中文名称:电焊 英文名称:electric welding

中文名称:电焊 英文名称:electric welding

定义:利用电能,通过加热加压,使两个或两个以上的焊件熔合为一体的工艺。 应用学科:电力(一级学科);配电与用电(二级学科)
电弧焊的俗称。利用焊条,通过电弧高温融化金属部件需要连接的地方,而实现的一种焊接操作。

拼音
  diànhàn
英译
  electric welding
基本工作原理
  电焊的基本工作原理,是我们通过常用的220V电压或者380V的工业用电,通过电焊机里的减压器,降低了电压,增强了电流,并使电能产生巨大的电弧热量融化钢铁。焊条的融入使钢铁之间的融合性更高。(还有,电焊条的外层的药皮,起了非常大的作用,不信你把药粉敲了看能焊接不)。当然,这种解释是通俗的。
种类
概述
  电焊的种类比较多,目前常用的有以下几种
电弧焊
  电弧焊是目前应用最广泛的焊接方法。它包括有:手弧焊、埋弧焊、钨极气体保护电弧焊、等离子弧焊、熔化极 气体保护焊等。绝大部分电弧焊是以电极与工件之间燃烧的电弧作热源。在形成接头时,可以采用也可以不采用填充金属。所用 的电极是在焊接过程中熔化的焊丝时,叫作熔化极电弧焊,诸如手弧焊、埋弧焊、气体保护电弧焊、管状焊丝电 弧焊等;所用的电极是在焊接过程中不熔化的碳棒或钨棒时,叫作不熔化极电弧焊,诸如钨极氩弧焊、等离子弧 焊等。 相关书籍
  (1)手弧焊   手弧焊是各种电弧焊方法中发展最早、目前仍然应用最广的一种焊接方法。它是以外部涂有涂料的焊条作电极和 填充金属,电弧是在焊条的端部和被焊工件表面之间燃烧。涂料在电弧热作用下一方面可以产生气体以保护电弧 ,另一方面可以产生熔渣覆盖在熔池表面,防止熔化金属与周围气体的相互作用。熔渣的更重要作用是与熔化金 属产生物理化学反应或添加合金元素,改善焊缝金属性能。手弧焊设备简单、轻便,操作灵活。可以应用于维修及装配中的短缝的焊接,特别是可以用于难以达到的部位的 焊接。手弧焊配用相应的焊条可适用于大多数工业用碳钢、不锈钢、铸铁、铜、铝、镍及其合金。   
(2)埋弧焊   埋弧焊是以连续送时的焊丝作为电极和填充金属。焊接时,在焊接区的上面覆盖一层颗粒状焊剂,电弧在焊剂层 下燃烧,将焊丝端部和局部母材熔化,形成焊缝。在电弧热的作用下,上部分焊剂熔化熔渣并与液态金属发生冶金反应。熔渣浮在金属熔池的表面,一方面可以保 护焊缝金属,防止空气的污染,并与熔化金属产生物理化学反应,改善焊缝金属的万分及性能;另一方面还可以 使焊缝金属缓慢泠却。埋弧焊可以采用较大的焊接电流。与手弧焊相比,其最大的优点是焊缝质量好,焊接速度高。因此,它特别适于 焊接大型工件的直缝的环缝。而且多数采用机械化焊接。埋弧焊已广泛用于碳钢、低合金结构钢和不锈钢的焊接。由于熔渣可降低接头冷却速度,故某些高强度结构钢、 高碳钢等也可采用埋弧焊焊接。   (3)钨极气体保护电弧焊   这是一种不熔化极气体保护电弧焊,是利用钨极和工件之间的电弧使金属熔化而形成焊缝的。焊接过程中钨极不 熔化,只起电极的作用。同时由焊炬的喷嘴送进氩气或氦气作保护。还可根据需要另外添加金属。在国际上通称 为TIG焊。钨极气体保护电弧焊由于能很好地控制热输入,所以它是连接薄板金属和打底焊的一种极好方法。这种方法几乎 可以用于所有金属的连接,尤其适用于焊接铝、镁这些能形成难熔氧化物的金属以及象钛和锆这些活泼金属。这 种焊接方法的焊缝质量高,但与其它电弧焊相比,其焊接速度较慢。   
(4)等离子弧焊   等离子弧焊也是一种不熔化极电弧焊。它是利用电极和工件之间地压缩电弧(叫转发转移电弧)实现焊接的。所 用的电极通常是钨极。产生等离子弧的等离子气可用氩气、氮气、氦气或其中二者之混合气。同时还通过喷嘴用 惰性气体保护。焊接时可以外加填充金属,也可以不加填充金属。等离子弧焊焊接时,由于其电弧挺直、能量密度大、因而电弧穿透能力强。等离子弧焊焊接时产生的小孔效应, 对于一定厚度范围内的大多数金属可以进行不开坡口对接,并能保证熔透和焊缝均匀一致。因此,等离子弧焊的 生产率高、焊缝质量好。但等离子弧焊设备(包括喷嘴)比较复杂,对焊接工艺参数的控制要求较高。钨极气体保护电弧焊可焊接的绝大多数金属,均可采用等离子弧焊接。与之相比,对于1mm以下的极薄的金属的焊 接,用等离子弧焊可较易进行。   
(5)熔化极气体保护电弧焊   这种焊接方法是利用连续送进的焊丝与工件之间燃烧的电弧作热源,由焊炬喷嘴喷出的气体保护电弧来进行焊接 的。熔化极气体保护电弧焊通常用的保护气体有:氩气、氦气、CO2气或这些气体的混合气。以氩气或氦气为保护气时 称为熔化极惰性气体保护电弧焊(在国际上简称为MIG焊);以惰性气体与氧化性气体(O2,CO2)混合气为保护气体 时,或以CO2气体或CO2+O2混合气为保护气时,或以CO2气体或CO2+O2混合气为保护气时,统称为熔化极活性气 体保护电弧焊(在国际上简称为MAG焊)。熔化极气体保护电弧焊的主要优点是可以方便地进行各种位置的焊接,同时也具有焊接速度较快、熔敷率高等优 点。熔化极活性气体保护电弧焊可适用于大部分主要金属,包括碳钢、合金钢。熔化极惰性气体保护焊适用于不 锈钢、铝、镁、铜、钛、锆及镍合金。利用这种焊接方法还可以进行电弧点焊。   
(6)管状焊丝电弧焊   管状焊丝电弧焊也是利用连续送进的焊丝与工件之间燃烧的电弧为热源来进行焊接的,可以认为是熔化极气体保 护焊的一种类型。所使用的焊丝是管状焊丝,管内装有各种组分的焊剂。焊接时,外加保护气体,主要是CO。焊 剂受热分解或熔化,起着造渣保护溶池、渗合金及稳弧等作用。管状焊丝电弧焊除具有上述熔化极气体保护电弧焊的优点外,由于管内焊剂的作用,使之在冶金上更具优点。管 状焊丝电弧焊可以应用于大多数黑色金属各种接头的焊接。管状焊丝电弧焊在一些工业先进国家已得到广泛应用。
电阻焊
  这是以电阻热为能源的一类焊接方法,包括以熔渣电阻热为能源的电渣焊和以固体电阻热为能源的电阻焊。电阻焊包括:电阻点焊,涂焊,缝焊,高频焊,闪光对焊。由于 电渣焊更具有独特的特点,故放在后面介绍。这里主要介绍几种固体电阻热为能源的电阻焊,主要有点焊、缝焊 、凸焊及对焊等。电阻焊一般是使工件处在一定电极压力作用下并利用电流通过工件时所产生的电阻热将两工件之间的接触表面熔 化而实现连接的焊接方法。通常使用较大的电流。为了防止在接触面上发生电弧并且为了锻压焊缝金属,焊接过 程中始终要施加压力。进行这一类电阻焊时,被焊工件的表面善对于获得稳定的焊接质量是头等重要的。因此,焊前必须将电极与工件 以及工件与工件间的接触表面进行清理。点焊、缝焊和凸焊的牾在于焊接电流(单相)大(几千至几万安培),通电时间短(几周波至几秒),设备昂贵 、复杂,生产率高,因此适于大批量生产。主要用于焊接厚度小于3mm的薄板组件。各类钢材、铝、镁等有色金属 及其合金、不锈钢等均可焊接。
