ordered by telephone and let the robot at a fixed time, came to the front of your home, the streets, collect garbage.

It is developed by the Italian Santa Ana. It is reported that the university develop a number of other innovations, including biological arms control by the human brain, as well as allow rescuers, robot, lifting the rubble after the earthquake.

Overview of the development and trends of foreign robot

Robot concept
The United States is the home of the robot, in 1959, the United States controlled company for the development of the world’s first robot prototype called “uni Maintenon, it is a hydraulic-powered, and the robot has the ability to learn, a teaching that will , has aroused great interest, became a hit. In 1962, the establishment of uni Maintenon Machines Corporation, formal shape to produce uni Maintenon robot. Coincidentally, the American Society of Mechanical Company, at the same time, the development of a robot called “Wiessee Portland, compared with uni Maintenon, the” brain “structure, a slightly different shape, motion coordinates to differ materially from , a different person. “Subsequently, Japan, Germany and other developed countries, one after another after another imitation and the development of the robot after 20 years of long years, regardless of the robot, the vast majority of robots, this robot on the basis of improvement and innovation.

The robot has gone through 30 years, multiply the three generations of a large family of hundreds of thousands “of robot; still no uniform definition.

What is a robot? In the world, what is a robot? And what is not a robot? View, so far, there are significant differences. Japanese robot definition is controversial. Before
Soviet robots statistics figures, point of view, it is suspected that its definition of the robot is not clear. To this end, during the 18th Colloquium on the International Robots (ISIR), specifically set up a working group, its task is to develop a robot classification standards, and determine the number of robots on the principle.
For your convenience, some countries, next to the robot definition.

American Federation of Robotics (RIA) is defined as: the so-called robot, in order to perform different operations based on the movement of the various procedures to achieve the movement of materials, parts, tools or special devices, multifunctional manipulator and can be re-programmed “;

Japan Industrial Robot Association (JIRA), is defined as: “The so-called industrial robots in three-dimensional space, similar to human upper limb movement function, and understanding of the function, able to decide the action of the machine (intelligent robots);

French the AXES robot magazine, what are the robots and what not robots. Very strict definition, they said: “The robot is at least three-axis device, can be
Had to teach, or specially written software, programming, and can adapt to a variety of applications. ”

Other, not to them all.

In short, the industrial robot from the original concept, the “ring” workers, or “universal automaton, gradually evolved into flexible machinery for specialized tasks.

Classification of the robot
The robot has entered the thirties; the development of the robot in 1980, it at least 20 years of age, the beginning, therefore, was this year, called “the year of the robot. Since then, the production and value of the robot at an annual average growth rate of 20 to 30% growth in world demand for robots, every five years, quadrupling.
After entering the 1980s, the robot development, very rapidly. In 1980, the world’s industrial robots, only ten thousand;

1984, in addition to China, former Soviet Union and Eastern European countries, the world has 102,444 sets of industrial robots, which come out on top, up to 44.00 Taiwan to Japan; Second, the United States, 1,300;

Below, are: Germany, 6,600 units, France, 3,380 units, Sweden 2,400.

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
Will be released on February 21, 1992 report shows that ended in 1990, the world, a total of 460,000 robots, four in 1984, which, up to 274 000 in Japan, the highest in the world’s top;

Second, European countries outside the CIS, a total of 76,000 industrial robots, which Germany accounted for 37%, reaching 28,120 units; USA 40000, the other most countries and regions surveyed 1990, the number of industrial robots, growth rate has reached double digits.
Robot sales in the world, from 1986, year by year increase in 1986, reaching $ 1.7 billion; the size of the market of the United States in 1988 for $ 760 million;

According to the U.S. Dataquest, estimate that in 1990, the World Robot sales, may be $ 2.1 billion; 1992, will reach $ 2.5 billion.
30 years, the robot has gone through the first generation – show the teaching-playback robot; development to the second generation – feel the robot; is entering the third generation – Intelligent Robot.

The robot can be divided into the following categories:
Operating robots – the executive body for the mobile and / or operation of the controller, remote control robot by the operator;
Order to control the robot – a robot operating in accordance with the information given in the order;
Reproduce robot teach – in operation under the control of robot movement teach, then repeat the operation of the robot;
CNC robots – in accordance with the input of digital information, or program (rather than through the exercise teach), operation of the robot;
Intelligent robots – artificial intelligence, the decision of the robot of their own actions.
In recent years, with the development of robot technology, the above five types of robot components, has been changed, the former two types of robots, and then as before so popular, it is from 77% in 1980 down to 1987 24%
The latter two groups of robots, has increasingly welcomed by the people, their proportion has been 6% in 1980 to 30 percent in 1987, and was to continue an upward trend.
The application of robots in industry, from the industry point of view, the automotive industry is the largest user, accounting for 51%;
Secondly, electronic and electrical industry, plastics industry, mechanical industry, aviation and aerospace industry

In recent years, with the saturation of the automobile industry, electronics and electrical industry, jumped to become the largest user of industrial robots, it has been 9 percent, rising to a
6%. If the view from the type of work, welding robots, in the first place, in the early 1980s, accounting for 41%;, welding robots accounted for 20%; assembly robot, the demand continues to rise, now up to 30% for handling and on material, 30% other, such as adhesives, paint, etc., a total of 15 to 20 percent.

