网络媒体 名片

网络媒体 名片
与传统的音视频设备采用的工作方式不同,网络媒体依赖IT设备开发商们提供的技术和设备来传输、存储和处理音视频信号。

最流行的传统的SDI(串型数字)传输方式,缺乏真正意义上的网络交换特性。需要做大量的工作,才可能利用SDI,创建类似以太网和IP(因特网协议)提供的部分网络功能。所以,视频行业中的网络媒体技术应运而生。

目录

简介
特点
优势
趋势
门户网络媒体
视频网络媒体
汽车网络媒体
新闻网络媒体

搜索引擎网络媒体
网络媒体和传统媒体的区别
传统媒体品牌公关传播的局限性

网络媒体品牌公关传播的网络时代

简介
  一定的组织或个人,在以计算机为核心的各种多媒体交互式数字化信息传输网络上,建立的提供各种新闻与信息服务的相对独立的站点。这些工作方式或概念将使用到网络媒体:   

●直接到磁盘的上载(采集)、编辑或播出。   

●100%兼容的文件传输模式。   

●音视频信号做为数据文件被存储——不是传统的录象带存储方式。   

●WAN和LAN②的网络连接,使用以太网、光纤通道、SONE/SDH及相应的交换机等IT技术的媒体传输的路由分配。   

●网络音视频系统的组成要素——IT与传统音视频设备的衔接。   

●上载端口、编辑工作站、数据服务器、高速缓存设备、播出端口、代理素材工作站、音视频工作站等。   

上面的配置,在宏观上,展示了IT技术是如何做为核心技术被集成进音视频处理领域的。它的工作原理是:上载和输出都使用标准的传统音视频模式;其他的环节的处理,使用IT技术。

特点
  互联网被称为继报纸、广播、电视三大传统媒体之后的“第四媒体”。基于互联网的网络媒体集三大传统媒体的诸多优势为一体,是跨媒体的数字化媒体。网络媒体新闻传播,除具有三大传统媒体新闻传播的“共性”特点之外,还具有鲜明的“个性”特点,主要有:   

一、即时性;   二、海量性;   三、全球性;   四、互动性;   五、多媒体性;   六、新媒体特性。

优势
  传统视频与网络技术结合的六大主要原因:   

●快速数据存取——网络媒体技术可以让本地和远程的用户迅速地采集、编辑、浏览、播出音视频素材,通过直接到磁盘的模式或文件传输模式,媒体资产能够迅速地被编辑节点应用。   

●很少或不使用磁带工作方式——音视频媒体资产都存放在磁盘上(可以是近线或离线的存储设备),或通过光盘库和磁带库的机械手,来实现资产的存取。基于当前的需要,便携式录象机的录像带在今后数年内,可能还要扮演主要的存储角色,直到基于磁盘或光盘的硬盘摄像机成熟。   

●发布、发行工作流程——在这方面媒体文件有巨大的优势。过去,传统设备受物理和地理条件限制的状况被彻底改变。通过LAN和WAN的网络连接,我们可以创建虚拟的设备环境。你可以想像这样的工作方式:在东京,上载素材;在纽约,完成编辑;在伦敦,进行播出。这种工作流程不是梦想。许多这样的网络系统,已经投入实际应用,并提供着相同或更强大的功能。   

●在线和离线的海量硬盘存储技术,将始终推动着视频行业的发展。此外,即便不将某种特定的音视频格式的媒体类型(例如,D1和D5格式)用于存档处理,媒体操作的选择,也被新的存储技术扩展了。用户可以将视频,做为数据存储,也可以选择任何文件格式的存储方式(如,DVD盘片、数据流磁带、长期的离线硬盘存储等等)。   

●媒体资产管理——资产的分类、浏览、查询和投入使用。有大量的程序,可以实现这些功能,IT的管理模式使得MAM(媒体资产管理)解决方案在多种模式下,得到实现。   

●IT技术框架的基本要素——涉及许多设备的性能和成本等内容。   

将IT技术应用到广播电视播出及后期制作领域有什么好处呢?   

这里,有三条重要的曲线,可以阐明:我们从中所获得的利益。   

1、以太网络、光纤通道、交换机和存储设备的成本下降曲线(趋势):   

a、到2003年,普通LAN网的每个节点,成本为30美元。   

b、IP路由器的成本和性能,随时得到改善。   

c、硬盘驱动器的单位GB成本,大约达到1美元/GB。到2003年,已经有了300GB的海量硬盘。一个带有8个硬盘的小阵列,将能够以8MB/秒的压缩比,装载300部电影。存储容量的提高,是视频技术向IT领域过度的一个巨大的推动力。   

2、网络性能的上升曲线(趋势)。   

a、 到2003年,千兆交换机,已经可以处理每秒10Gb数据,千兆以太网,已经随处可见。光纤通道的带宽,已经达到2Gb/秒。   

b、摩尔定律指出,许多电子产品,每隔大约18个月,性能就会翻番。这为视频行业媒体处理能力的发展,带来了光明的前景。   

3、网络互通的扩展曲线(趋势)。   

a、 以太网和WAN网的连接,比比皆是。乡镇、大都市和国际间,建立了灵活的网络连接。DSL和调制解调器,分别在低速终端和高速终端(SONET/SDHOC-768,提供40Gb/秒的传输率)上,得到应用。   

b、Metcalf定律曾经预言:节点的网络性能与节点的数量的平方根,成比例关系,所以,连接的节点越多越好的说法,显然是个骗局。   

网络高速连通的性能   

使用不同波长的光纤多路分割技术,朗讯公司的和贝尔实验室的研究人员发现:WDM光收发机能够在一组标准光纤中,以大约40000Gb/秒的速率传输数据。如果使用1000种不同波长的光信号,每个光信号,可以承载一组OC-768的数据,他们估计:每组标准光纤都可以达到40Tb/秒的天文数字的传输率。   

