40年前,美国国防部创造了互联网。今天,按照多数人的看法,美国仍然在网络的军事和社会用途上,居领先地位。

40年前,美国国防部创造了互联网。今天,按照多数人的看法,美国仍然在网络的军事和社会用途上,居领先地位。
对联网电脑和通讯的更大依赖,让美国比其他许多国家更容易受到攻击,网络空间已成为不安全的主要来源,因为,在目前的技术发展阶段,攻击,显然比防守更容易。

  “网络攻击”(cyber attack)一词,涵盖多种行为,包括,简单的刺探、修改网站主页、让网络无法提供正常服务、谍报活动,破坏行动。
同样的,“网络战争”(cyber war)一词,被宽松地用来形容许多行为,反映了从武装冲突,到敌对较量等各式各样的战争的字典涵义(如,“两性战争”,或“禁毒战争”)。

  另一方面,一些专家对网络战争有狭义定义:即,国与国之间的“不流血战争”,局限在网络空间的电子冲突。这忽视了网络空间实质和虚拟层面间重要的相互联系。

在美国前国家情报总监、海军上将迈克·麦康奈尔(Admiral Mike McConnell)看来,“恐怖组织迟早会掌握复杂的网络技术。这就像核扩散,只是它容易得多了。”

—Joseph S. Nye是美国前助理国防部长,现任哈佛大学教授。

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40 years ago, the U.S. Department of Defense created the Internet. Today, according to the majority view, the United States is still in the military and social purposes of the network, theleading position.
Greater reliance on networked computer and communications, the United States more vulnerable than many other countries, cyberspace has become the main source of unsafe, because, in the current stage of technological development, the attack, apparently more easily than the defense.

The term “network attacks (cyber attack), covering a variety of acts, including simple spying, to modify the home page, the network can not provide normal service, espionage, acts of sabotage.
Similarly, the term “network war” (cyber war), is loosely used to describe the behavior reflects the dictionary meaning (eg, “gender war” from the armed conflict, to hostile contest and a variety of war, or “war on drugs”).

On the other hand, some experts oncyber warfare narrowly defined: between nations “bloodless war”, limited to electronic conflict in cyberspace. This ignores the important linkages between the cyberspace in real terms, and virtual levels.

Former U.S. Director of National Intelligence, Admiral Mike McConnell (Admiral Mike McConnell,) it seems that the terrorist organization will sooner or later master the complexity of network technology. It’s like nuclear proliferation, but it is much easier. ”

— Joseph S. Nye is aformer U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense, is currently a professor at Harvard.

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《40年前,美国国防部创造了互联网。今天,按照多数人的看法,美国仍然在网络的军事和社会用途上,居领先地位。》有一个想法