Japan’s robot Overview
Japan’s Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., in 1968, bought from the United States Engel got robot patent, the robot developed in Japan, only with more than a year, the company will produce the first batch of the practical value of the robot. In 1975, Japan installed robots has a total of 4400 units to 1987 has increased to 45,100 units. Japanese industrial machine
The market and scale, in 1981, has exceeded 100 billion yen. 1985, an increase of ¥ 300 billion, is expected in 1995, will grow to 1.36 trillion yen. In 1990 the output value of the robot, up to $ 3.3 billion,
1995, will reach $ 6.622 billion. In addition to China and Eastern Europe, 60 percent of the world’s industrial robots, will be installed in Japan.
Japan started than in the U.S. later, but come from behind, it is twice as fast than the United States to promote the robot application, it produces and the number of robots installed, has greatly surpassed the United States, known as the One, “Robot Kingdom . ” Existing production robot manufacturers in Japan, nearly 250 law g is Japan’s largest exporter of robots; Panasonic Corporation is a Japanese domestic market-leading robot manufacturers, accounting for half of domestic sales. Japanese robot technology has developed rapidly, attaches great importance to international cooperation, constantly introducing new technology to launch their new products. Many Japanese companies to take the introduction of foreign advanced technology, foreign cooperation and joint ventures, the development of robot technology.
Fanuc Company and General Motors Corporation, a joint venture between the the GMF company, Japan’s robot technology development, has a larger role.
Japanese robot development is so fast, one of the important reasons is that since the mid-1960s, Japan’s birth rate continued to decline, labor is very scarce, the impact of the national economy, far beyond the scope of the economy. The Japanese Government has made a great effort, a lot of ways, but, not satisfied can not demand, the Japanese government decided to take some measures to accelerate the development of the robot, in 1989, Japan’s MITI To this end, the investment of $ 300 million , 1995, increased to $ 8.6 billion. It is estimated that industrial workers in Japan has 14.5 million people in 1985, dropped to 1328 million robot to a certain extent, ease the labor shortage problem.
The Government of Japan attaches great importance to the development and application of robots, which take many forms, of which, including specialized loans, tax allowances, to help translate technical literature, and to assist in the development of the Industrial Standard (JIS), a series of measures to support the development of a new generation of robots. In order to facilitate small and medium enterprises update equipment, the Japanese government set up a Japanese robot leasing company, a more
Low price, and rented out to small and medium enterprises. In order to solve the “Japanese robot leasing company” insufficient funds, the Japan Development Bank provided the company with the prime rate-based payment.
The Japanese government paid great attention to the development of limit operating robot, developed a “Japanese robot development plans and investment of 10.029 billion yen for the development to exclude nuclear power plant failure, coastal oil exploration, mining, disaster relief and undersea research station of the” limit robot. ”
1985, the Japanese robot development a year, summed up, there are three major characteristics: first, the cleaning robot to achieve commercialization; Second, the direct drive robot, is rapidly practical;, multi-purpose robot, have been put into mass production. In order to accelerate the development of the third generation of intelligent robots, the Japanese government to invest $ 100 million, 250 robot manufacturers under way to compete.

Robot profile in the United States
The world’s first robot was born in the United States, the world’s earliest use of the robot, the United States, 1961, General Motors and Chrysler, the first to buy the first batch of commercial production of the robot system, creating a robot the first of its kind in the automotive industry. In 1971, General Motors Corporation, the first robot to conduct spot welding. In the past 20 years, the automotive industry, has been the largest user of robots, accounting for 51% of all robots.
The United States is the country of the first export of the robot; 1969 robot sales of $ 1.5 million; 1979, increased to $ 60,000,000; in 1980, soared to $ 90 million.

80 years later, production and sales of U.S. Robotics, appeared a good momentum in 1983, produced 3060 robot, the output value of $ 194 million in the first half of 1984 alone, the production of 2,297 units, the output value of about 1 $ .48 100 000 000.

1983 and 1984 ‘, the yield of two years, robots have been more than the sum of the past 20 years. Robot sales in the United States, is an annual 35 to 50 percent of Walter Weisel, Chairman of the Robotic Industries Association, said: increase rate of more than 60 existing U.S. robot manufacturers, USA and Japan joint venture GMF robotics company is the largest robot manufacturers in the United States from $ 16 million in sales since its establishment in 1982, an increase of $ 609 million in 1987 products sell well in various countries of Eurasia and North America.
The rapid development of the Japanese robot is a challenge to the United States, the United States has begun to recognize that, the robot on the importance of economic development, the U.S. Government to immediately adjust their policies and pay attention to technical cooperation with Japan, Western Europe, the introduction of talent. Joint venture of the United States and Japan, there are several the GMF company, but is one of the largest one, whose main task is from
Japan, the introduction of robotic products in the United States to test and adjust, then, then its sales in the domestic and foreign markets.
USA and Japan 200 Robot enterprise, economist at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA Edwin Mansfield had the past 20 years, conducted an investigation. In his view, research and sales of the new robot, the speed of Japan than the United States, to be fast about 20 to 30 percent, and cost spent to 10% less. This difference mainly reflects the time spent in the United States in terms of sales and money, more than the Japanese.

In considering how to more effectively increase the production of the money spent five times more than the United States. Mansfield found that the two countries the proportion of investment in research and development of new products and new technology, much the same;

The Japanese excel to improve and enhance the United States and foreign technology, which is the crux of the gap between Japan and USA.
Number of robots in Japan overwhelmed the United States, but the level of research techniques, the United States is still dominant. For example, the combination of computer simulation, laser and other high-tech and robotics, has successfully solved the complex shape of the metal material cutting problem, and the use of computer simulation technology to simulate the work of the automatic machining center, the GMF companies have made a breakthrough the progress of other, for example, special robots, micro robots and military robots are a world leader.

Robot profile in Western Europe
Western Europe is second only to Japan and USA the robot’s production base, but also the Japanese robot market. In many countries in Western Europe, Germany, Italy, France, Britain, Sweden and Spain, the countries of Western Europe, production and use of robots. According to 1989 statistical figures show that the total number of robots installed by the above-mentioned countries: Germany 22,400 Italy 9,500, France 7,063 5,908 Taiwan, the United Kingdom, Sweden 3,800, Spain 2,000 Taiwan, in Germany up to, Italy, France and the United Kingdom and, over the previous year, a net increase of 4,700 units.
Robot in Germany, by a high degree of attention and is widely used, people praised the electronic assistant. In the past decade, the German demand for robots increased by 20 times. By the end of 1990, Germany 28000 electronic assistant, the next three years, this number will double. German Research and Technology Ministry attaches great importance to promote the development of automation technology, vigorously accelerating the development of intelligent robots, and actively develop a new generation of robots.
As early as 1983, France has developed an advanced robotics program, the plan is June 1982, the European G-7 Summit held in Versailles, France, and in the United States Williamsburg Conference in June 1983 to determine the in one of the 18 cooperation projects, which is a multi-functional independent robot plan in preparation for a decade to complete, it is mainly the development of third generation able to walk, instead of people engaged in heavy physical labor, or in a dangerous and environmentally harmful , the work of robots. 1986, the French national basis, independently formulated a the next decade, the robot’s development plan, in three stages, ie, 1 to 2 years of recent task; 2 to 5 years in the mid-term task; 5 10 years of long-term task. For the implementation of this plan, the French government has developed eight measures five aspects of the study, and the establishment of the robot inter-ministerial committee. In early 1990, the French robotics industry, “I do not want to wait until 1992, I want to automate the” slogan, has held a wide range of promotional activities, the purpose is to encourage manufacturers have research the feasibility of using robots. Effective measures, the past few years, the French robot, has made substantial progress, it has a robot number, after Germany and Italy, ranking the third place in Western Europe. However, the French, the robot market, still lies in the hands of a few companies.
Compared with Germany and France, the British robot, whether it is to install the number of units, or growth and sales, are not these two countries.