让我们假设:我们已经将大量的电影和节目,以4Mb/秒的码流编码为MPEG格式的媒体文件。在这个码流下,一个单独的光纤,可以同时传输一千万个不同的节目。因为,一组光缆中,通常可以装载200多条标准的光纤,所以,一条蛇型电缆,能够为2亿家庭服务,每个家庭都可以接受单独的节目。哇!多么多的频道,多么少的用户啊。惊讶吗?是的,而且,明天的技术,保证比现在拥有更大的带宽。这条双曲线(用户和网络技术的优势,极大地改变。   

让IP在实时方式下工作   

对于 IT网络技术的最多的批评,是它缺乏真正的同步传输功能(就象普通的串型数字连接那样,SDI 259M)。许多人吵闹:“ IT不是为视频准备的大餐。”公平地说,IT,的确不是专门为视频设计的,但,能够通过一种合理的方式,将其转换为视频的工具,满足那些视频开发商们的诸多要求。确实,在许多场合,SDI是人们的首选连接方式,但是,现在越来越多的普及的视频软件,已经能够移植到IT的技术框架内。

什么样的应用软件可以使用IT的技术呢?

配置2展示了这些应用程序的分类。   

能够与IT友好结合的视频应用领域   ●音视频采集/播出   ●媒体素材的实时处理——特技、划像、合成等   ●编辑工作站,代理素材的浏览   ●存储系统,数据库存档   ●容错系统——NSPOF   ●体育新闻节目的现场直播   ●摄像机的连接   ●同步、实时交换   配置2SDI在需要精确到帧的素材同步交换场合,占据着统治地位。使用以太网来承载摄象机的视频素材是可能的,但,往往得不到应有的效果。因此,在可以预测的将来,SDI技术(包括它的连接),仍将在现场直播等领域占主导地位。但,另一方面,目前,有许多场合,已经可以应用IT的产品和技术。   

在那些IT产品被应用的场合,视频系统的设计者需要什么特殊的IT技术规格吗?是否有一个捷径,可以方便地用IT技术满足我们视频工作者的需求。答案就是,正确地使用数据缓存。通过正确设置LAN或WAN网络环节中,音视频数据节点的缓存数量和容量,可以消除硬盘、IP的路由器,数据服务器和其它网络资源的缓存引起的问题。缓存,一方面是我们的朋友,另一方面是我们的敌人。缓存,增加了信号的延迟,在许多音视频设备中,这种延迟需要被计量,并需要尽可能消除。所以,只有通过明智地设置缓存的的大小,和选择消除缓存影响的方法,IT产品才可以实时、没有错误地传输和处理音视频数据。当然,管理缓存,是设备和它们的制造商的工作,最终,用户并不需要知道缓存的存在。

配置3展示了三种最重要的缓存。   

让我们称这些缓存,为向后预览缓存,环绕预览缓存和向前预览缓存。   

让IT/IP实时的工作   

配置3,让我们来分析每一种缓存的使用特性,前提是,假设在所有的情况下,缓存都不会溢出或饱和。配置3中的系统,是一个简单地上载(采集)到存储设备、离线编辑和从存储设备直接播出的网络结构。它是一个基于NAS的网络结构,但,对它的分析的原理,同样适用基于SAN的网络结构。NAS和SAN结构的最佳结合点,将在本文的后面章节讨论。向前预览缓存,存放着最新被采集的音视频数据,这些数据将被写到硬盘介质上。这个缓存,象其他两个缓存一样,在使用上,是有弹性的。当缓存的一部分,正在以恒定的速率(通过SDI采集视频)被填充时,另一部,正在排空,以一种略微不规律的速率,向磁盘阵列上写数据。只要缓存没有枯竭或溢出,我们就一定能够稳定地,将所有输入的数据,存放到存储设备上。这种缓存存放的数据,是比输入信号稍微晚些或在其后面的数据,所以,叫向后预览缓存(置后缓存),它帮我们消除了磁盘读写时的不规律数据传输与SDI输入时的恒定数据传输的矛盾。   

环绕预览缓存能够消除编辑中,因为硬盘不规律的读写产生的数据延迟。许多非线性编辑设备,都支持对时间线的扫划功能。这种在时间指针附近,来回跳跃逐帧浏览的功能,就是依靠本地缓存来完成的。想象一下,如果每次扫划,都直接从硬盘中调用这些帧画面,用户一定会感觉到时间的延迟。这样的延迟,在实际工作中,是不应被感觉到的,所以,需要本地的缓存,来存放硬盘读写的一些数据。当一台或多台编辑终端,通过WAN网连接存储设备时,连接环节的等待,将变得让人无法忍受,因此,正确地使用缓存,来缓解这种等待,成为非常重要的一项工作。   