  1. 印尼矿产资源丰富,主要有石油、天然气、煤、锡、铝钒土、镍、铜和金、银等。已探明矿产储量为:石油500亿桶,天然气73万亿m3,煤360亿t。印尼与中国间的距离优势和资源互补优势,使中国和印尼矿业合作前景广阔。
    印尼矿产资源储备与开发现状
    (1)煤炭。印尼煤矿分布很广,是世界第9大煤炭生产国、第3大煤炭出口国,也是东南亚最大的煤炭生产、消费和出口大国。在过去8年中,印度尼西亚煤炭产量翻了一番多。1996年煤产量为5000万t,2003年增加3%,达到1.16亿t。产量增加,大部分是现有能力扩大的结果,也有新增能力的贡献,1998年以来新建了10座新煤矿。
    (2)锡矿。2000年锡储量80万t,居世界第4位。主要分布在苏门答腊东海岸外的廖内群岛,特别是邦加岛、勿里洞岛和新格岛。印度尼西亚的锡业主要由国营锡业公司经营,该公司可开采和加工锡矿砂,占全国锡产量的80%。长期以来,印度尼西亚一直是世界第二大产锡国,其锡产量2000年达到5.01万t,2002年增至6.18万t。其生产的锡砂在国内提炼成锡锭后大部分出口到海外。从出口值来看,锡过去曾是印尼出口创汇最多的矿产品,现在其出口值在出口的矿产品中已退居第5位。
    (3)镍矿。2000年已探明镍矿储量10亿t,其中镍的含量为1300万t,居世界第5位。镍矿石主要蕴藏在苏拉威西的梭罗科和帕玛拉、伊里安查亚的哇格岛及马鲁古北部的一些岛屿上。印度尼西亚在70年代中期同一家加拿大矿业公司签订工作合同,开始开采苏拉威西的2个大镍矿,从此成为镍的重要生产国。两大镍矿都设有镍冶炼厂,把开采出来的镍矿石炼成镍铁和镍锍。这两种镍产品除留少量用于国内生产不锈钢外,大部分都供出口。
    (4)铝土矿。2000年铝土矿储量5亿t,其中85%蕴藏在西加里曼丹,其余15%分布在廖内群岛中的宾坦岛及其周围小岛上。由于西加里曼丹地理位置偏远,基础设施又不足,所以那里的铝土矿到现在还没有开发。目前只有宾坦岛及周围岛屿上的铝土矿得到开发。铝土矿产量在90年代初出现大幅度增长,生产的铝土大部分未经加工提炼就出口到海外。
    (5)铜矿。2000年铜矿储量为1900万t,居世界第5位。其中大部分蕴藏在伊里安查亚中部的艾斯伯格山和格拉斯贝格,少量分布在苏拉威西、苏门答腊和爪哇。由于印度尼西亚国内至今还没有冶炼铜的能力,所以开采出来的铜矿石未经加工就全部出口海外。1999年出口48.50万t,居世界第2位。
    (6)金和银。2000年金矿储量为1800万t,居世界第5位。金矿在全国各大岛屿上都有分布,其中2700t蕴藏在伊里安查亚省的格拉斯贝格铜—金共生矿中,这是世界上已公布的单一矿山中最大的储金量,其余的1000万t分布在全国各地。银矿主要蕴藏在西爪哇的芝格托克。金银开采在印度尼西亚有着久远的历史。黄金产量增长呈波动趋势,1999年达129t,但2000年下降为117.5t,居世界第6位,2002年又呈大幅增长,产量增为166t。白银的产量也一直波动,1999年达到292.3t,居世界第11位;2000年与2001年呈上涨趋势,产量分别为334.6t与348.3t;2002年又大幅下降至250.7t。印度尼西亚生产的黄金和白银除留一部分在国内加工外,其余大部分用于出口。
    矿物与能源工业是印尼的支柱产业,在国内生产总值和出口创汇中占有重要地位。印尼的矿物与能源企业以石油与天然气生产为主。矿业部门在印尼经济恢复中起到非常重要的作用一。2002年,矿业部门在GDP中的份额上升了11.91%,12类矿产品中,石油与天然气在印尼经济中有举足轻重的地位,国家收入与支出预算是基于石油与天然气的产量与价格制定的。

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    印尼是东盟最大的国家,陆地面积191.9万平方公里,海洋面积316万平方公里(不含专署经济区),矿产资源丰富。金属矿主要有:铝土矿、镍矿、铁矿沙、铜、锡、金、银等;非金属矿主要有煤、石灰石和花岗岩。锌、水银、锰、铅、白土、安山岩、石英沙、长石、白云石、高岭土、膨润土、沸石、磷酸盐、石膏等也有一定的储量。但是由于印尼地质勘探技术落后,统计工作薄弱,资源开发利用能力差,政府对本国的资源储备状况掌握极不完整,长期以来矿产资源主要由外国公司开发利用。

    印尼能矿部的统计资料,其主要矿产资源储量和分布情况如下:

    一、矿产资源储量和分布情况

    (一)主要金属矿

    1、铝土矿

    印尼铝土矿资源储量为19亿吨,探明储量为2400万吨,主要分布在邦加岛和勿里洞岛、西加里曼丹省和廖内省。2004年产量为133万吨,出口110万吨。目前主要由印尼国营矿业公司PT. Aneka Tambang TBK进行铝土矿的开采工作,开采地点主要在廖内省宾淡岛和西加里曼丹省。印尼国内对铝土矿的需求量很少,虽然印尼有铝业公司如PT. Inalum,但其通常直接从国外(如澳大利亚)进口铝材。