In 1986 than 1981 robots, an increase of more than seven times, but does not reflect the British robot technology
The surgery has greatly improved.

British Government to change the robot backward outlook, on November 5, 1986 announced that, to be the establishment of a development of automated manufacturing of new technologies and foster robot role of universal recognition of the advanced robot center, focus on advanced robot (depending on, touch and hearing ) sensors, artificial intelligence and other high-tech projects. A few years later, the robot has been the development of only 198 years, the new robot, up to 870 units over the previous year, an increase of 17.4 percent, a record to the end of 1989, the British installed a total robot 5908, ranking Western European countries in the fourth.
Italy has 52 robot manufacturers, employees, a total of 1900, the average, a less than 40. Do not look at the robot manufacturer in Italy, small, few staff, some less than ten people, but the output is very high, there are four sales, more than 13 million marks, accounting for half of the total sales of the Italian robot .
Sweden has the robot, although these countries as much, but, Sweden per million workers, possession of a number of industrial robots, after Japan, the second door to the world. It has Europe’s largest robot manufacturer – ABB Robot Co., Ltd. (formerly ASEA company). As early as 1973, the company launched the world’s first microcomputer-based electrical industrial robot IRB6 Since then, the end of the monopoly position of the liquid and pneumatic robots. Later, IRB6 is the world’s imitation of most robots, and other manufacturers to manufacture the standard of five-axis robot. The robotics industry has become a new pillar industry in Sweden.
The late start of Spain, in 1974, the first installation of a robot, after 80 years, robots get a larger development, in 1980, already has 56 robots; 1987, breaking the 1000 mark to 1131 units. The growth rate of 32%. It is estimated that the total number of robot installation in Spain in 1991 will reach 2,500 units. Spain, only six of robot manufacturers, robot market, almost monopolized by ABB.
Robot profile of the former Soviet Union
Robot slow development of the former Soviet Union in 1975, it was about 289 robots, less than 3% of world robot, after 80 years, with the rapid development; 1985, the former Soviet Union, the total number of robots installed has reached 34 000 units, 120 times a decade ago.
The direction of the former Soviet Union, the development of robots, there are two: First, give priority to the development of the economic benefits of higher production sector and a direct impact on workers’ health establishments; yes, in the high level of technology and operating conditions are ripe, the specialized production departments, use of robots. Few years ago, it was in the mobile robot, a lot of work, and mass production than fifty, nine degrees of freedom industrial robot. However, it is widely used, simple, and cheap robots. Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, has started to develop with the controller (micro-computer based), more complex and expensive industrial robots.
Former Soviet Union by the former CMEA countries, to take the form of collaboration and specialization to accelerate the production of industrial robots. 1980, original countries to each other will, signed in the design of modern industrial robots, the implementation of multilateral technical cooperation agreements signed specialization and production cooperation in the production of robots, the implementation of multilateral agreements. 1982, signed a General Agreement on the principles of specialization and collaboration, co-production robot, the former CMEA countries, the development of the work of the 58 kinds of robots, division, Poland and the production of welding robots; original Czech production casting with robot; Bulgarian production of painting robots; Hungarian production monitoring robots. Subsequently, the former CMEA countries, jointly signed an agreement
Decided to set up a robotics company. In the Science and Technology Cooperation Program enacted in 1986 to 1990, regulatory
Must work together to focus on production of new industrial robots, to improve the basic technology of the machine manufacturing industry is expected to 19
90 years, member countries of the former CMEA, will have 200,000 industrial robots, of which 30% will be used in automated production
Systems. However, as in previous years, the Eastern European countries, internal unrest and the disintegration of the Soviet Union, CMEA, self-disintegrated, and also how
Can you spare some time too!

The future of robots
According to the World Futures Studies forecast: the 1990s, an even longer period of time, the world’s top ten changes, of which a large change is: intelligent robots will be a lot of the next 50 years, this robot will be very popular, although 90 years, can not be universal, technically, a breakthrough. Therefore, the intelligent robot, has become a hot topic among high-tech development planning. At present, based on the feeling of control of second-generation robot has entered the practical stage, is expected not before this century is expected to be universal applications.
The use of robots in the factory, or a “manual labor” robot, people use it, you can create a flexible automation workshop, production and quality of industrial products. In the next decade, the emergence of a “mental” robot, called “expert systems”, the robot through the computer work, you can replace one or several experts in the high-tech fields, engaged in research work.
Along with intelligent automation, microelectronics, visual image processing, while IT and development of intelligent robots, factory automation (FA), office automation (OA) and domestic automation (HA) as the main line 3A revolution, and Intelligent Systems working with a new attitude into the high-tech fields. The combination of artificial intelligence and robotics, will bring revolutionary changes to the robot technology.
The founder of the of Unimation company is called “the father of the robot – Joe Engle Berger, that the future revitalization of the robot, the service industry, particularly in medical-related industry has great development potential;

Japan intends to robots used in hospitals, restaurants and family. Joe Engel Berger led the company, taking a lead in developing a pharmacist
And hospitals with the robot.
Following the upsurge in the development of the industrial robot, foreign competition in the development of military robots. United States, Germany, France and the United Kingdom, has equipment and the development of dozens of different models of military robots, of which the United States for up to 1991 Gulf War, U.S. security explosives robot, it participated in combat operations “Desert Storm”; the UK to the Government of Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, the sale of 16 and 20 “trolley” Super mine disposal robot, for the Gulf war, has achieved a lot. U.S. Army, Plan 2000, developed for front-line repair wheels, mine clearance, transportation of ammunition and food, as well as infantry Wizard military robots. United States plans to build a robot fleet, ready in three stages, and gradually improve, finally, to achieve fully automated unmanned command ships, ship the robot, under the circumstances, to formulate operational plans, military robots, has demonstrated it in the future war, the broad application prospects.

Overview of the 20th century, the development of robot technology. 2010. ‘

From the robot was born to the early 1980s, robotics has experienced a long slow process of development. The 1990s, with the rapid development of computer technology, microelectronic technology, network technology, robotics, has been rapid development. In addition to continuously improve the level of industrial robots, a variety of advanced robot system for non-manufacturing sector has made substantial progress. Technological development of industrial robots and advanced robot two routes, described the latest progress of the robot.