视频信号的播出设备需要向前预览缓存。这种缓存会预先按一定的顺序读取几秒钟的音视频素材,然后,在根据播出指令从缓存中以平稳的速率播出节目。这种缓存的工作方式,类似于向后预览缓存。缓存中的数据队列,就象是传统录象机上进行的预卷操作。缓存中,存放着即将输出的数据,所以,称之为向前预览缓存名符其实。此外,在通过以太网使用TCP/IP协议的工作环境中,向前预览缓存,可以很好地保证数据传输的质量。   

在普通的上载——编辑——播出工作流程中,配置3所代表的,是一种性能非常突出的实用结构。但,如果对上载和播出,有非常高的时效要求,那么,整个系统数据吞吐的延迟性,将限制一些设备的使用。所以,在以IT技术为骨干音视频系统中,缓存的存在,是不可避免的。很幸运,这种基于IT的系统,所具备的广泛的优势,要远远胜过缓存带来的问题。   

为了获得更高的性能和保证更高的稳定性,开发了一种缓存和带宽的管理协议,称之为媒体资产服务协议。每一个连接NAS存储设备的客户端节点(例如,配置3中的上载、编辑、播出节点)都使用MAS协议。MAS协议,鼓励每个客户端节点,都成为网络环境中的良好“市民”,让它们不会消耗比分配给它们的网络资源和带宽资源更多的资源。另外,MAS也会根据优先次序,来处理系统带宽资源的分配。例如,为了让一个播出节点,能够实时播出音视频素材,就需要保障它有足够的带宽资源,而相应的,另一个从事后台文件传输工作的节点,就要让位给播出节点,分配给它的带宽资源就少多了。通过MAS的管理,良好的网络节点将有助于整个系统的稳定性和性能的提高。

趋势
  2011年1月19日,中国互联网络信息中心(CNNIC)在京发布了《 第27次中国互联网络发展状况统计报告》(以下简称《报告》)。   《报告》显示,截至2010年12月底,中国网民规模达到4.57亿,较2009年底,增加7330万人;中国手机网民规模达3.03亿,依然是拉动中国总体网民规模攀升的主要动力,但用户手机网民增幅,较2009年趋缓;最引人注目的是,网络购物用户,年增长48.6%,是用户增长最快的应用,预示着更多的经济活动步入互联网时代。   

网民规模突破4.5亿大关, 上网设备呈多元化发展   

《 报告》显示,截至2010年12月底,中国网民规模突破4.5亿大关,达到4.57亿,较2009年底,增加7330万人;互联网普及率攀升至34.3%,较2009年提高5.4个百分点。中国手机网民规模达3.03亿,较2009年底,增加6930万人。手机网民在总体网民中的比例进一步提高,从2009年末的60.8%提升至66.2%。手机网民较传统互联网网民增幅更大,依然构成拉动中国总体网民规模攀升的主要动力。   

中国网民上网设备多样化发展,笔记本电脑上网使用率增速最大。《报告》显示,2010年,网民使用台式电脑、手机和笔记本电脑上网的占比,分别为78.4%、66.2%和45.7%,与2009年相比,笔记本电脑上网使用率,上升最快,增加了15个百分点,手机和台式电脑上网使用率,分别增加5.4%和5%。   

商务应用持续“领跑”网络, 网络娱乐渐入平稳期   

当前,娱乐类应用在中国网民网络应用中,呈现下滑势趋势,电子商务类互联网应用,成为中国互联网经济发展最快、最迅速的主力军。   《报告》显示,网络购物用户年增长48.6%,是用户增长最快的应用,网上支付和网上银行,以45.8%和48.2%的年增长率,远远超过其他类网络应用,中国更多的经济活动正在加速步入互联网时代。   

与电子商务类应用规模和模式的快速增长,网络娱乐进入相对平稳的发展期。《报告》显示,2010年,大部分娱乐类应用渗透率均已下滑,网络音乐、网络游戏和网络视频的用户渗透率,分别下降4.2%、2.4%和0.4%,用户规模增幅相对较小。   

中,小企业试水“网络营销” ,基础网络安全不容忽视   

当前,中小企业纷纷试水“网络营销”。《报告》显示,中小企业互联网接入比例达92.7%,规模较大的企业互联网接入比例,更是接近100%。43%的中国企业,拥有独立网站或在电子商务平台建立网店;57.2%的企业,利用互联网与客户沟通,为客户提供咨询服务;中,小企业电子商务/网络营销应用水平为42.1%,其中,电子邮件以21.3%的比例成为“最普遍的互联网营销方式”。   

随着政府对网络安全问题集中治理力度的不断加大,网络安全问题有了明显的改善,形势依旧严峻,问题仍不容忽视。《报告》显示,2010年,遇到过病毒或木马攻击的网民比例,为45.8%;有过账号或密码被盗经历的网民,占21.8%。   

《报告》认为,随着国家域名的网络安全保障机制进一步完善,网络与信息安全事件的发现和处置能力大大增强。但是,防范和杜绝网络安全问题,消除网络失信行为,更需要权威第三方机构的介入,从网站身份核验、数据传输加密等层面,形成“打击防范并举、注重防范”的格局,帮助网民和网站建立起各类综合防范机制。