    2、镍

    印尼镍矿资源储量约13亿吨,探明储量6亿吨,主要分布在马露古群岛、南苏拉威西省、东加里曼丹省和巴布亚岛。2004年镍矿砂产量约400万吨,出口约325万吨。目前,主要由印尼国营矿业公司PT Aneka Tambang Tbk和加拿大的PT International Nickel Indonesia(INCO)公司经营。与铝土矿一样,由于冶炼技术和设备的缺乏,印尼国内对镍矿需求很少,对镍产品的需求则从国外进口如中国、日本和美国。

    3、铁矿

    印尼铁矿主要分布在爪哇岛南部沿海,西苏门答腊、南加里曼丹和南苏拉威西,总储量为21亿吨,但开发利用较少。目前,从事铁矿生产的主要有印尼国营矿业公司和印尼铁矿砂公司,年产量仅几万吨。印尼铁矿不出口,主要满足国内需求。

    4、铜矿

    印尼铜矿主要分布在巴布亚岛的Grassberg、Inter-Mediate ore Zone和 Big Gossan地区、北苏拉威西岛的哥伦达洛省,资源储量约6600万吨,探明储量为4100万顿。2004年产量280万吨,出口约180万吨。印尼铜矿开采基本上被外国公司或合资企业所控制。美资占80%的PT Freeport Indonesia Company是印尼最大的铜业公司,其矿区在巴布亚岛。其次是美、日和印尼各占45%,35%和20%股份的PT Newmont Nusa Tenggara公司,矿区在西努沙登加拉岛。

    5、锡矿

    主要分布在西部的邦加勿里洞、井里汶岛以及苏门答腊岛的东海岸地区,资源储量146万吨,已探明储量约46万吨。2004年锡产量7.3万吨,出口4.8万吨。成品锡6%在国内销售,其余94%出口,其中出口美国和欧洲各19%,出口亚洲地区56%。目前,经营锡矿开采和加工的企业主要有印尼锡业有限公司和PT Koba Tin两家公司。

    6、金矿

    印尼金矿资源储量约191万吨,探明储量3200吨,主要分布在苏门答腊岛、苏拉威西、加里曼丹和巴布亚岛。2004年产量193吨,出口金锭790公斤。主要经营公司有印尼国营矿业公司,PT Newmont Nusa Tenggara、PT Freeport Indonesia Company、PT. Aneka Tambang、PT. Newmont Minahasa等5家公司。

    7、银矿

    印尼银矿资源储量约3.6万吨,探明储量1.1万吨,主要分布在邦加勿里洞群岛、苏门答腊岛西南的朋古鲁省、加里曼丹岛中西部和西爪哇岛。2004年产量为262吨,出口银锭412公斤。主要经营的有印尼国营矿业公司,PT Newmont Nusa Tenggara、PT Freeport Indonesia Company、PT.Aneka Tambang、 PT. kelian Equatorial Mining等5家公司。

    (二)主要非金属矿

    1、煤矿

    据印尼矿能部统计,印尼煤炭资源储量为580亿吨,已探明储量193亿吨,其中54亿吨为商业可开采储量。矿区主要分布在苏门答腊和加里曼丹两岛,其中苏门答腊占67%,加里曼丹占31%,煤矿99%为露天矿,开采条件比较好。2006年煤炭产量约1.83亿吨,其中1.34亿吨出口,根据2005-2006年世界煤炭贸易数据,印尼出口的煤炭占世界煤炭贸易量的25%。印尼无烟煤占总储量的0.36%;烟煤占14.38%;次烟煤占26.63%;褐煤58.63%。一般来说,印尼煤炭具有高水分、低灰分、低硫分、高挥发等特性。次烟煤热值为5700 – 7217kcal/kg,挥发份为37% – 42.15%,低硫0.1% – 0.85%;褐煤热值为4345 – 5830kcal/kg,挥发分24.1% – 48.8%,硫分0.1% – 0.75%。

    目前印尼有44家经营煤矿的公司,较大的有国营PT. Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam、澳大利亚与荷兰控股的PT.Adaro Indonesia、PT. Kaltim Prima Coal、及南韩投资的PT.kideco Jaya Agung等。

    2、石灰石

    印尼石灰石资源储量约340亿吨,探明储量约280亿吨,主要分布在西爪哇岛南部、东爪哇、东部的巴布亚省、巴厘岛和苏门答腊岛的南北两端。2004年产量为4000吨,出口782吨。在印尼经营石灰石的主要是一些地方公司。