A. Industrial robots

(1) the use of modern design of the robot manipulator: The finite element analysis, modal analysis, and simulation design method, the robot manipulator, has achieved the optimal design. As the representative of the German company KUKA Robotics Corporation, has robots, parallel parallelogram structure, open-chain structure, expanding the scope of work of the robot, coupled with the application of lightweight aluminum alloy, greatly improving the performance of the robot instead. In addition, the use of advanced RV reducer and AC servo motor, the robot manipulator, and almost maintenance-free system.

(2) parallel robot: a parallel mechanism, the use of robot technology to achieve high precision measurement and processing, robotics, robots and CNC technology integration for the future expansion of the CNC technology, laid the foundation. Italian the COMAU company, companies such as Japan FANUC has developed such products.

(3) control system: the performance of the control system to further improve control standards have been in the past six-axis robot, developed to now be able to control 21 axes, and even 27-axis, and implements a software servo and digital control. Man-machine interface more friendly, graphics-based operation interface has been available. Programmatically, still mainly teach programming, but in certain areas off-line programming has achieved practical.

(4) sensor system: laser sensors, vision sensors and force sensors in the robot system has been successfully applied and implemented the automatic positioning of the objects of automatic seam tracking and automated production line and precision assembly operations, greatly improving the robot’s operating performance and adaptability to the environment. KAWASAKI, Japan, YASKAWA, FANUC, and Sweden ABB, KUKA, REIS, Germany, companies are launched such products.

(5) Network Communication Function: Japan YASKAWA Germany KUKA company’s latest robot controller has been realized with Canbus Profibus bus and some network connection, so that the robot, from the previous stand-alone applications, networked applications, forward a big step, so that the robot equipment from the past, to the development of standardized equipment.

(6) Reliability: Due to the rapid development of microelectronics technology and LSI applications, the reliability of the robot system has been greatly improved. The past, the robot system reliability, MTBF, generally thousands of hours, and now has reached 50,000 hours in winter to meet the needs of any occasion.

Two. Advanced robotics

In recent years, the field of human activity continues to expand, robot applications, from manufacturing to the development of non-manufacturing sector. Cosmic exploration, mining, construction, medical, agriculture, forestry, industry, services, entertainment industry, such as ocean development, put forward the requirements of automation and robotics. These industries and manufacturing, the main feature, unstructured work environment and uncertainty, and therefore, higher requirements on the robot, you need to robots, with walking function, the external perception, as well as local self-planning capabilities etc., is an important development direction of the robot technology.

(1) underwater robots: United States AUSS, Russia’s MT-88, France EPAVLARD underwater robots have been used for offshore oil exploitation, undersea exploration, salvage operations, pipe laying and inspection, cable laying and maintenance, as well as Dam inspection, cable underwater robot (remote operated vehicle) and non-cable underwater robot (autonomous under water vehicle) two categories.

(2) space robots: space robot, has been an important research field of advanced robotics. Currently, the United States, Russia, Canada and other countries, has developed a variety of space robots. For example, NASA’s space robot Sojanor. Is an autonomous mobile vehicles, Sljanor weight 11.5kg, size 630 48mm, six wheels, the successful application of it on Mars, causing widespread concern around the world.

(3) The nuclear industry robots: study abroad, mainly in institutions smart, accurate and reliable, fast response, light weight, stiffness, ease of handling and maintenance of high-performance servo hand, as well as semi-autonomous and autonomous mobile robot . Typical system has been completed, such as, USA ORML, radioactive tank clean-up system of the robot, the reactor operator with your arms;

Canada successfully developed radiation monitoring and fault diagnosis system, Germany C7 dexterous hand.

(4) underground robot: underground robots, including the mining robots and underground pipeline maintenance robot in the class. The main contents are: mechanical structure, walking systems, sensors and positioning systems, control systems, communications and remote control technology. Japan, the United States, Germany and other developed countries, has developed underground pipes and oil, gas and other pipeline maintenance robot, a variety of mining robotics and automation systems are being developed.

(5) medical robot: medical robots include: medical and surgical planning and simulation, robot-assisted surgery, the smallest injury surgery, telepresence surgery. The United States has launched a telepresence surgery (telepresence surgery) for battlefield simulation, surgical training, anatomy teaching. France, Britain, Italy, Germany and other countries to carry out a joint plan image guided orthopedic surgery (telematics), pocket-sized robot (biomed) program, as well as electromechanical surgery for surgical tools and other research projects, and has achieved fruitful results .

(6) construction robots: Japan has developed over 20 kinds of building robots. Such as, high-rise building plastering robot, precast installation robots, interior decoration robots, floor polishing robot, Cabo robot, and has actually due and U.S. Kaneijimei grand University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, are carrying out pipeline excavation and laying robot, interior walls to install robots and other types of development, and carried out the basic research of the sensor, mobile technologies and systems for automated construction methods. Britain, Germany, France and other countries in carrying out the research in this area.

(7) military robotics: In recent years, the United States, Britain, France, Germany and other countries have developed second-generation military intelligent robots. Which is characterized by self-control mode, to complete tasks such as reconnaissance, combat and logistical support on the battlefield with the ability to see, smell and angular touch can automatically track the terrain and choose the road, and with automatic search, identify and destroy enemy targets function. Such as the United States Navplab autonomous navigation vehicles, semi-autonomous ground vehicles in the SSV, France autonomous rapid movement of the reconnaissance vehicle (DARDS), Germany MV4 explosive ordnance disposal robots. U.S. ORNL is developing and the development of the Abrams tank, Patriot missile batteries and robots, the various uses of military robots.

It can be foreseen that a variety of advanced robotic systems in the 21st century, they will go to various areas of human life, to become good human assistant and intimate partner.

Hotspots and development trends

The international robotics community to increase research efforts robot common technology research and development towards the intelligent and diverse directions. The main research contents, in the following 10 areas:

A. Industrial robot manipulator structure optimization design technology: exploring the new high-strength lightweight materials, to further improve the load / weight ratio, and at the same time, the agency toward modular, reconfigurable direction.

Two. Robot control technology: focus on open, modular control system, man-machine interface more friendly, languages, graphical programming interface is being developed. Standardization of the robot controller and network, as well as PC-based network controller has become a hot topic. Programming techniques, in addition to further improve the operability of the online programming, offline programming utility, will become a research focus.