门户网络媒体
  新浪、搜狐、腾讯、网易、凤凰、新华。
视频网络媒体
  央视网 奇艺网、乐视网、搜狐高清、优酷、酷六、土豆网。
汽车网络媒体
  搜狐汽车、汽车之家、车168、商丘网络车市、易车网、太平洋汽车网、名车志中文网、芜湖汽车网。
新闻网络媒体
  环球网、新华网、搜狐新闻网、网易新闻网。
搜索引擎网络媒体
  Google、百度、搜狗、搜搜。

网络媒体和传统媒体的区别
传统媒体品牌公关传播的局限性
  由于时代的局限性,在品牌传统的品牌公关传播职能中,电视、报纸、杂志等大众传统媒体,一直是品牌公关传播的主要方向,其所主要的职能,仅仅是进行品牌的公关传播,遇到危机,就是简单粗暴的封杀、威胁,以此,来避免品牌被传播出负面的危机等方面的消息、新闻等,对于危机造成的本质原因,藐视消费者这个问题,从来没有去认真的反省、承担责任及改进;从过去的品牌公关传播的时代来看,品牌公关传播职能极为简单,投投广告、发发软文、炒作企业经营者都是品牌公关传播部门所信手拈来就能做的,遇到品牌被反映出问题就进行或者联合媒体进行新闻封杀,或威胁媒体,或用上层高级官员行政干预等手段,进行公关传播危机处理,对于信息相对落后、媒体传播方式单一的年代,此类方式,见效快、花费少,既可以推卸品牌自身造成的责任,又可以顺势进行再传播;但,此类公关传播方式,对于品牌美誉度能造成极大的损伤,在产品供不用求、消费者还处于消费弱势的时代,品牌的此类行为,显示不出危机对于品牌美誉度的强大后遗症;如今,消费者越来越理性、信息传播方式多元化后,传统媒体已经很难捂住品牌的质量、服务等问题和消费者声讨的传播行为,仅仅进行传统媒体的公关传播,注定会让品牌危机加速恶化,在危机面前品牌危机公关传播的职能,就愈加显得了无能为力了,其品牌危机对于品牌美誉度造成的影响也就更大。
网络媒体品牌公关传播的网络时代
  目前,中国互联网普及率为16%左右,低于世界水平的19.1%;中国网民数却达2.21亿人,超过美国,中国已成为全球最大的互联网市场,网络边际效应将逐步加速、凸出显现。网络媒体具有鲜明的平等性、传播速度快、复制性强及不可控制性;其不受地域、民族、阶级和历史文化传统的局限性,使任何人通过网络媒体都可以表达自己的观点、立场,更易引起其他人的共鸣与非理性传播;品牌公关传播处在以前时代的落后思维方式中,传统媒体满足不了消费者的传播需求,网络投投广告进行品牌传播部门可以;但是,对于网络危机公关传播,品牌像拿到一个烫手的山芋,拿着很烫手,不拿,却又出现网络危机,到底该不该拿?   

品牌大多选择了逃避,网络媒体被忽视是众多品牌造成网络危机的本质原因;品牌更应该拿住网络媒体这个品牌传播的另一核。从品牌营销的角度来看,任何一个消费者都应该被重视,但在实际的品牌营销中,由品牌产品质量、服务、传播所造成的品牌危机,到底是怎么样被网络传播出来的呢?品牌推卸责任、不敢面对问题、霸王式的处理方式,和对大众传统媒体的公关传播,使消费者在传统大众媒体失去基本话语权,无法解决问题的消费者,只能到网络这个大世界缓解一些心理愤怒、需求共鸣,网络的无距离感、传播快速性和更易产生共鸣,便产生一个声讨、抵制群体,对于品牌来说危机,像是一夜之间就出现了,其实,是品牌不注意自身的 传播和品牌美誉度塑造,一味注重知名度的盲目扩大,忽视消费者,造成的危机恶果。

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Network media card
With traditional audio and video equipment used in different ways, and online media rely on the technology and equipment provided by the developers of IT equipment to the transmission, storage and processing of audio and video signals.

The most popular traditional SDI (serial digital) transmission, the lack of true sense of the network switching feature. Need to do a lot of work is possible, using the SDI to create part of the network like Ethernet and IP (Internet Protocol). Therefore, network media technology in the video industry came into being.

Directory

Introduction
Feature
Superiority
Trend
Portal network media
Video network media
Car online media
News online media

Search engine online media
The difference between network media and traditional media
The limitations of traditional media, brand public relations communication

The spread of the Internet age of online media brand PR

Introduction
Organization or individual, relatively independent of the site in the computer as the core of a variety of multimedia interactive digital information transmission network, established to provide a variety of news and information service. These work methods or concepts will be used to network media:

(Acquisition), edit, or broadcast to upload directly to disk.

● 100% compatible file transfer mode.

Audio and video signals as data files are stored – is not a traditional video with storage mode.

● WAN and LAN ② The network connection, using Ethernet, Fibre Channel, SONE / SDH and the corresponding switches and other IT media transmission route distribution.

● network audio and video elements – the convergence of IT and traditional audio and video equipment.

● port to upload, edit workstation, data server, the cache device, the broadcast port, the proxy material workstations, audio and video workstations.

The above configuration, at the macro level, showing how IT technology as a core technology to be integrated into the audio and video processing field. How it works: upload and output using standard traditional audio and video mode; other aspects of the processing, use of IT technology.