    3、花岗石

    花岗石在印尼苏门答腊岛、巴布亚岛、苏拉威西岛等许多地方都有分布,储量估计超过160亿吨,2004年印尼花岗岩的产量是360万吨。印尼经营花岗石的主要公司是一家港资的私人企业PT. Karimun Granite和一些地方公司。

    除以上主要矿产外,印尼其他有一定规模储量的矿产如下表:

    矿产,储量

    1

    570万吨

    2
    水银
    525万吨

    3

    295万吨

    4

    144万吨

    5
    白土
    1994亿吨

    6
    安山岩
    643亿吨

    7
    石英沙
    162亿吨

    8
    长石头
    56亿吨

    9
    白云石
    17亿吨

    10
    高岭土
    5.8亿吨

    11
    膨润土
    4.9亿吨

    12
    沸石
    2.1亿吨

    13
    磷酸盐
    2000万吨

    14
    石膏
    700万吨

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    Indonesia’s rich mineral resources, mainly oil, gas, coal, tin, bauxite, nickel, copper and gold, and silver. Proven mineral reserves: 500 billion barrels of oil, natural gas, 73 trillion cubic meters, 36 billion tons of coal. The distance between Indonesia and Chinese strengths and resources of complementary strengths, so that the cooperation has broad prospects of Chinese and Indonesian mining.
    Indonesia’s mineral resources, reserves and development status
    (1) coal. Indonesian coal is widely distributed, is the world’s 9th largest coal producer, third largest coal exporting country in Southeast Asia’s largest coal production, consumption and exports big country. , Indonesia’s coal production more than doubled in the past eight years. 1996 coal production of 50 million tons, an increase of 3% in 2003 to reach 116 million tons. The increase in production, most of the expansion of existing capacity, and also the contribution of the new capacity, new 10 new coal mines since 1998.
    (2) tin. Tin reserves of 800 000 t in 2000, ranking the first in the world 4. Mainly distributed in Sumatra east coast of Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung Island and the new grid island. Indonesia Tin operated by the state-owned tin company, the company’s mining and processing of tin ore, accounting for 80% of the national tin output. A long time, Indonesia is the world’s second largest producer of tin, the tin production in 2000 reached 50.1 thousand tons, increased to 61 800 t in 2002. Its production of tin sand in the domestic refining into tin ingots are exported to overseas. The export value from the point of view, the tin in the past, Indonesia’s largest export of minerals and its export value in the export of minerals has been relegated to five.
    (3) nickel mine. 2000 has proven nickel ore reserves of 1 billion tons, of which the nickel content of 13 million tons, ranking first in the world 5. Nickel ore reserves are mainly found in Sulawesi shuttle Rocco and Pa Mala, Irian Jaya, wow grid island and Maluku northern parts of the island. In the mid-1970s, Indonesia signed a work contract with a Canadian mining company to start drilling two large nickel mine in Sulawesi, and has since become the important producer of nickel. The two nickel mines are equipped with a nickel smelter and nickel ore mined Make ferronickel and nickel matte. Both nickel products in addition to leaving a small amount used for domestic production of stainless steel, most of them for export.
    (4) bauxite. 2000 bauxite reserves of 500 million tons, 85 percent of deposits in West Kalimantan, the remaining 15% distributed on Bintan Island and its surrounding islands in the Riau Islands. West Kalimantan, remote location, the infrastructure is inadequate, so there’s bauxite up to now not been developed. Bauxite only Bintan Island and surrounding islands have been developed. Bauxite production in the early 1990s, and dramatically increased production of bauxite raw refining exported to overseas.
    (5) copper. 2000 copper reserves of 19 million tons, ranking first in the world 5. Most of them embedded in the central Irian Jaya Asperger Mountain and Glass Berger, a small amount distributed in Sulawesi, Sumatra and Java. Indonesia, the country has yet to copper smelting capacity, so the copper ore mined rough on all exported overseas. Export 485 000 t in 1999, ranking the world’s first two.
    (6) gold and silver. The 2000 gold reserves of 18 million tons, ranking first in the world 5. Gold has a distribution in the major islands, of which 2700t reserves Glass Berg copper in the province of Irian Jaya – Gold Ore, which is released a single mine in the world’s largest savings amount, and the remaining 10 million tons are distributed across the country. The silver mines are mainly found in West Java, Chi Ge Tuoke. Gold and silver mining in Indonesia has a long history. Gold production increased by a fluctuating trend, 1999 amounted to 129t, but in 2000 dropped to 117.5t the world 6, 2002 showed a substantial increase in production was increased to 166t. The production of silver has been volatile, in 1999 292.3t in the world 11; 2000 and 2001 showed a rising trend, the yields were the 334.6t with 348.3t; 2002, dropped sharply to 250.7t. Indonesian production of gold and silver in addition to remain part of the domestic processing, most of the rest for export.
    Minerals and energy industry is a pillar industry in Indonesia plays an important role in the GDP and export earnings. Indonesia’s mineral and energy companies the main oil and gas production. Mining sector to play a very important role in Indonesia’s economic recovery. In 2002, the share of mining sector in GDP rose by 11.91%, and 12 types of minerals, oil and gas in a pivotal position in the Indonesian economy, national income and expenditure budget is developed based on the oil and gas production and prices.