3. Multi-sensor systems: To further enhance the intelligence and adaptability of the robot, the use of a variety of sensors is the key to problem solving. The research focus is feasible and effective multi-sensor fusion algorithm, especially in the case of non-linear and non-stationary, non-normal distribution of multi-sensor fusion algorithm. Another problem is that the sensing system for practical use.

4. The structure of the robot’s dexterity, control systems are getting smaller, the two are moving in the direction of integration.

5 Robot remote control and monitoring technology, semi-autonomous and autonomous robots technology, co-ordination between the robot and the operator control through the network within a wide range of robot remote control system, in the case of delay, the establishment of pre-remote control.

6. Virtual robot technology: multi-sensor, multi-media and virtual reality and telepresence technology, the virtual robot teleoperation and human-computer interaction.

7. Multi-agent (multi-agent) tone control technology: This is a new area of ​​robotics research. Groups on multi-agent architecture, mutual communication and consultation mechanism, perception and learning methods, modeling and planning, group behavior control.

8. Mini-and micro-robotics (micro / miniature robotics): This is a new field of robotics research and focus on the development direction. Past research in this area, almost blank, the progress of research in this field will cause a revolution in robotics, and an inestimable impact on all aspects of social progress and human activities, micro-robotics the research focuses on system architecture, sport, and control methods, sensor technology, communications technology, as well as walking technology.

9. Soft robotics (soft robotics): mainly used for medical, nursing, leisure and entertainment occasions. Traditional robot design, does not consider the close coexistence with people, therefore, the structural materials are mostly metal or rigid material, soft robotics, requiring its structure, the control mode and the sensor system in the robot accidental collision with the environment or human, safe, the robot is friendly.

10. Imitation and bionic technology: This is the highest state of robotics development, present only in some respects, to do some basic research.

Italian machine tool robot industry. 2012 quarter, continuing the growth. May 2012
Production of energy-saving automation solutions

Production of energy-saving automation solutions

The plant will use a minimum of energy and material consumption to get the best results, the demand will be concentrated in the production technology of the multiplier. International Mold & Die Metal & Plastic Industry Suppliers Association Secretary-General Luo Baihui the future, the production process, energy saving of 20-30% is very possible. In addition to the light structure of the efficient handling technology and fast-moving parts, for example, the robot arm and robot tools, control technology, there is a huge energy saving potential. Previously, robots, there is no standby mode, now, the new automation concept, provided such operations, saving a lot of energy.

The average service life of some parts has been increased, which helps to reduce costs. In addition, some strategies, energy-efficient method for robot programming, to avoid unnecessary rapid acceleration, braking energy, the simulated energy demand. In this way, many of the points system estimates the energy consumption, adjustment of complex data, to further reduce consumption. Robotics and automation industries, energy-efficient, and contribute to the rapid development of green technology. Optimize the production process, a useful way to large-scale use of new technologies. To be able to make renewable energy and environmental technologies, more full of competitiveness, this must be done.

Automation photoelectric production, have begun to use robots, assembly and handling technology, and machine vision, to complete the solar electricity price. Another work is to optimize battery production. In order to achieve a breakthrough in optical terms, requires a lot of high-performance batteries, these batteries, is dominated by the smart automation solutions. Robots, assembly and handling technology, and machine vision to enhance the support of the fiber mixture in the economy car, the use of ultra-light body sheet production, become possible.

According to the latest statistics released by the Italian machine tools, robots and automation Manufacturers Alliance (UCIMU-SISTEMPERPRODURRE), in the first quarter of 2012, the Italian machine tool industry received orders, an increase of 10.5%, the absolute value of 124.7 (2005 = 100 , the same below).

This continued growth trend (not including the assessment for 2011) shows, the Italian machine tool industry, eight consecutive quarters of growth, indicating that the Italian machine tool industry is gradually improving. Orders from overseas markets, an increase of 12%, the absolute value reach 158.9. Orders from the domestic market increased by only 0.1%, the absolute value of 69.3. This data suggests that the slow recovery of the Italian domestic market, the market demand is still sluggish.

President of the Union of Italian machine tools, robots and automation manufacturer GiancarloLosma of this appraisal, the Italian machine tool industry trend, making the industry technology investment, stagnant, forcing us must carefully evaluate the risk of loss of competitiveness in the global industrial system, . The stagnation of the production plant, a direct impact on the entire manufacturing sector, but also make the “Made in Italy” products, face a heavy blow from overseas competitors. Many of our competitors continue to increase investment, research and development of high efficiency, green, safe, higher performance products, which will continue to narrow their gap with the “Made in Italy” products.

Robotics, as a typical representative of the advanced manufacturing technology, a set of mechanical, electronic, control, computers, sensors, artificial intelligence, multi-disciplinary advanced technology, in one of the important modern manufacturing automation equipment. It can be said that the emergence and application of robots, is the inevitable evolution of science and technology development and production tools. Recently, the International Mould & Metal & Plastic Industry Suppliers Association Secretary-General Luo Baihui said in an interview, industrial robots, has been in the field of automobiles and auto parts, motorcycle, engineering machinery, machine mold, low-voltage electrical appliances, tobacco, chemical, military, etc., the widely used. Future robot market demand, expanding, robotics and intelligent equipment, will continue to emerge, robot applications, has become more flexible direction.

Robot production, promote the mechanical hardware industry development

(1) technical set precision of advanced industrial robots, flexible, intelligent, software application development, advanced manufacturing technology in one process, the implementation of the detection, control, optimization, scheduling, management and decision-making to achieve to increase production, improve quality and reduce costs, reduce resource consumption and environmental pollution, the highest manifestation of the level of industrial automation.

(2) the technological upgrading of industrial robots and automation outfit with precision manufacturing, precision machining, and flexible production technology features, following the power machinery, computer, comprehensive extension of people’s physical and intellectual new generation of production tools to achieve an important means of production figures, automation, networking and intelligent.

(3) the wide range of applications of industrial robots and automation outfit is the key equipment of the production process can be used in the manufacture, installation, testing, logistics and production processes, and is widely used in automobile and auto parts, construction machinery, rail transportation, low-voltage electrical power, the IC equipment industry, tobacco, finance, medicine, metallurgy and printing and publishing a number of industries, the broad range of applications.

(4) Technology and strong industrial robots, and automation of complete sets of technology, focus and integration of many disciplines, involve a number of technical areas, including industrial robot technology, robot dynamics and simulation, robotics to build finite element analysis, laser processing technology, modular programming, intelligent measurement, modeling process integration, factory automation and sophisticated logistics and advanced manufacturing technology, technology and strong.