Feature
Internet is known as the three traditional media of newspapers, radio, television, after the fourth media “. Based on the many advantages of the network of the Internet media set three traditional media as a whole, is a cross-media digital media. The news spread of the Internet media, in addition to the “common” features three traditional media of news dissemination, also has a distinct “personality” characteristics, there are:

Instant;, Mass; global; four interactive; five, multimedia;, new media features.

Superiority
Traditional video and network technology combined with the six main reasons:

● fast data access – Internet media technology allows local and remote users to quickly capture, edit, browse, broadcasting audio and video material, media assets can quickly be edited directly to disk mode or file transfer mode, node applications.

● little or do not use tape – audio and video media assets are stored on disk (can be a near-line or offline storage device), or optical disk library and tape library robot to access assets. Based on the current needs of the portable VCR tape in the next few years may also play a major storage role, until the disk or CD-ROM-based hard disk drive camcorder mature.

● release, distribution workflow – media file has a huge advantage in this regard. In the past, traditional equipment by the physical and geographical conditions the situation is completely changed. Through the LAN and WAN network connectivity, we can create a virtual device environment. You can imagine this kind of work: In Tokyo, the uploaded material; in New York, finished editing; in London, broadcast. This workflow is not a dream. Many of these network systems, has been put into practical application, and provide the same or greater functionality.

● online and offline mass disk storage technology, will always promote the development of video industry. In addition, even if not to a particular audio and video formats, media types (for example, D1 and D5 format) for archive processing, choice of media operations, a new storage technology has also been extended. Video as data storage, but also can select the storage of any file format (such as DVD disc, tape data stream, the long-term off-line disk storage, etc.).

● Media Asset Management – the asset classification, browsing, query and put into use. There are a lot of programs, all these functions, IT management mode makes the MAM (media asset management) solutions to be achieved in a variety of mode.

The basic elements of the IT technical framework – involving a lot of equipment performance and cost.

IT technology is applied to radio and television broadcast and post-production field what good is it?

Here, there are three important curves, to clarify: we get from interests.

1, Ethernet, Fibre Channel switches and storage devices, the cost reduction curve (trend):

2003, each node of the ordinary LAN network, the cost is $ 30.

b, IP router cost and performance, at any time to improve.

c-per-GB hard drive costs about $ 1 / GB. 2003, already have a 300GB hard mass. One with 8 small hard drive arrays, will be able to 8MB / s, compression ratio, loading 300 film. The improvement of storage capacity, video technology to the IT field over a great impetus.

2, the increase in network performance curve (trend).

a, 2003, gigabit switch, can already handle 10Gb of data per second, Gigabit Ethernet, has been everywhere. Bandwidth of Fibre Channel, 2Gb / s.

b, Moore’s Law, many electronic products, approximately every 18 months, the performance will be doubled. The development of media processing capabilities of the video industry, bringing a bright future.

3, the network interoperability extension curve (trend).

a, Ethernet and WAN connections, everywhere. Towns, cities and international, to establish a flexible network connectivity. DSL and modem, respectively, in the low-speed terminals and high-speed terminal (SONET/SDHOC-768 40Gb / sec transfer rate), to be applied.

predicted b, Metcalf,’s law: the square root of the nodes of the network performance and the number of nodes is proportional to the relationship between connected nodes, the better the argument is obviously a hoax.

The performance of high-speed network connectivity

Using different wavelengths of optical fiber multiple segmentation techniques, Lucent and Bell Labs researchers found that: the WDM optical transceiver to the data in a set of standard fiber, about 40000Gb / sec transmission rate. If you use 1,000 different wavelengths of light signals, each optical signal can carry a set of OC-768 data, they estimated that: each standard fiber can reach to 40Tb / sec transfer rate of the astronomical figures.

Let us assume that: We have a lot of movies and programs to 4Mb / s stream encoding for MPEG format media files. Shed in this code, a single optical fiber, ten million different programs can be transmitted simultaneously. Because a group of fiber optic cable, usually you can load more than 200 standard fiber, a snake cable for the 200 million families, each family can receive a separate program. Wow! How many channels, how little user. Surprised? Yes, and tomorrow’s technology, to ensure to have a greater bandwidth than it is now. Hyperbola (the advantages of user and network technology have greatly changed.

IP work in real-time mode

For most of the criticism of the IT network technology, is its lack of real synchronous transmission (as common serial digital connection that the SDI 259M). Many noisy: the feast of the IT is not ready for the video. “Fair to say that IT does not specifically designed for video, but a reasonable manner, convert video tools to meet those video developers have many requirements. Indeed, on many occasions, SDI is the preferred connection of the people, but now more and more popular video software, has been able to transplant to within the framework of IT technology.

What kind of applications you can use IT technology?

Configuration 2 shows the classification of these applications.

Video applications, and IT-friendly combination ● audio and video capture / playout ● real-time processing of media material – special effects, wipes, synthetic editing workstation, the browser of the proxy material ● storage system, database archiving fault-tolerant systems – NSPOF ● sports news program broadcast live ● connection of the camera synchronization, real-time exchange the configuration 2SDI demand frame accurate material simultaneous exchange of occasions dominates. The video footage to use Ethernet to carry the camera is possible, but often fail to get the desired effect. Therefore, in the predictable future, the SDI technology (including its connection), will continue in areas such as live broadcast of the dominant. But, on the other hand, at present, there are many occasions, can be applied to IT products and technologies.