高能束焊
  这一类焊接方法包括:电子束焊和激光焊。   (1)电子束焊   电子束焊是以集中的高速电子束轰击工件表面时所产生的热能进行焊接的方法。电子束焊接时,由电子枪产生电子束并加速。常用的电子束焊有:高真空电子束焊、低真空电子束焊和非真空电 子束焊。前两种方法都是在真空室内进行。焊接准备时间 (主要是抽真空时间)较长,工件尺寸受真空室大小限 制。电子束焊与电弧焊相比,主要的特点是焊缝熔深大、熔宽小、焊缝金属纯度高。它既可以用在很薄材料的精密焊 接,又可以用在很厚的(最厚达300mm)构件焊接。所有用其它焊接方法能进行熔化焊的金属及合金都可以用电子 束焊接。主要用于要求高质量的产品的焊接。还能解决异种金属、易氧化金属及难熔金属的焊接。但不适于大批 量产品。   (2)激光焊   激光焊是利用大功率相干单色光子流聚焦而成的激光束为热源进行的焊接。这种焊接方法通常有连续功率激光焊 和脉冲功率激光焊。激光焊优点是不需要在真空中进行,缺点则是穿透力不如电子束焊强。激光焊时能进行精确的能量控制,因而可 以实现精密微型器件的焊接。它能应用于很多金属,特别是能解决一些难焊金属及异种金属的焊接。
钎焊
  钎焊的能源可以是化学反应热,也可以是间接热能。它是利用熔点比被焊材料的熔点低的金属作钎料,经过加热 使钎料熔化,靠毛细管作用将钎料及入到接头接触面的间隙内,润湿被焊金属表面,使液相与固相之间互扩散而 形成钎焊接头。因此,钎焊是一种固相兼液相的焊接方法。钎焊加热温度较低,母材不熔化,而且也不需施加压力。但焊前必须采取一定的措施清除被焊工件表面的油污、 灰尘、氧化膜等。这是使工件润湿性好、确保接头质量的重要保证。钎料的液相线湿度高于450℃而低于母材金属的熔点时,称为硬钎焊;低于450℃时,称为软钎焊。根据热源或加热方法不同钎焊可分为:火焰钎焊、感应 钎焊、炉中钎焊、浸沾钎焊、电阻钎焊等。钎焊时由于加热温度比较低,故对工件材料的性能影响较小,焊件的应力变形也较小。但钎焊接头的强度一般比 较低,耐热能力较差。钎焊可以用于焊接碳钢、不锈钢、高温合金、铝、铜等金属材料,还可以连接异种金属、金属与非金属。适于焊 接受载不大或常温下工作的接头,对于精密的、微型的以及复杂的多钎缝的焊件尤其适用。
其它焊接方法
  这些焊接方法属于不同程度的专门化的焊接方法,其适用范围较窄。主要包括以电阻热为能源的电渣焊、高频焊 ;以化学能为焊接能源的气焊、气压焊、爆炸焊;以机械能为焊接能源的摩擦焊、冷压焊、超声波焊、扩散焊。   (1)电渣焊   如前面所述,电渣焊是以熔渣的电阻热为能源的焊接方法。焊接过程是在立焊位置、在由两工件端面与两侧水冷 铜滑块形成的装配间隙内进行。焊接时利用电流通过熔渣产生的电阻热将工件端部熔化。根据焊接时所用的电极形状,电渣焊分为丝极电渣焊、板极电渣焊和熔嘴电渣焊。电渣焊的优点是:可焊的工件厚度大(从30mm到大于1000mm),生产率高。主要用于在断面对接接头及丁字接头 的焊接。电渣焊可用于各种钢结构的焊接,也可用于铸件的组焊。电渣焊接头由于加热及冷却均较慢,热影响区宽、显微 组织粗大、韧性、因此焊接以后一般须进行正火处理。   (2)高频焊   同频焊是以固体电阻热为能源。焊接时利用高频电流在工件内产生的电阻热使工件焊接区表层加热到熔化或接近 的塑性状态,随即施加(或不施加)顶锻力而实现金属的结合。因此它是一种固相电阻焊方法。高频焊根据高频电流在工件中产生热的方式可分为接触高频焊和感应高频焊。接触高频焊时,高频电流通过与工 件机械接触而传入工件。感应高频焊时,高频电流通过工件外部感应圈的耦合作用而在工件内产生感应电流。高频焊是专业化较强的焊接方法,要根据产品配备专用设备。生产率高,焊接速度可达30m/min。主要用于制造管 子时纵缝或螺旋缝的焊接。   (3)气焊   气焊是用气体火焰为热源的一种焊接方法。应用最多的是以乙炔气作燃料的氧-乙炔火焰。由于设备简单使操作 方便,但气焊加热速度及生产率较低,热影响区较大,且容易引起较大的变形。气焊可用于很多黑色金属、有色金属及合金的焊接。一般适用于维修及单件薄板焊接。   (4)气压焊   气压焊和气焊一样,气压焊也是以气体火焰为热源。焊接时将两对接的工件的端部加热到一定温度,后再施加足 够的压力以获得牢固的接头。是一种固相焊接。气压焊时不加填充金属,常用于铁轨焊接和钢筋焊接。   (5)爆炸焊   爆炸焊也是以化学反应热为能源的另一种固相焊接方法。但它是利用炸药爆炸所产生的能量来实现金属连接的。在爆炸波作用下,两件金属在不到一秒的时间内即可被加速撞击形成金属的结合。在各种焊接方法中,爆炸焊可以焊接的异种金属的组合的范围最广。可以用爆炸焊将冶金上不相容的两种金属焊 成为各种过渡接头。爆炸焊多用于表面积相当大的平板包覆,是制造复合板的高效方法。   (6)摩擦焊   摩擦焊是以机械能为能源的固相焊接。它是利用两表面间机械摩擦所产生的热来实现金属的连接的。摩擦焊的热量集中在接合面处,因此热影响区窄。两表面间须施加压力,多数情况是在加热终止时增大压力,使 热态金属受顶锻而结合,一般结合面并不熔化。摩擦焊生产率较高,原理上几乎所有能进行热锻的金属都能摩擦焊接。摩擦焊还可以用于异种金属的焊接。要适 用于横断面为圆形的最大直径为100mm的工件。   (7)超声波焊   超声波焊也是一种以机械能为能源的固相焊接方法。进行超声波焊时,焊接工件在较低的静压力下,由声极发出 的高频振动能使接合面产生强裂摩擦并加热到焊接温度而形成结合。超声波焊可以用于大多数金属材料之间的焊接,能实现金属、异种金属及金属与非金属间的焊接。可适用于金属 丝、箔或2~3mm以下的薄板金属接头的重复生产。(8)扩散焊 扩散焊一般是以间接热能为能源的固相焊接方法。通常是在真空或保护气氛下进行。焊接时使两被焊工件的表面 在高温和较大压力下接触并保温一定时间,以达到原子间距离,经过原子朴素相互扩散而结合。焊前不仅需要清 洗工件表面的氧化物等杂质,而且表面粗糙度要低于一定值才能保证焊接质量。扩散焊对被焊材料的性能几乎不产生有害作用。它可以焊接很多同种和异种金属以及一些非金属材料,如陶瓷等。扩散焊可以焊接复杂的结构及厚度相差很大的工件。
焊工的职业道德
  焊工的 职业道德是:从事焊工职业的人员,在完成焊接工作及相关的各项工作过程中,从思想到工作行为所必须遵守的道德规范和行为准则。
焊工个人防护措施
  焊工在现场施焊,为了安全。必须按国家规定,穿戴好防护用品。焊工的防护用品较多,主要有防护面罩,头盔,防护眼镜,防噪音耳塞,安全帽,工作服,耳罩,手套,绝缘鞋,防尘口罩,安全带,防毒面具及披肩等。