To a certain extent, enhance the degree of automation, many like the hardware industry is labor-intensive industrial chain; robot production, led to the development of the mechanical hardware industry.

French robot manufacturing industry profiles. July 2012

The latter half of the 20th century, the robot manufacturing industry in France gradually developed. 1970s, the French National Institute of Automation (INRIA) and the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) developed the first industrial robot and a mobile robot, the robot used in the nuclear field by virtue of the development of the Atomic Energy Commission, France , a leading robot manufacturer in the world.

In the 1980s, the first batch of French service robots enterprise was born, private companies began to enter the field of industrial robot development. A variety of robot service market one after another, such as the disabled care, industrial cleaning, nuclear installation monitoring and so on.

At the same time, the French National Academy of Sciences, the French National Institute of Automation, the French Atomic Energy Commission as the representative of the French research community, setting off a rapid development of the high tide of robotics research, the field of transport robot detection technology. In addition, the French defense industry began to enter the field of robotics research.

Due to lack of social and economic support, the French industrial robotics industry in the late 20th century, the gradual decline, the majority of enterprises in other countries (eg Italy Comau companies, etc.) the acquisition, only a few small businesses retained.

With increasing technological advances, the early 21st century, the French robot manufacturing industry, the gradual recovery of the new generation of service robots, enterprises, came into being. Some large companies began to enter the robot manufacturing, such as Dassault, ECA, Sagem, Thales, and gradually participate in the remote control unmanned machine, submarine robots, ground robots, and other fields.

After a decade of development, the French robot manufacturing industry, mainly by the three types of enterprises: the traditional type of service and industrial robots, small and medium-sized enterprises, emerging research small and medium-sized enterprises and large defense companies. Overall, SMEs accounted for the majority, but, mostly concentrated in a specific field or technology, only a dozen companies have the ability to produce complete sets of robotic equipment, and a weak capital base, development is limited, corporate restructuring or bankruptcy matter, when occur. Large enterprises are mostly concentrated in the military field.

Relative to the enthusiasm of the private investment, the robot manufacturing industry late, only to cause the French government attaches importance to the 21st century, before being robotics research funded project started. In 2001, the French National Academy of Sciences launched “ROBEA Plan investment in robotics research and development; 2002, the project, providing a total of € 3.2 million to support 32 research projects; 2003, the French laboratory and the Japanese AIST research institutes to establish a” robot Joint Research Laboratory “(The JRL), to jointly develop a the HRP2 research platform; In 2006, a total of 25 projects the French government funding of € 15.2 million; 2008, the General Administration of French arms defense function to determine the primary strategy for the robot R & D; In 2011, France launched the “Investing in our Future” project, is expected to invest 2 million euros in the next few years, funded 15 laboratory robot research and development work.

A Obamians believer of the World;A believer of the Obamians of the World




Intelligent robotics research by social circles, social circles of intelligent robot designer, the social circle of the intelligent robot production and processing by intelligent robots maker social circle, social circle of the intelligent robot shows communicators, intelligent robots wholesale sellers social circle; intelligent robots importers and exporterssocial circle;
Wuxi, China-built steel products Co., Ltd. – Shanghai Office

* Yangtze River Delta cooperation with robot on the establishment of the Company’s R & D, design, production, processing, manufacture, display, communication, sales of the cause of the decision of the Panel

Home service type based robot; mainly to serve the solitary robot into the home, into the community, serving the public;

Welcome to the Japanese robotics company, U.S. Robotics, the French robotics company with my office; to undertake the robots, and robot welding accessories, welding operations;