Occasions in those applications of IT products, video system designers need any special IT technical specifications? Is there a shortcut, you can easily use the IT technology to meet the needs of our video workers. The answer is, the correct use of the data cache. Properly set up a LAN or WAN network links, the number and capacity of the node’s cache of audio and video data, can eliminate the hard drive, IP router, the data server and other network resources, cache problems caused. Cache, on the one hand, our friends, on the other hand is our enemy. Cache, signal delay, this delay needs to be measured at many audio and video equipment, and the need to eliminate as much as possible. Therefore, it is only wise to set the cache size and selection method to eliminate cache impact of IT products to real-time, no error transmission and processing of audio and video data. Manages the cache, of course, is the work of the equipment and their manufacturers, end users do not need to know the existence of the cache.

Configuration 3 shows the three most important cache.

We call these cache back preview cache, surround preview cache and forward preview cache.

IT / IP real-time

Configuration 3, let us analyze the use of features of each cache, the premise is to assume that in all cases, the cache will not overflow or saturation. Configuration 3 system, is a simple upload (collection) to a storage device, offline editing, and broadcast network structure directly from the storage device. It is a NAS-based network structure, but the principle of its analysis, the same applies to SAN-based network architecture. NAS and SAN architecture, the best combination of points will be discussed in later chapters in this article. Forward preview cache store with the latest audio and video data collected, these data will be written to the hard disk media. This cache, like the other two cache in use, is flexible. When part of the cache, is a constant rate (via SDI capture video) been filled, another is emptying, with a slightly irregular rate and write data to the disk array. As long as the cache is not depleted or overflow, we will be able to stable, all the input data stored in the storage device. This cache stored data than the input signal slightly later or in its data, so called backward preview cache (set cache), which help us to eliminate irregular when the disk read and write data transfer SDI input constant data transmission conflicts.

Surround preview cache to eliminate editing, hard is not the law to read and write data delay. Many non-linear editing equipment, and support the sweeping program timeline. This time the pointer near the back and forth jumping frame by frame browsing function is to rely on the local cache. Imagine if every time a sweep program, directly from the hard to call these frames, the user will feel the time delay. The delay in the actual work, should not be perceived, therefore, need a local cache to store some of the hard disk read and write data. When one or more editing terminal, through the WAN network to connect storage devices, connected links to wait, will become intolerable, therefore, the proper use of cache to ease the wait to become a very important one .

The video signal broadcast equipment needs to move preview cache. This cache pre-read a certain order of a few seconds of audio and video material, and then, according to broadcast instructions from the cache at a steady rate broadcast. This cache works, similar to the backward Preview cache. The data in the cache queue, like a traditional VCR on the pre-volume operation. Cache, the stored data to be exported, so called forward preview cache truly. In addition, the working environment via Ethernet using TCP / IP protocol, the forward preview cache and ensure the quality of data transmission.

– Edit – broadcast workflow, set out in the normal configuration 3 on behalf of a performance very practical structure. But, if you upload and broadcast very high timeliness requirements, then the overall system data throughput delay will limit the use of some equipment. Therefore, IT technology is the backbone of the audio and video systems, the existence of the cache, is inevitable. Luckily, this IT-based systems have a wide range of advantages, far better than the cache brought.

In order to achieve higher performance and to ensure greater stability, the development of a caching and bandwidth management protocol, called media asset services agreement. Each client node to connect the NAS storage devices (eg, configuration 3 upload, edit, broadcast node) using the MAS agreement. MAS agreement, to encourage each client node, and have become good in the network environment, “the public”, so they do not consume more resources score rationing their network resources and bandwidth resources. In addition, MAS will be a priority basis, to deal with system bandwidth resources allocation. For example, in order to let a node broadcast, real time broadcast of audio and video material, you need to protect it will have sufficient bandwidth resources, and appropriate, and the other in the nodes of the background file transfers work, it is necessary to make way for the broadcast node assigned to it much less bandwidth resources. MAS management, network nodes will help improve stability and performance of the entire system.

Trend
January 19, 2011, the China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) in Beijing released its 27th China Internet Development Statistics Report “(hereinafter referred to as the” Report “). The “report” shows that as of the end of December 2010, Chinese netizens reached 457 million, compared to the end of 2009, an increase of 7330 million; the scale of China’s mobile phone users reached 303 million, is still the main driving force to pull the rise of China’s overall netizens, but the user’s mobile phone Internet users increase slowed down compared with 2009; most striking is that the users of online shopping, the annual growth of 48.6% is the user of the fastest growing application, indicating that more economic activity into the Internet era.

Internet users exceeded 450 million mark, Internet access, diversified development

The “report” shows that as of the end of December 2010, the size of the Internet users in China exceeded 450 million mark, reached 457 million, compared to the end of 2009, an increase of 7330 million; Internet penetration rose to 34.3 percent, compared with 2009 increased by 5.4 percentage points. The scale of China’s mobile phone users reached 303 million, compared to the end of 2009, an increase of 6930 million. Mobile phone users in the proportion of overall Internet users to further improve to 66.2 percent from 60.8 percent in late 2009. Mobile phone users than traditional Internet users increase, still constitute the main driving force to pull the overall Chinese netizens rose.