Chinese Name: welding English name: electric welding

Definition: the use of electricity, heat and pressure, so that two or more of the weldment fusion as one of the processes. Applied science: the power (a subject); distribution and electricity (two subjects)
Commonly known as arc welding. The use of electrode, arc high-temperature melting metal parts need to be connected, and a welding operation.

Pinyin
diànhàn
English translation
electric welding
Basic working principle
The basic working principle of the welding is commonly used with 220V or 380V industrial electricity, welding machine where the pressure reducer, reducing the voltage, and enhance the current, and electrical energy to produce a huge arc heat to melt steel. The electrode of the integration of the fusion between the iron and steel more. (Medicine, welding the outer skin, from the very large role, do not believe you knock the powder to see can be welded not). Of course, this explanation is popular.
Species
Outline
The type of welding, the most commonly used are the following
Arc welding
Arc welding is the most widely used welding method. It includes: manual arc welding, submerged arc welding, tungsten inert gas shielded arc welding, plasma arc welding, MIG welding. The vast majority of arc welding is the burning arc between the electrode and the workpiece as heat source. In the formation of the joints, can not use filler metal. Electrode is used in the welding process to melt the wire, called Electrode Arc, such as manual arc welding, submerged arc welding, gas shielded arc welding, tubular wire arc welding; used in the electrode is melted in the welding process. carbide or tungsten rod, called MIG arc welding such as tungsten inert gas welding, plasma arc welding and so on. Related Books
(1) manual arc welding manual arc welding is a welding method for the development of the earliest and still most widely used in various arc welding methods. It is based on the external electrode coated with a coating for the electrodes and filler metals, the arc is burning between the electrode end and to be welders surface. Arc Thermal effect on the one hand, the coating can produce gas in order to protect the arc, on the other hand can produce slag covering the bath surface to prevent the interaction of the molten metal with the surrounding gas. More important role of the slag and molten metal to produce physical and chemical reaction or alloying elements to improve the performance of the weld metal. Manual arc welding equipment is simple, lightweight, flexible operation. Can be applied to the short seam welding in the repair and assembly, especially for hard to reach parts of the welding. Manual arc welding with the corresponding electrode to be applied to most industrial carbon steel, stainless steel, cast iron, copper, aluminum, nickel and its alloys.