無錫、中国組み込み鋼製品有限公司 – 上海事務所








空气过滤器 * 不锈钢罩壳项目 承接电焊 焊接加工可行性报告
空氣過濾器* 不銹鋼罩殼項目承接電焊焊接加工可行性報告
Air filter * Stainless steel casing project to undertake welding welding process feasibility report
World-class advanced production program
By welding, welding robots, computers, all control, fully automated, laser cutting machine, automatic cutting, a production line, 8 hours Yield: 400; 16 hours per day: 800; quality; cost of production lines: one million yuan ;
Filtre à air * inoxydable projet boîtier en acier à entreprendre soudure faisabilité du procédé rapport
De classe mondialedu programme de production de pointe
En soudage, robots de soudure, des ordinateurs, à tout contrôle, entièrement automatisés, machines de découpe laser, découpe automatique, une ligne de production, 8 Rendement heures: 400; 16 heures par jour: 800; la qualité, le coût des lignes de production: un million de yuans ;
Luftfilter * Edelstahlgehäuse Projekt zum Schweißen Schweißverfahren Machbarkeit Bericht verpflichten
World-Class fortschrittlichen Produktions-Programm
Durch Schweißen,Schweißroboter, Computer, alle Kontrolle, vollautomatische Laserschneidanlage, automatischen Zuschnitt, eine Produktionslinie, 8 Stunden Ertrag: 400; 16 Stunden pro Tag: 800, Qualität, Kosten der Produktionslinien: eine Million Yuan ;
El filtro de aire* Caja de acero inoxidable del proyecto para llevar a cabo el proceso de soldadurade soldadura informe de viabilidad
De primera clasedel programa de producción avanzada
En soldadura, robots de soldadura, las computadoras, todos los de control, totalmente automatizado, máquina de corte por láser, corte automático de una línea de producción, 8 horas Rendimiento: 400, 16 horas al día: 800, calidad, costo de las líneas de producción: un millón de yuanes ;
용접 용접 공정 타당성 보고서를 수행하기 위해에어 필터 * 스테인레스 스틸 케이스 프로젝트
세계적 수준의 선진적인 생산 프로그램
용접으로용접 로봇, 완전 자동화된 컴퓨터, 모든 제어,레이저 커팅 머신, 자동 절삭, 생산 라인,8 시간 항복 : 400;하루 16시간 : 800,품질, 생산 라인의비용 : 백만위안 ;
Filtro aria * cassa in acciaio inox progetto di intraprendere la saldatura relazione processo di fattibilità
World-class programma di produzione avanzati
Mediante saldatura,robot di saldatura, computer,tutto il controllo, completamente automatizzato, macchina a taglio laser, taglio automatico, una linea di produzione, 8 ore Resa: 400; 16 ore al giorno: 800, qualità, costo delle linee di produzione: un milione di yuan ;
فلتر الهواء الفولاذ المقاوم للصدأ * مشروع غلاف لإجراء عملية لحام جدوى تقرير لحام
ذات المستوى العالمي برنامج انتاج متقدمة
بواسطة لحام، والروبوتات لحام، وأجهزة الكمبيوتر، كل سيطرة،مؤتمتة بالكامل، الليزر قطع الآلة، وقطع التلقائي، خط إنتاج، 8 ساعات الانتاجية: 400؛ 16 ساعة في اليوم: 800؛الجودة؛ تكلفة خطوط الإنتاج: واحد مليون يوان ؛
无锡(中国) (Yi)一(Jian)建 钢品有限公司
Construction Steel Products Co., Ltd. in Wuxi, China (Yi) (Jian)
Undertake welding, welding processing business requirements:
1 – Please provide drawings (process drawings, production drawings, parts drawings), please include the size and other details;
2 – patent certificate;
3 – the real kind, and samples;
4 – Other (commission processing contract, etc.);
Construction Steel Products Co., Ltd in Wuxi, China (Yi) (Jian)
Verpflichten, Schweißen Verarbeitung Business-Anforderungen:
1 – Bitte geben Zeichnungen (Prozess-Zeichnungen, Fertigungs-Zeichnungen, Teile-Zeichnungen), fügen Sie bitte die Größe und andere Details;
2 – Patent-Zertifikat;
3 – die eigentliche Art, und Proben;
4 – Andere (Kommission Processing-Vertrag, etc.);
1 – 図(プロセス図面、製造図面、部品図面)を提供してください、サイズ、その他の詳細を記載してください。
2 – 特許証明書;
3 – 本当の種類、およびサンプル。
4 – その他(委託処理契約書等);
무석 (无锡), 중국 건설 철강 제품 유한 공사 (이순신) (지앤)
, 용접 처리 비즈니스 요구 사항 용접을 수행 :
1 – 도면 (공정 도면, 생산 도면, 부품 도면) 제공하십시오, 크기 및 기타 세부 사항을 포함시켜주십시오;
2 – 특허 증서;
3 – 진짜 친절하고 샘플;
4 – 기타 (위탁 가공 계약 등);
材质:国产 不锈钢,304;
材質:國產 不銹鋼,304;
中國無錫一(Yi)建(Jian)鋼品有限公司擁有數控機床5台,等離子切割機1台,氬焊機3台,鑽床2台,200 噸油壓機1台,銑管機1台,切管機1台,打磨機2台;
陳總經理,兼駐上海聯絡處 主任;
中国无锡 一(Yi)建(Jian)钢品有限公司 拥有数控机床 5台,等离子切割机 1台,氩焊机 3台,钻床 2台,200 吨油压机 1台,铣管机 1台,切管机 1台,打磨机 2台;
承接 空气过滤器 不锈钢罩壳 加工业务;
陈总经理,兼驻上海联络处 主任;
Wuxi, China (Yi) construction (Jian) ​​Steel Products Co., Ltd. has CNC machine tools, plasma cutting machine, argon welding machine 3 sets, drilling of 2 200 t hydraulic press, milling machine, pipe cutting machine, grinding machine;
Not yet available: polishing machinery and equipment;
Undertake air filter stainless steel casing processing operations;
Chen, general manager of the Liaison Office in Shanghai;
Wuxi, China (Yi) built (Jian) Steel Products Co., Ltd. have a CNC machine 5 sets, plasma cutting machine, argon welding machine 3 sets, 2bed, 1 200 t hydraulic press, milling machine, pipe cutting machine1, grinding machines;
Not yet available: polishing machinery and equipment;
Undertake air filter stainless steel casing processing operations;
Chen, general manager ofthe Liaison Office in Shanghai;
中國無錫一(Yi)建(Jian)鋼品有限公司擁有數控機床5台,等離子切割機1台,氬焊機3台,佔床2台,200 噸油壓機1台,銑管機1台,切管機1台,打磨機2台;
陳總經理,兼駐上海聯絡處 主任;
Wuxi, China (Yi) Bau (Jian) SteelProducts Co., Ltdverfügt über CNC-Werkzeugmaschinen-, Plasma-Schneidanlage, Argon Schweißgerät 3 Sätze, 2 Betten, 1 200 t Hydraulikpresse, Fräsmaschine, geschnitten Rohr-Maschine,Schleifmaschine 2;
Noch nicht verfügbar: Polieren Maschinen und Anlagen;
Verpflichten Luftfilter Edelstahlgehäuse Verarbeitung;
Chen,General Manager desLiaison Office in Shanghai;
Wuxi, en Chine (Yi) de la construction (Jian) Steel Products Co., Ltd a des machines-outils à commande numérique, machines de découpe au plasma d’argon, de machine à souder 3 sets, 2 chambres, 1 200 t presses hydrauliques, machines à fraiser, couper Machine tube, rectifieuse 2;
Pas encore disponible: machines de polissage et de l’équipement;
Entreprendre le filtre à air en acier inoxydable boîtier opérations de traitement;
Chen, directeur général du Bureau de liaison à Shanghai;
Wuxi, China (Yi) construcción (Jian) Productos de acero Co., Ltd. tiene herramientas CNC, máquina de corte por plasma de argón, la máquina de soldar 3 juegos, 2 dormitorios, 1 200 t de prensa hidráulica, máquinas de fresado, corte máquina tubo, máquina de trituración en 2;
Aún no está disponible: Máquinas de pulir y equipo;
Llevar a cabo el filtro de aire caja de acero inoxidable operaciones de perfeccionamiento;
Chen, gerente general de la Oficina de Enlace en Shanghai;
ووشى، والصين (يي) البناء (جيان) المنتجات الفولاذية المحدودة لديها أدوات آلة التصنيع باستخدام الحاسب الآلي، آلة قطع البلازما، آلة لحام الارجون 3 مجموعات، 2 سرير، اضغط على 1 ر 200 الهيدروليكية، وآلة طحن، قطع آلة أنبوب، آلة طحن (2)؛
لم تتوفر بعد: آلات تلميع والمعدات؛
تتعهد الهواء الفولاذ المقاوم للصدأ مرشح غلاف عمليات التجهيز؛
تشن، المدير العام لمكتب الاتصال في شنغهاي؛
무석 (无锡), 중국 (이순신)이 (지앤) 스틸 제품 유한 회사는 CNC (컴퓨터 수치 제어) 공작 기계, 플라즈마 절단기, 아르곤 용접기 3 세트, ​​2 베드, 1 200t 유압 프레스, 밀링기계, 가지고 절단 공사 튜브 기계, 기계 2 연삭;
아직 가능 : 연마 기계 및 장비;
처리 작업을 케이싱 에어 필터 스테인리스를 수행;
첸, 상해의 연락 사무소의 제너럴 매니저;