Chinese Internet users equipment diversification, notebook computers Internet growth rate of maximum usage. “Report”, 2010, Internet users use the proportion of desktop computers, mobile phones and laptops, respectively, 78.4%, 66.2% and 45.7%, compared with 2009 laptops utilization rate of the fastest rising, an increase of 15 percent, mobile phones and desktop computers, Internet usage, increased by 5.4% and 5% respectively.

Business applications will continue to “lead” networking, networked entertainment, getting into the stable period

Entertainment applications in the Application of Chinese Netizens, showing a trend of decline in potential e-commerce class Internet applications, the Internet economy of the fastest growing most rapidly, the main force. “Report” shows that online shopping users increased by 48.6 percent, is the user of the fastest growing applications, online payment and online banking, the annual growth rate of 45.8% and 48.2%, far more than other types of network applications, China more economic activity is accelerating into the Internet era.

And the rapid growth of the size and mode of e-commerce type applications, networking and entertainment into the relatively stable period of development. The “report” shows that in 2010, most of the entertainment penetration have slipped, online music, online gaming and online video subscriber penetration, respectively, down 4.2%, 2.4% and 0.4% increase in user scale is relatively small.

In small businesses to test the water “network marketing”, the basis of network security can not be ignored

At present, SMEs have to test the water “network marketing”. “Report” shows that Internet access for SMEs amounted to 92.7% of larger companies the proportion of Internet access, it is close to 100%. 43 percent of Chinese enterprises, with an independent Web site or in e-commerce platform for the establishment of shop; 57.2% of enterprises using the Internet to communicate with customers, providing customers with consulting services; level of 42.1% of medium and small business e-commerce / Internet marketing applications Among them, e-mail to the proportion of 21.3% to become the most common Internet marketing methods.

Focus control continuous increase as the government on the issue of network security, network security issues have significantly improved the situation remains grim, the problem still can not be ignored. “Report”, 2010, encountered a virus or Trojan attacks, the proportion of Internet users, 45.8%; account or password theft experienced Internet users, accounting for 21.8%.

The “report” that the national domain name mechanism to further improve network security, network and information security event detection and disposal capabilities are greatly enhanced. However, to prevent and put an end to the issue of network security, eliminate network acts of dishonesty, authoritative third party intervention, from the web site identity verification, data transmission encryption level to form against the prevention of both, focusing on prevention, “the pattern to help Internet users and Web sites establish various types of preventive mechanisms.

Portal network media
Sina, Sohu, Tencent, Netease, Phoenix, Xinhua.
Video network media
Fantastic Art Network CCTV network, music Watch, Sohu and HD, Youku, cool six, Tudou.
Car online media
Sohu car, the car home, car 168, the Shangqiu network automobile market, car net, Pacific Motor cars Chi Chinese network, Wuhu Automotive Network.
News online media
News of World Wide Web, Xinhuanet, Sohu, Netease News.
Search engine online media
Google, Baidu, Sogou, Soso.

The difference between network media and traditional media
The limitations of traditional media, brand public relations communication
Due to limitations of the times in the brand tradition of brand public relations and communications function in the traditional television, newspapers, magazines and other mass media, has been the main direction of the brand of public relations communication, its main functions, only the brand of public relations communication, case to crisis, is simple and brutal censorship, threats, in order to avoid the brand transferred to broadcast a negative crisis, news, etc., for the crisis caused by the nature of reason, contempt for the consumer, never to serious reflection responsibility and improvement; view from the past era of the spread of brand public relations, brand public relations and communications function is extremely simple, and advertising shots, made weak text, speculation business operators are all brand PR Communication and Information Sector will be able to come in handy do encounter the brand reflects the conduct of joint media news block, or the threat of media, or means of the top senior officials of administrative intervention, for the dissemination of public relations crisis management, information is relatively backward, the media forms of a single era, such , quick, cost, either to shirk the responsibility of the brand itself, but also the advantage of the opportunity for re-transmission; However, the mode of transmission of such public relations and brand reputation can cause great damage, without seeking products for consumption is still in the era of the consumer vulnerable to the brand such acts, does not reveal the powerful after-effects of the crisis for the brand reputation; Today, consumers are increasingly rational diversification of information dissemination, traditional media has been difficult to cover your brand issues such as quality, service, and consumers to denounce the spread of behavior, only the dissemination of traditional media, public relations, destined to make the brand crisis has accelerated the deterioration of the functions in the spread of the crisis in front of brand public relations crisis, it appears more helpless, the brand crisis the greater the impact of brand reputation.
The spread of the Internet age of online media brand PR
Currently, China’s Internet penetration rate of around 16%, below the world level of 19.1%; the number of Chinese netizens reached 221 million, surpassing the United States, China has become the world’s largest Internet market, the network marginal effect will gradually accelerate, protruding show . Network media has a distinct equality, spread fast, and copy and strong and can not be controlled; not subject to the limitations of geography, ethnicity, class, and historical and cultural tradition, so that anyone can express their views through online media, the position of more likely to cause other people resonate with the irrational spread; brand of public relations communication in a backward way of thinking of the previous era, the traditional media can not meet the communication needs of consumers, network shots and advertising brand communications department can; However, for network crisis dissemination of public relations, brand like get a hot potato, holding a very hot, do not get, but a network crisis, in the end that should not take?