(2) submerged arc welding submerged arc welding is a continuous feed of wire as an electrode and filler metal. Welding in the welding area above covered with a layer of granular flux, arc burning, the flux layer and the wire end and the local base metal melting, the formation of the weld. Under the action of the arc heat, on the part of the flux melting slag and metallurgical reaction in the liquid metal. Slag floating on the surface of the molten pool, on the one hand, to protect the weld metal, to prevent air pollution, physical and chemical reaction with molten metal, extreme and performance improvement of weld metal; the other hand, can also make the weld metal Ling was slow. Submerged arc welding current. Compared with manual arc welding, its biggest advantage is that the weld quality, high welding speed. Therefore, it is particularly suitable for the circumferential seam straight seam welding large workpieces. And most of the use of mechanized welding. The submerged arc welding has been widely used for welding of carbon steel, low alloy structural steel and stainless steel. Slag can reduce the joint cooling rate, some high-strength structural steel, high carbon steel can be used submerged arc welding. (3) tungsten inert gas shielded arc welding is a non-MIG arc welding is the use of electric arc between tungsten electrode and the workpiece metal melting and the formation of the weld. Tungsten welding process to melt, and only play the role of the electrode. Sent by the welding torch nozzle argon or helium as a protection. Also required the addition of the metal. In the international arena known as TIG welding. Tungsten inert gas shielded arc welding can control the heat input, so it is an excellent way to connect the sheet metal and welding primer. This method can be used for almost all connection to the metal, especially suitable for welding aluminum and magnesium can form refractory oxides, metal such as titanium and zirconium these lively metal. This method of welding the weld quality is high, but compared with other arc welding, the welding speed is slow.
(4), plasma arc welding and plasma arc welding is a non-Electrode Arc. It is used between the electrode and the workpiece compression arc (call forwarding transfer arc) welding. The electrode is usually tungsten. Production of the mixture of the plasma arc plasma gas can be used argon, nitrogen, helium or two of them. Also through a nozzle with an inert gas protection. Plus filler metal when welding without filler metal. Plasma arc welding, arc straight, energy density, and thus arc penetration ability. The effect of plasma arc welding holes, for a certain thickness within the scope of most metals can not open groove butt, and to ensure penetration and weld uniform. Therefore, plasma arc welding of high productivity, weld quality. However, plasma arc welding equipment (including nozzle) is more complex, demanding control of welding parameters. The vast majority of the metal tungsten inert gas shielded arc welding, can be used to plasma arc welding. In contrast, less than 1mm thin metal welding, the use of plasma arc welding can be easier to carry.
(5) melting of polar gas shielded arc welding of this welding method is the use of electric arc burning between the continuous feeding wire and workpiece as heat source, gas shielded arc welding torch nozzle to be welded. MIG arc welding is usually used to protect gas: argon, helium, carbon dioxide gas or a mixture of these gases. Known as the melting of inert gas shielded arc welding (in the international community referred to as MIG welding); argon or helium shielding gas to the inert gas and oxidizing gases (O2, CO 2) gas mixture for the protection of gas, or CO2 gas or CO2 + O2 mixture for the protection of gas, or CO2 gas or CO2 + O2 gas mixture for the protection of gas, collectively referred to as metal active gas shielded arc welding (in the international community referred to as MAG welding). The main advantage of the MIG arc welding can be convenient for all position welding also has a faster welding speed, high Deposited advantages. Metal active gas shielded arc welding is applicable to most of the major metals, including carbon steel, alloy steel. Metal inert gas shielded arc welding in stainless steel, aluminum, magnesium, copper, titanium, zirconium and nickel alloys. Arc welding can also take advantage of this welding method.
(6) tubular wire arc welding tubular wire arc welding is the use of the burning arc between the wire and the workpiece continuous feeding the welding heat source, that is the melting of arc welding type. The use of wire tubular wire, there are various components of the flux tube interior. Welding, plus the protective gas, mainly CO Flux thermal decomposition or melting, and to protect the melting pool, play a slagging, alloying and arc stability role. Tubular wire arc welding has the advantage of the above the melting polar gas shielded arc welding, the flux tube, so that more advantages in metallurgy. The tubular wire arc welding can be applied to most ferrous metal joint welding. Tubular wire arc welding has been widely used in some advanced industrial countries.
Resistance welding
This is the resistance of the heat energy welding methods, including electroslag welding and slag resistance of heat energy to the solid resistance of the thermal energy resistance welding. Resistance spot welding, coating and welding, seam welding, high frequency welding, flash butt welding, resistance welding, including: Electroslag welding with unique characteristics, so on to be described later. Introduces several solid resistance heat energy resistance welding, spot welding, seam welding, projection welding and butt welding. Resistance welding in general is to make the workpiece in a certain electrode under pressure and use of resistance heat generated by the current through the workpiece, the contact between the two workpiece surface melting and the connection of the welding method. Typically use a larger current. In order to prevent the arc and to forging the weld metal, the welding process is always to put pressure on the contact surface. This type of resistance welding, welders surface good and stable welding quality is of paramount importance. Therefore, the welding must be contact between the electrode and the workpiece and the workpiece and the workpiece surface to clean. Wu of spot welding, seam welding and projection welding is the welding current (single phase) large (thousands to tens of amperes), power-on time is short (a few weeks wave to a few seconds), expensive equipment, complex, high productivity, and therefore suitable for large mass production. Mainly used for welding thickness less than 3mm sheet metal components. Various types of steel, aluminum, magnesium and other nonferrous metals and alloys, stainless steel can be welded.