(Buddhist community) Chen, vice president of China Shijiazhuang, Tzu Chi Hospital, Chief Investment Ministry of Minister to welcome domestic and overseas investors to join to create and hospitals to apply for!
(佛教界)中国石家庄慈济医院陈副院长,兼 招商引资部 陈部长 欢迎海内外投资商加盟创建分医院申请!
電子郵箱女性百萬富豪們社交圈) ; (億萬富豪們的慾望,夢想);億萬富豪們團隊;億萬富豪們團體)億萬富豪們社交圈); (直升飛機購買者圈;直升機購買者圈) ; (female millionaires in their social circle); (billionaires who desires, dreams); (billionaires team; the billionaires groups) (billionaires social circle); (helicopter purchase ring; helicopter buyers circle);女性百万富豪们社交圈) ; (亿万富豪们的欲望,梦想);亿万富豪们团队;亿万富豪们团体)亿万富豪们社交圈); (直升飞机购买者圈;直升机购买者圈) ;
(美國)Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.
(美利堅合眾國)Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.
Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.(美利堅合眾國)
Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.(美國)
中国无锡(太湖之畔)(Yi)一(Jian)建钢品有限公司,(CEO Mr.Geoorge S.CHEN) 陈 总经理承接 空气过滤器 以及 不锈钢罩壳加工,生产能力:5,000套、每批;欢迎来样品,图纸等,谢谢;
Procurement of hot rolled steel sheet, thickness: 8; 10; 12; 14; 16; 18; manganese steel; general steel plate, thickness: 25; 28; 30; 35; total: 1400 t -20 000 tons per month; yearsThe required number :30000-50 thousand tons; (Wuxi) of delivery;
Beschaffung von warmgewalzten Stahlblech, Stärke: 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, Mangan-Stahl, allgemeine Stahlblech, Dicke: 25, 28, 30, 35, Gesamt: 1400 t -20 000 Tonnen pro Monat, Jahr Die erforderliche Anzahl :30000-50000 Tonnen; (Wuxi) der Lieferung;
열연 강판, 두께 조달 : 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 망간강, 일반 강판, 두께 : 25, 28, 30, 35, 총 : 매월 1천4백톤 -20 000t; 년필요한 번호 :30000-5만t, (무석) 인도
上海大學生,男孩(1991.’- )徵婚,生肖,屬羊,1.85 米(身高),中國國籍,英語系,愛好:籃球,游泳,電影評論,讀文藝書,家庭經濟良好;
尋覓:門當戶對,歐美,澳洲各國首都國籍(北京人除外),或者,大城市人,如,上海,紐約,華盛頓,悉尼,洛杉磯,倫敦,巴黎,柏林等地人,需要女孩家有二套以上房產,家庭好的女孩,外向型(性格),她必须没有结婚历史,她必须没有恋爱历史。She must not marry history, she must not love history.無婚史,無戀愛史。。 。 。 ;
上海大学生,男孩(1991.’- )征婚,生肖,属羊,1.85 米(身高),中国国籍,英语系,爱好:篮球,游泳,电影评论,读文艺书,家庭经济良好;
寻觅:门当户对,欧美,澳洲各国首都国籍(北京人除外),或者,大城市人,如,上海,纽约,华盛顿,悉尼,洛杉矶,伦敦,巴黎,柏林等地人,需要女孩家有二套以上房产,家庭好的女孩,外向型(性格),她必须没有结婚历史,她必须没有恋爱历史。She must not marry history, she must not love history.無婚史,無戀愛史。。。。;
Shanghai students, boys (1991 ‘-) Marriage, zodiac, the Sheep, 1.85 m (height), the Chinese nationality, Department of English Hobbies: basketball, swimming, movie reviews, reading literary books, household economy;
Looking for: good match, Europe and the United States, the nationality of the Australian capitals (except Beijing), or the big cities, such as Shanghai, New York, Washington, Sydney, Los Angeles, London, Paris, Berlin, people need the girl’s home more than two sets real estate, a good family girl, export-oriented (character), . . . ;
Please provide the growth photos, contact; family background;

Étudiants de Shanghai, les garçons (1991 ‘-) Mariage, zodiaque, le mouton, de 1,85 m (hauteur), la nationalité chinoise, Département d’anglais Loisirs: basket-ball, la natation, des critiques de films, lire des livres littéraires, de l’économie domestique;
Vous cherchez: bon match, en Europe et aux Etats-Unis, la nationalité des capitales australiennes (à l’exception de Beijing), ou les grandes villes, comme Shanghai, New York, Washington, Sydney, Los Angeles, Londres, Paris, Berlin, les gens ont besoin à domicile de la jeune fille de plus de deux ensembles immobilier, une jeune fille de bonne famille, orientée vers l’exportation (caractère), une vierge. . . ;
S’il vous plaît fournir les photos de croissance, de contact; les antécédents familiaux;
Good match new solution
1 – the economy, the perfect match;
2 – character, the perfect match;
3 – temper, good match;
4 – the concept, the perfect match;
5 – values​​, good match;
6 – love the history, good match;
7 – the emotional history of good match;
8 – on the language habits, perfect match;
– Family background, perfect match;
10 – work location, the perfect match (near the well);
11 – the image height, the perfect match;
12 – Education, perfect match;
13 – hobbies, perfect match;
14 – fun entertainment, perfect match;
15 – eating habits, good match;
16 – on the place of origin, the perfect match;
. . . . . . ;. . . . . .
。 。 。 。 。 。 ;。 。 。 。 。 。




Waste plastics, processed into: gasoline, diesel fuel, burning oil equipment, technology, product vendors;

폐기물 플라스틱,로 처리 : 가솔린, 디젤 연료, 굽기 석유 장비, 기술, 제품 공급 업체;

Kunststoffabfälle, verarbeitet in: Benzin, Diesel, brennendes Öl-Ausrüstung, Technologie-, Produkt-Anbieter;

Déchets plastiques, transformés en: essence, carburant diesel, de l’équipement de chauffage au mazout, de la technologie, les fournisseurs de produits;

Los residuos plásticos, procesados ​​en: gasolina, combustible diesel, equipos de combustión de petróleo, la tecnología, proveedores de productos;

Waste plastics, processed into: gasoline, diesel, fuel oil equipment, technology, products and vendors;