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    Indonesia is the largest country in ASEAN, the land area of ​​1.919 million square kilometers, 3.16 million square kilometers of ocean area (not including the exclusive economic zones), rich in mineral resources. Metal miners have: bauxite, nickel, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, etc.; nonmetal miners have coal, limestone and granite. Zinc, mercury, manganese, lead, clay, andesite, quartz sand, feldspar, dolomite, kaolin, bentonite, zeolite, phosphate, gypsum, etc. also have some reserves. However, due to the Indonesian Geological Survey, backward technology, poor statistical work, resources development and utilization of capacity, the Government’s own resources reserve position to grasp very incomplete, for a long time mineral resources by foreign companies, development and utilization.

    Indonesia can the statistics of the Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources, the main mineral resources reserves and distributed as follows:

    A mineral resource reserves and distribution of

    (A) metal ores

    1, bauxite

    Indonesia’s bauxite reserves of 1.9 billion tons of proven reserves of 24 million tons, mainly distributed in Bangka and Belitung Island, West Kalimantan and Riau. The annual output of 1.33 million tons in 2004, 1.1 million tons of exports. Is currently dominated by the Indonesian state-owned mining company PT Aneka Tambang TBK bauxite mining, mining sites in the Bin Batam, Riau and West Kalimantan. Indonesia’s domestic demand for bauxite rarely, Indonesia Aluminum Company, such as PT. Inalum, but often directly imported from foreign countries (eg Australia) aluminum.

    2, nickel

    Indonesian nickel ore reserves of about 1.3 billion tons of proven reserves of 600 million tons, mainly distributed in the Ma Lu ancient archipelago, South Sulawesi, East Kalimantan and Papua. Nickel ore production in 2004 about 400 million tonnes, exports about 3.25 million tons. At present, mainly operated by the Indonesian state-owned mining company PT Aneka Tambang Tbk and Canada PT International, Nickel, Indonesia (INCO). And bauxite, due to lack of smelting technology and equipment, Indonesia’s domestic demand for nickel ore, the demand for nickel products from foreign imports, such as China, Japan and the United States.

    3, iron ore

    Indonesian iron ore are mainly distributed in the southern coast of the island of Java, West Sumatra, South Kalimantan and South Sulawesi, the total reserves of 2.1 billion tons, but the development and utilization of less. At present, the iron ore production is mainly Indonesian state-owned mining companies and iron ore company in Indonesia, the annual output of only a few tons. Indonesia’s iron ore exports, mainly to meet domestic demand.

    4, copper

    Indonesia copper mainly in the province the Papua Grassberg, Inter-the Mediate ore Zone and Big Gossan area, North Sulawesi Island Columbia dalo, resource reserves are approximately 66 million tons of proven reserves of 41 million tons. 2004 annual production of 2.8 million tons, exports about 1.8 million tons. Copper mining in Indonesia is controlled basically by foreign companies or joint ventures. U.S. capital accounted for 80 percent of PT Freeport Indonesia Company, is Indonesia’s largest copper company, its mining area in Papua. Followed by the United States, Japan and Indonesia, respectively 45%, 35% and 20% stake in PT of Newmont Nusa Tenggara company, mining Xinushadeng Niagara Island.