High-energy beam welding
The welding method of this class include: electron beam welding and laser welding. (1) generated by electron beam welding, electron beam welding is a focus on high-speed electron beam bombardment of the surface of the heat welding method. Electron beam welding, electron beam generated by the electron gun and accelerated. Commonly used in electron beam welding include: high-vacuum electron beam welding, low-vacuum electron beam welding and non-vacuum electron beam welding. The first two methods are in the vacuum chamber. Welding preparation time (mainly vacuum time) is longer, the size of the workpiece by the vacuum chamber size limits. Electron beam welding and arc welding, the main features of the weld penetration, weld width is small, the weld metal of high purity. It can be used in the precision welding of thin materials can be used on very thick (the thick 300mm) component soldering. All other welding methods for fusion welding of metals and alloys using electron beam welding. Mainly used for welding requirements of high-quality products. Can solve the dissimilar metal, easily oxidized metal and the welding of refractory metals. But not suitable for a large number of the amount of product. (2) laser welding Laser welding is the use of high-power coherent monochromatic sub-streams focused laser beam from the heat source for welding. This welding method is usually a continuous power laser welding and pulsed power laser welding. The advantages of laser welding is not required in a vacuum, the disadvantage is that the penetrating power than the strong electron beam welding. Accurate energy control, laser welding, the welding of precision miniature devices which can be achieved. It can be applied to many metals, in particular, is able to solve some difficult to weld metals and welding of dissimilar metals.
Brazing
The Brazing energy chemical reaction heat, indirect heat. It is a melting point lower than the melting point of the welded materials of metal for brazing, the solder melts after heating, brazing materials and rely on capillary action into the gap of the joint contact surface wetting welded metal surface, so that the liquid and interdiffusion between the solid phase and the formation of brazed joints. Therefore, the brazing is one kind of solid phase and liquid phase welding method. Brazing heating temperature is low, the base metal does not melt, but also do not need to exert pressure. Before welding must take certain measures to clear the be welders surface, grease, dust, oxide film. This workpiece wettability to ensure that the important guarantee of the quality of the joint. Liquidus humidity of the solder is higher than 450 ° C lower than the melting point of the base metal, called brazing; less than 450 ° C, known as soft soldering. Different brazing can be divided according to the heat source or heating methods: flame brazing, induction brazing, furnace brazing, dip brazing, resistance brazing. Brazing due to the relatively low heating temperature, the performance of the workpiece material is smaller, the smaller the stress and deformation of the weldment. But the strength of brazed joints are generally relatively low, the heat capacity is poor. Brazing can be used for welding carbon steel, stainless steel, high temperature alloys, aluminum, copper and other metal materials, can also be connected to dissimilar metal, metal and nonmetal. Suitable for welding by carrying little or at room temperature under the joints, particularly suitable for precision, miniature and complex brazing seam weldment.
Other welding methods
These welding methods belong to different levels of specialized welding method, its scope is narrower. Including the resistance heat energy electroslag welding, high frequency welding; gas welding for the welding energy to chemical energy, pressure welding, explosion welding; mechanical energy for the welding energy friction welding, cold welding, ultrasonic welding, diffusion welding. Electroslag welding as described previously (1), electroslag welding is a welding slag resistance heat energy. Welding process, welding position in the assembly formed by the end of two workpiece on both sides of the water-cooled copper slider gap in legislation. The use of current through the slag resistance heat welding the workpiece end of melting. The electrode geometry used in welding, electroslag welding is divided into filament electroslag welding plate electroslag welding and melting mouth electroslag welding. The advantages of the electroslag welding: welding the workpiece thickness (greater than from 30mm to 1000mm), the production rate. Is mainly used in the cross-section butt joints and T-joint welding. Electroslag welding can be used for welding of various steel structures, can also be used for the welding of the casting. Electroslag welding head is slower due to heating and cooling, heat-affected zone width, coarse microstructure and toughness after welding generally require normalizing. (2) high-frequency welding the same frequency welding is a solid resistance heat energy. Welding, use of resistance heat generated by high-frequency current in the workpiece when the workpiece welding surface heating to the melting or close to the plastic state, then apply (or not imposed) upset force to achieve the combination of the metal. Therefore, it is a solid-phase resistance welding method. The high-frequency welding high-frequency current to generate heat in the workpiece can be divided into contact with high-frequency welding and high frequency induction welding. Exposure to high-frequency welding, high-frequency current through the contact with the workpiece mechanical incoming workpiece. Induction of high frequency welding, high-frequency current through the workpiece external coupling of the induction coil and the workpiece induced current. High-frequency welding is a specialized strong welding method, according to the product is equipped with special equipment. Production rate, welding speed up to 30m/min. Mainly used for manufacturing pipe, longitudinal seam or spiral seam welding. (3) gas welding, gas welding is a welding method using a gas flame heat source. The most widely used is acetylene gas as fuel, oxygen – acetylene flame. Simple equipment, easy to operate, but low speed and productivity of gas welding heat, heat affected zone, and easily lead to a larger deformation. Gas welding can be used for the welding of ferrous metals, nonferrous metals and alloys. Generally applicable to maintenance and a single piece of sheet metal welding. (4) pressure welding pressure welding and gas welding, pressure welding gas flame as the heat source. Welding to the end of the two docking workpiece is heated to a certain temperature, and then exert enough pressure to get a solid joint. A solid phase welding. Pressure welding without filler metal, commonly used in rail welding and welded steel. (5) explosion welding explosion welding is the chemical reaction heat energy in a solid phase welding method. But it is to use the energy generated by the detonation of an explosive to metal connection. The blast wave effect, the two metals are accelerated within less than a second to impact the formation of a combination of metal. In a variety of welding methods, the widest range of combinations of the explosion welding of dissimilar metals can be welded. Explosive Welding become incompatible with the two metal welding metallurgy on a variety of transition joints. Explosive welding is used for a large surface area of ​​the tablet coating is an efficient method for the manufacture of composite panels. (6) Friction Welding Friction welding is a welding mechanical energy is the energy of the solid phase. It is to use the heat produced by the mechanical friction between the two surfaces to metal connection. Friction welding heat concentrated in the joints at the narrow heat-affected zone. Between the two surfaces to exert pressure, in most cases is increasing pressure upon termination of the heating, the thermal state of the metal by upsetting combination, usually combined with the surface does not melt. Friction welding for higher productivity, in principle, almost all the forging of the metal can be friction welding. Friction welding can also be used for the welding of dissimilar metals. To apply to the round in cross-sectional maximum diameter of 100mm workpiece. (7) Ultrasonic welding Ultrasonic welding is also a mechanical energy is the energy of the solid phase welding method. Ultrasonic welding, the welding workpiece joints of lower static pressure, issued by the sound of very high frequency vibration can produce strong cleft friction and heated to welding temperature and the formation of the combination. Ultrasonic welding between the most metal materials can be used for welding, welding metal, dissimilar metals and metal and nonmetal. Applied to the repetitive production of wire, foil, or 2 ~ 3mm sheet metal joints. Diffusion welding diffusion bonding (8) solid-phase welding method is generally based on indirect heat energy. Is usually carried out under vacuum or protective atmosphere. Two welders pieces of surface welding contact and insulation in high temperature and under greater pressure to a certain time in order to achieve the distance between atoms together after atomic simple interdiffusion. Not only need to be cleaned before welding the surface of oxides and other impurities, and surface roughness of less than a certain value in order to ensure the welding quality. The performance of the welded materials, the diffusion bonding almost no harmful effects. It can weld many of the same species and dissimilar metals, as well as some non-metallic materials such as ceramics. The diffusion welding can weld complex structure and thickness of the vast difference between the workpiece.