Brands choose to avoid most of the online media neglected the essential reason for many brands caused by the network crisis; brand should hold another nuclear online media brand communication. Brand marketing point of view, any consumer should be taken seriously, but the actual brand marketing, brand crisis caused by the brand product quality, service, dissemination, in the end is how to network spread out? Brand shirk its responsibility, afraid to face the problem, the approach of the King-style, public relations and traditional media to the general public dissemination, to enable consumers to lose the basic right to speak in the traditional mass media, consumers can not solve the problem, only to a network this large psychological anger alleviate some of the world, demand for resonance, no sense of distance of the network, spread fast and easier to resonate, they generate a denounce, boycott groups, crisis for the brand, such as overnight, there have been, in fact, is the brand not pay attention to their own communication and brand reputation to shape the focus on the well-known blind expansion, ignoring consumers, the crisis caused by evil consequences.

Chinese name automatically translated by Google, and special note
Contact:
http://www.billionairesdesire.com (site value assessment: over a hundred million);
http://www.billionairesParty.com (site value assessment: over a hundred million);
http://www.billionairesGroup.com (site value assessment: over a hundred million);
http://www.helicoptersbuyers.com (site value assessment: over a hundred million);
Chinese name automatically translated by Google, and special note
blonde billionaires empire inc. Chinese translation _ Baidu translation
[Translations] blonde billionaire Empire Co., Ltd.
The results are for reference only translation of
Automatically detect the language translation of the English Translation of Chinese Baidu translation in the translation of the day away
fanyi.baidu.com
Contact:
http://www.billionairesdesire.com (site value assessment: over a hundred million);
http://www.billionairesParty.com (site value assessment: over a hundred million);
http://www.billionairesGroup.com (site value assessment: over a hundred million);
http://www.helicoptersbuyers.com (site value assessment: over a hundred million);
Chinese name automatically translated by Google, and special note

《网络媒体 名片》有一个想法

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    漢語名稱由谷歌自動翻譯,特注
    聯繫人:
    http://www.billionairesdesire.com (網站價值評估:超億元);
    http://www.billionairesParty.com (網站價值評估:超億元);
    http://www.billionairesGroup.com (網站價值評估:超億元);
    http://www.helicoptersbuyers.com (網站價值評估:超億元);
    漢語名稱由谷歌自動翻譯,特注
    blonde billionaires empire inc.的中文翻译_百度翻译
    [翻译结果]金发碧眼的亿万富豪帝国有限公司
    该结果仅供参考翻译更多
    自动检测语言 中译英 英译中 中译日 日译中 百度翻译 收起
    fanyi.baidu.com
    联系人:
    http://www.billionairesdesire.com (网站价值评估:超亿元);
    http://www.billionairesParty.com (网站价值评估:超亿元);
    http://www.billionairesGroup.com (网站价值评估:超亿元);
    http://www.helicoptersbuyers.com (网站价值评估:超亿元);
    汉语名称由谷歌自动翻译,特注
    (United States) Blonde, Billionaires Empire is Inc.
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    (United States) Blonde, Billionaires Empire is Inc.
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    Blonde, Billionaires Empire Inc.Of U.S.
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    The Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.Of the United States of America
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    (美利堅合眾國)Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.
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    (美利堅合眾國)Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.
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    Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.Of 美國
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    (美利坚合众国)Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.
    QQ: 1,779,642,876
    E-Mail: 1779642876@qq.com
    (美利坚合众国)Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.
    QQ: 1,779,642,876
    E-Mail: 1779642876@qq.com
    Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.Of 美国
    QQ: 1,779,642,876
    E-Mail: 1779642876@qq.com
    Blonde Billionaires Empire Inc.Of 美利坚合众国
    QQ: 1,779,642,876
    E-Mail: 1779642876@qq.com
    汉语意译:(美利坚合众国)金发(西洋人,洋人,老外,外国人,女郎,女孩,姑娘,少女,女青年)亿万富豪帝国公司
    漢語意譯:(美利堅合眾國)金發(西洋人,洋人,老外,外國人,女郎,女孩,姑娘,少女,女青年)億萬富豪帝國公司
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    电子邮箱:1779642876@qq.com
    金发碧眼的亿万富翁帝国Inc.Of美国
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    电子邮箱:1779642876@qq.com
    中文意譯:金發碧眼的(西洋人,洋人,外國人,老外,女孩,姑娘,少女,女郎,女青年)億萬富豪帝國Inc.Of 美利堅合眾國
    中文意译:金发碧眼的(西洋人,洋人,外国人,老外,女孩,姑娘,少女,女郎,女青年)亿万富豪帝国Inc.Of 美利坚合众国
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    (美利堅合眾國)金發億萬富翁帝國公司
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    電子郵箱:1779642876@qq.com
    金發碧眼的億萬富翁帝國Inc.Of美國
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    電子郵箱:1779642876@qq.com
    金發碧眼的億萬富翁帝國Inc.Of美利堅合眾國
    QQ:1779642876
    電子郵箱:1779642876@qq.com
    汉语名称由谷歌自动翻译,特注
    (美利堅合眾國)金發(女孩,姑娘,少女,女青年,)億萬富豪帝國公司
    QQ:1779642876
    電子郵箱:1779642876@qq.com
    金發碧眼的(女孩,姑娘,少女)億萬富豪帝國Inc.Of美利堅合眾國
    QQ:1779642876
    電子郵箱:1779642876@qq.com

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