    5, tin

    The holes are mainly distributed in the western Bangka not, the East Coast region of the Cirebon Island and the island of Sumatra, the reserves were 1.46 million tons, about 46 million tons of proven reserves. In 2004, tin production was 73,000 tons, 48,000 tons of exports. 6% of the finished products of tin in domestic sales, while the remaining 94% of exports, including exports to the United States and Europe 19%, export 56% of the Asian region. At present, engaged in tin mining and processing enterprises are mainly Indonesian Tin Co., Ltd. and PT Koba Tin, the two companies.

    6, gold

    Indonesia’s gold reserves of about 191 million tons of proven reserves of 3.2 thousand tons, mainly in Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua. 2004 production of 193 tons, and exports of gold ingots of 790 kg. The main operating company of the Indonesian state-owned mining company, PT of Newmont the Nusa Tenggara, the PT Freeport Indonesia Company, the PT Aneka Tambang, PT. Of Newmont Minahasa and other 5 companies.

    7, silver

    Indonesia silver reserves of about 3.6 million tons of proven reserves of 11,000 tons, mainly distributed in the Bangka not hole Islands, southwest of Sumatra island’s Bengkulu province, central and western Kalimantan and West Java. The 2004 production of 262 tons, 412 kg of export of silver bullion. Mainly engaged in the Indonesian state-owned mining company, PT of Newmont the Nusa Tenggara, the PT Freeport Indonesia Company, PT.Aneka Tambang, PT. Kelian at Equatorial Mining, etc. 5.

    (B) non-metallic mineral

    1, coal

    According to Indonesian Mines and Energy Department of Statistics, Indonesia’s coal reserves of 58 billion tons of proven reserves of 19.3 billion tons, 5.4 billion tons of recoverable reserves for the commercial. The mining area is mainly distributed in the two islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan, including Sumatra, 67%, Kalimantan, accounting for 31%, coal 99% for open pit mining conditions. The coal production in 2006 was about 183 million tons, of which 134 million tons of exports, world coal trade based on 2005-2006 data, the Indonesian coal exports accounted for 25 percent of world coal trade. Indonesia anthracite 0.36% of total reserves; bituminous coal accounted for 14.38%; sub-bituminous coal accounted for 26.63%; lignite 58.63%. In general, the Indonesian coal with high moisture, low ash, low sulfur points, high volatile. Value of sub-bituminous coal 5700 – 7217kcal/kg, 37% – 42.15% in volatile, low sulfur content of 0.1% – 0.85%; lignite thermal value of 4345 – 5830kcal/kg, volatile at 24.1% – 48.8%, 0.1% sulfur – 0.75%.

    Indonesia has 44 operating coal companies, large state-owned the PT Tambang Batubara the Bukit Asam, Australia and the Netherlands holding PT.Adaro Indonesia, PT. Kaltim Prima Coal, and South Korea to invest PT.kideco Jaya, Agung and so on.

    2, limestone

    Indonesian limestone reserves of about 34 billion tons of proven reserves of about 28 billion tons, mainly distributed in the northern and southern ends of the southern West Java, East Java, the eastern province of Papua, Bali and Sumatra island. 2004 annual production of 4000 tons, and exports 782 tons. Limestone operation in Indonesia is mainly local companies.

    3, granite

    Granite has in many parts of Sumatra, Indonesia, Papua, Sulawesi Island, distribution of reserve estimates over 16 billion tons in 2004, granite production, Indonesia is 3.6 million tons. Indonesia business granite company is a Hong Kong private companies PT. Karimun Granite and some local companies.

    In addition to the above the main mineral, Indonesia and other mineral reserves of a certain size in the following table:

    Mineral reserves

    A
    Zinc
    5.7 million tons

    2
    Mercury
    5.25 million tons

    3
    Manganese
    2.95 million tons

    4
    Lead
    1.44 million tons

    5
    Clay
    199.4 billion tons

    6
    Andesite
    64.3 billion tons

    7
    Quartz sand
    16.2 billion tons

    8
    Long stone
    5.6 billion tons

    9
    Dolomite
    1.7 billion tons

    10
    Kaolin
    580 million tons

    11
    Bentonite
    490 million tons

    12
    Zeolite
    210 million tons

    13
    Phosphate
    20 million tons

    14
    Plaster
    7 million tons

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