Professional ethics of the welder
The welders work ethic is: welders career personnel, completion of welding work and all work related to the process of thinking to work, must comply with the Code of Ethics and Code of Conduct.
The welders personal protective measures
Welder welding in the field for safety. Must wear protective equipment as provided for by the state. Welder more protective equipment, protective masks, helmets, safety glasses, Earplugs, helmets, overalls, earmuffs, gloves, rubber shoes, dust masks, safety belts, gas masks and shawls.

中文名稱:電焊英文名稱:electric welding

定義:利用電能,通過加熱加壓,使兩個或兩個以上的銲件熔合為一體的工藝。應用學科:電力(一級學科);配電與用電(二級學科)
電弧焊的俗稱。利用焊條,通過電弧高溫融化金屬部件需要連接的地方,而實現的一種焊接操作。

拼音
  diànhàn
英譯
  electric welding
基本工作原理
電焊的基本工作原理,是我們通過常用的220V電壓或者380V的工業用電,通過電焊機裡的減壓器,降低了電壓,增強了電流,並使電能產生巨大的電弧熱量融化鋼鐵。焊條的融入使鋼鐵之間的融合性更高。 (還有,電焊條的外層的藥皮,起了非常大的作用,不信你把藥粉敲了看能焊接不)。當然,這種解釋是通俗的。
種類
概述
電焊的種類比較多,目前常用的有以下幾種
電弧焊
電弧焊是目前應用最廣泛的焊接方法。它包括有:手弧焊、埋弧焊、鎢極氣體保護電弧焊、等離子弧焊、熔化極氣體保護焊等。絕大部分電弧焊是以電極與工件之間燃燒的電弧作熱源。在形成接頭時,可以採用也可以不採用填充金屬。所用的電極是在焊接過程中熔化的焊絲時,叫作熔化極電弧焊,諸如手弧焊、埋弧焊、氣體保護電弧焊、管狀焊絲電弧焊等;所用的電極是在焊接過程中不熔化的碳棒或鎢棒時,叫作不熔化極電弧焊,諸如鎢極氬弧焊、等離子弧焊等。相關書籍
(1)手弧焊手弧焊是各種電弧焊方法中發展最早、目前仍然應用最廣的一種焊接方法。它是以外部塗有塗料的焊條作電極和填充金屬,電弧是在焊條的端部和被焊工件表面之間燃燒。塗料在電弧熱作用下一方面可以產生氣體以保護電弧,另一方面可以產生熔渣覆蓋在熔池表面,防止熔化金屬與周圍氣體的相互作用。熔渣的更重要作用是與熔化金屬產生物理化學反應或添加合金元素,改善焊縫金屬性能。手弧焊設備簡單、輕便,操作靈活。可以應用於維修及裝配中的短縫的焊接,特別是可以用於難以達到的部位的焊接。手弧焊配用相應的焊條可適用於大多數工業用碳鋼、不銹鋼、鑄鐵、銅、鋁、鎳及其合金。  
(2)埋弧焊埋弧焊是以連續送時的焊絲作為電極和填充金屬。焊接時,在焊接區的上面覆蓋一層顆粒狀焊劑,電弧在焊劑層下燃燒,將焊絲端部和局部母材熔化,形成焊縫。在電弧熱的作用下,上部分焊劑熔化熔渣並與液態金屬發生冶金反應。熔渣浮在金屬熔池的表面,一方面可以保護焊縫金屬,防止空氣的污染,並與熔化金屬產生物理化學反應,改善焊縫金屬的萬分及性能;另一方面還可以使焊縫金屬緩慢泠卻。埋弧焊可以採用較大的焊接電流。與手弧焊相比,其最大的優點是焊縫質量好,焊接速度高。因此,它特別適於焊接大型工件的直縫的環縫。而且多數採用機械化焊接。埋弧焊已廣泛用於碳鋼、低合金結構鋼和不銹鋼的焊接。由於熔渣可降低接頭冷卻速度,故某些高強度結構鋼、 高碳鋼等也可採用埋弧焊焊接。 (3)鎢極氣體保護電弧焊這是一種不熔化極氣體保護電弧焊,​​是利用鎢極和工件之間的電弧使金屬熔化而形成焊縫的。焊接過程中鎢極不熔化,只起電極的作用。同時由焊炬的噴嘴送進氬氣或氦氣作保護。還可根據需要另外添加金屬。在國際上通稱 為TIG焊。鎢極氣體保護電弧焊由於能很好地控制熱輸入,所以它是連接薄板金屬和打底焊的一種極好方法。這種方法幾乎可以用於所有金屬的連接,尤其適用於焊接鋁、鎂這些能形成難熔氧化物的金屬以及象鈦和鋯這些活潑金屬。這種焊接方法的焊縫質量高,但與其它電弧焊相比,其焊接速度較慢。  
(4)等離子弧焊等離子弧焊也是一種不熔化極電弧焊。它是利用電極和工件之間地壓縮電弧(叫轉發轉移電弧)實現焊接的。所 用的電極通常是鎢極。產生等離子弧的等離子氣可用氬氣、氮氣、氦氣或其中二者之混合氣。同時還通過噴嘴用 惰性氣體保護。焊接時可以外加填充金屬,也可以不加填充金屬。等離子弧焊焊接時,由於其電弧挺直、能量密度大、因而電弧穿透能力強。等離子弧焊焊接時產生的小孔效應, 對於一定厚度範圍內的大多數金屬可以進行不開坡口對接,並能保證熔透和焊縫均勻一致。因此,等離子弧焊的生產率高、焊縫質量好。但等離子弧焊設備(包括噴嘴)比較複雜,對焊接工藝參數的控制要求較高。鎢極氣體保護電弧焊可焊接的絕大多數金屬,均可採用等離子弧焊接。與之相比,對於1mm以下的極薄的金屬的焊接,用等離子弧焊可較易進行。  
(5)熔化極氣體保護電弧焊這種焊接方法是利用連續送進的焊絲與工件之間燃燒的電弧作熱源,由焊炬噴嘴噴出的氣體保護電弧來進行焊接的。熔化極氣體保護電弧焊通常用的保護氣體有:氬氣、氦氣、CO2氣或這些氣體的混合氣。以氬氣或氦氣為保護氣時稱為熔化極惰性氣體保護電弧焊(在國際上簡稱為MIG焊);以惰性氣體與氧化性氣體(O2,CO2)混合氣為保護氣體時,或以CO2氣體或CO2+O2混合氣為保護氣時,或以CO2氣體或CO2+O2混合氣為保護氣時,統稱為熔化極活性氣體保護電弧焊(在國際上簡稱為MAG焊)。熔化極氣體保護電弧焊的主要優點是可以方便地進行各種位置的焊接,同時也具有焊接速度較快、熔敷率高等優點。熔化極活性氣體保護電弧焊可適用於大部分主要金屬,包括碳鋼、合金鋼。熔化極惰性氣體保護焊適用於不銹鋼、鋁、鎂、銅、鈦、鋯及鎳合金。利用這種焊接方法還可以進行電弧點焊。  
(6)管狀焊絲電弧焊管狀焊絲電弧焊也是利用連續送進的焊絲與工件之間燃燒的電弧為熱源來進行焊接的,可以認為是熔化極氣體保護焊的一種類型。所使用的焊絲是管狀焊絲,管內裝有各種組分的焊劑。焊接時,外加保護氣體,主要是CO。焊劑受熱分解或熔化,起著造渣保護溶池、滲合金及穩弧等作用。管狀焊絲電弧焊除具有上述熔化極氣體保護電弧焊的優點外,由於管內焊劑的作用,使之在冶金上更具優點。管狀焊絲電弧焊可以應用於大多數黑色金屬各種接頭的焊接。管狀焊絲電弧焊在一些工業先進國家已得到廣泛應用。
電阻焊
這是以電阻熱為能源的一類焊接方法,包括以熔渣電阻熱為能源的電渣焊和以固體電阻熱為能源的電阻焊。電阻焊包括:電阻點焊,塗焊,縫焊,高頻焊,閃光對焊。由於電渣焊更具有獨特的特點,故放在後面介紹。這裡主要介紹幾種固體電阻熱為能源的電阻焊,主要有點焊、縫焊、凸焊及對焊等。電阻焊一般是使工件處在一定電極壓力作用下並利用電流通過工件時所產生的電阻熱將兩工件之間的接觸表面熔化而實現連接的焊接方法。通常使用較大的電流。為了防止在接觸面上發生電弧並且為了鍛壓焊縫金屬,焊接過程中始終要施加壓力。進行這一類電阻焊時,被焊工件的表面善對於獲得穩定的焊接質量是頭等重要的。因此,焊前必須將電極與工件以及工件與工件間的接觸表面進行清理。點焊、縫焊和凸焊的牾在於焊接電流(單相)大(幾千至幾萬安培),通電時間短(幾週波至幾秒),設備昂貴、複雜,生產率高,因此適於大批量生產。主要用於焊接厚度小於3mm的薄板組件。各類鋼材、鋁、鎂等有色金屬及其合金、不銹鋼等均可焊接。
高能束焊
這一類焊接方法包括:電子束焊和激光焊。 (1)電子束焊電子束焊是以集中的高速電子束轟擊工件表面時所產生的熱能進行焊接的方法。電子束焊接時,由電子槍產生電子束並加速。常用的電子束焊有:高真空電子束焊、低真空電子束焊和非真空電子束焊。前兩種方法都是在真空室內進行。焊接準備時間(主要是抽真空時間)較長,工件尺寸受真空室大小限制。電子束焊與電弧焊相比,主要的特點是焊縫熔深大、熔寬小、焊縫金屬純度高。它既可以用在很薄材料的精密焊接,又可以用在很厚的(最厚達300mm)構件焊接。所有用其它焊接方法能進行熔化焊的金屬及合金都可以用電子束焊接。主要用於要求高質量的產品的焊接。還能解決異種金屬、易氧化金屬及難熔金屬的焊接。但不適於大批 量產品。 (2)激光焊激光焊是利用大功率相干單色光子流聚焦而成的激光束為熱源進行的焊接。這種焊接方法通常有連續功率激光焊和脈衝功率激光焊。激光焊優點是不需要在真空中進行,缺點則是穿透力不如電子束焊強。激光焊時能進行精確的能量控制,因而可以實現精密微型器件的焊接。它能應用於很多金屬,特別是能解決一些難焊金屬及異種金屬的焊接。
釬焊
釬焊的能源可以是化學反應熱,也可以是間接熱能。它是利用熔點比被焊材料的熔點低的金屬作釬料,經過加熱使釬料熔化,靠毛細管作用將釬料及入到接頭接觸面的間隙內,潤濕被焊金屬表面,使液相與固相之間互擴散而形成釬焊接頭。因此,釬焊是一種固相兼液相的焊接方法。釬焊加熱溫度較低,母材不熔化,而且也不需施加壓力。但焊前必須採取一定的措施清除被焊工件表面的油污、 灰塵、氧化膜等。這是使工件潤濕性好、確保接頭質量的重要保證。釬料的液相線濕度高於450℃而低於母材金屬的熔點時,稱為硬釬焊;低於450℃時,稱為軟釬焊。根據熱源或加熱方法不同釬焊可分為:火焰釬焊、感應釬焊、爐中釬焊、浸沾釬焊、電阻釬焊等。釬焊時由於加熱溫度比較低,故對工件材料的性能影響較小,銲件的應力變形也較小。但釬焊接頭的強度一般比較低,耐熱能力較差。釬焊可以用於焊接碳鋼、不銹鋼、高溫合金、鋁、銅等金屬材料,還可以連接異種金屬、金屬與非金屬。適於焊接受載不大或常溫下工作的接頭,對於精密的、微型的以及復雜的多釬縫的銲件尤其適用。
其它焊接方法
這些焊接方法屬於不同程度的專門化的焊接方法,其適用範圍較窄。主要包括以電阻熱為能源的電渣焊、高頻焊;以化學能為焊接能源的氣焊、氣壓焊、爆炸焊;以機械能為焊接能源的摩擦焊、冷壓焊、超聲波焊、擴散焊。 (1)電渣焊如前面所述,電渣焊是以熔渣的電阻熱為能源的焊接方法。焊接過程是在立焊位置、在由兩工件端面與兩側水冷銅滑塊形成的裝配間隙內進行。焊接時利用電流通過熔渣產生的電阻熱將工件端部熔化。根據焊接時所用的電極形狀,電渣焊分為絲極電渣焊、板極電渣焊和熔嘴電渣焊。電渣焊的優點是:可焊的工件厚度大(從30mm到大於1000mm),生產率高。主要用於在斷面對接接頭及丁字接頭的焊接。電渣焊可用於各種鋼結構的焊接,也可用於鑄件的組焊。電渣焊接頭由於加熱及冷卻均較慢,熱影響區寬、顯微組織粗大、韌性、因此焊接以後一般須進行正火處理。 (2)高頻焊同頻焊是以固體電阻熱為能源。焊接時利用高頻電流在工件內產生的電阻熱使工件焊接區表層加熱到熔化或接近的塑性狀態,隨即施加(或不施加)頂鍛力而實現金屬的結合。因此它是一種固相電阻焊方法。高頻焊根據高頻電流在工件中產生熱的方式可分為接觸高頻焊和感應高頻焊。接觸高頻焊時,高頻電流通過與工件機械接觸而傳入工件。感應高頻焊時,高頻電流通過工件外部感應圈的耦合作用而在工件內產生感應電流。高頻焊是專業化較強的焊接方法,要根據產品配備專用設備。生產率高,焊接速度可達30m/min。主要用於製造管子時縱縫或螺旋縫的焊接。 (3)氣焊氣焊是用氣體火焰為熱源的一種焊接方法。應用最多的是以乙炔氣作燃料的氧-乙炔火焰。由於設備簡單使操作方便,但氣焊加熱速度及生產率較低,熱影響區較大,且容易引起較大的變形。氣焊可用於很多黑色金屬、有色金屬及合金的焊接。一般適用於維修及單件薄板焊接。 (4)氣壓焊氣壓焊和氣焊一樣,氣壓焊也是以氣體火焰為熱源。焊接時將兩對接的工件的端部加熱到一定溫度,後再施加足夠的壓力以獲得牢固的接頭。是一種固相焊接。氣壓焊時不加填充金屬,常用於鐵軌焊接和鋼筋焊接。 (5)爆炸焊爆炸焊也是以化學反應熱為能源的另一種固相焊接方法。但它是利用炸藥爆炸所產生的能量來實現金屬連接的。在爆炸波作用下,兩件金屬在不到一秒的時間內即可被加速撞擊形成金屬的結合。在各種焊接方法中,爆炸焊可以焊接的異種金屬的組合的範圍最廣。可以用爆炸焊將冶金上不相容的兩種金屬焊成為各種過渡接頭。爆炸焊多用於表面積相當大的平板包覆,是製造複合板的高效方法。 (6)摩擦焊摩擦焊是以機械能為能源的固相焊接。它是利用兩表面間機械摩擦所產生的熱來實現金屬的連接的。摩擦焊的熱量集中在接合面處,因此熱影響區窄。兩表面間須施加壓力,多數情況是在加熱終止時增大壓力,使熱態金屬受頂鍛而結合,一般結合面並不熔化。摩擦焊生產率較高,原理上幾乎所有能進行熱鍛的金屬都能摩擦焊接。摩擦焊還可以用於異種金屬的焊接。要適用於橫斷面為圓形的最大直徑為100mm的工件。 (7)超聲波焊超聲波焊也是一種以機械能為能源的固相焊接方法。進行超聲波焊時,焊接工件在較低的靜壓力下,由聲極發出的高頻振動能使接合面產生強裂摩擦並加熱到焊接溫度而形成結合。超聲波焊可以用於大多數金屬材料之間的焊接,能實現金屬、異種金屬及金屬與非金屬間的焊接。可適用於金屬絲、箔或2~3mm以下的薄板金屬接頭的重複生產。 (8)擴散焊擴散焊一般是以間接熱能為能源的固相焊接方法。通常是在真空或保護氣氛下進行。焊接時使兩被焊工件的表面在高溫和較大壓力下接觸並保溫一定時間,以達到原子間距離,經過原子樸素相互擴散而結合。焊前不僅需要清洗工件表面的氧化物等雜質,而且表面粗糙度要低於一定值才能保證焊接質量。擴散焊對被焊材料的性能幾乎不產生有害作用。它可以焊接很多同種和異種金屬以及一些非金屬材料,如陶瓷等。擴散焊可以焊接複雜的結構及厚度相差很大的工件。
焊工的職業道德
焊工的職業道德是:從事焊工職業的人員,在完成焊接工作及相關的各項工作過程中,從思想到工作行為所必須遵守的道德規範和行為準則。
焊工個人防護措施
  焊工在現場施銲,為了安全。必須按國家規定,穿戴好防護用品。焊工的防護用品較多,主要有防護面罩,頭盔,防護眼鏡,防噪音耳塞,安全帽,工作服,耳罩,手套,絕緣鞋,防塵口罩,安全帶,防毒面具及披肩等。

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