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Mineral resources in the Philippines
China Mining Net 114 April 16, 2007

Introduction: The Philippine mineral resources, mining news, market analysis, commodity prices market, the construction project information, mining transactions, journals, conference papers, as well as training courses, mining literature all in mining 114.

Philippines unique geographical and geological conditions, a relatively small land area is rich in natural mineral resources, occupies an important position in the world reserves of mineral resources. According to the Philippine National Geological and Mining Bureau data, calculated per unit area of ​​mineral reserves, gold reserves of the Philippines ranks third in the world copper reserves, ranks fourth in the world, fifth in the world reserves of nickel ore, chrome ore reserves in the world six. Only the current proven reserves of mineral resources, there are 13 kinds of metal ore and 29 kinds of non-metallic minerals.
Mining in the Philippines after a brilliant period of development in the pre-1980 development has been relatively slow in recent years. Compared to far cry from the role played by the mining industry in the national economy with its rich mineral resources. Add Philippine mining industry over the past decade annual output value accounted for the proportion of the Philippine’s GDP from 1.01% to 1.58%, mineral products exports accounted for a proportion of total exports of the Philippines at 1.47% to 6.38%, the mining industry directly employed population accounted for the proportion of total employment population in the Philippines 0.3% to 0.6%, the multiplier effect generated by the mining of approximately 4 to 10. The vast majority of the mineral products of the Philippines for export, especially metal mineral products, all for export. The major exporting countries are Japan, the rest of the exporting regions and countries, including Asia, North America, Europe and China, mining is the economic development of the Philippines stable source of foreign exchange.
In recent years, the Philippine government, according to the needs of national economic development, and vigorously advocate mining reform proposed mining of the mining system to nurture and develop the prosperity and competitive recovery plan, hoping to attract more mining investment and create employment opportunities through the revival of the Philippines mining increase government revenue, reduce poverty, promote economic growth. China is a relative lack of national mineral resources, rich mineral resources in the Philippines, and China’s neighboring excellent location, ideal region in the overseas exploitation of mineral resources in China. China and the Philippines to develop the mineral resources of the Philippines, will bring a win-win outcome for both countries.
1 Mineral Resources of the Philippines
Philippines has many world-class high-quality mineral resources, mineral resources, reserves are huge, widely distributed. According to the 1996 report released by the Philippine National Bureau of Mines data, metal ore reserves in the Philippines for 7.1 billion tonnes of non-metallic mineral reserves of 51 billion tonnes. Benguet Province, Philippines northern Luzon, Zambales province, Marinduque Province; Central Visayas, Samar region NegrosOccidental province; west of Palawan and Mindanao SurigaodelNorte province, Davao Province, DavaoOriental, ZamboangadelNorte province are important mineral zones .
1.1 Mineral Resources of the Philippines classification
Mineral Resources of the Philippines is divided into the six types of precious metal ore, ferroalloy ore, base metals mining, fertilizer, ore, industrial minerals, precious stones and decorative quarry, etc.. According to the needs of economic development and mining conditions and other factors limit, currently only selectively mined gold in the metal ore, phosphate ore, chromium, nickel, copper and non-metallic mineral guano, clay, dolomite, , feldspar, limestone, marble, perlite, silica, stone, sand, salt, diorite, serpentine rock.
The main metal minerals in the Philippines is the direct sale of raw ore (ORES) and grinding, washing, drying, grading and processing of the concentrate product (the Concent Rate). Non-metallic mineral products in accordance with the requirements of the different technical indicators on the market for reprocessing.
1.2 metal mineral resources
1.2.1 The copper resources
Metal ores in the Philippines, copper reserves of 4.8 billion tons, accounting for 67.5% of the total reserves of metal ores. Philippine copper porphyry copper-based, are distributed all over the country. Major copper-producing areas in the mountains of Northern Luzon, Zambales, Benguet, NuevaViscaya and southern SurigaodelNorte, Davao, Davao Oriental,. Geological exploration work, the Philippines, there are still a large number of copper deposits and copper far attractions. Recently, Western Australia mining company announced a world-class copper – gold found in South Cotabato, it is estimated that 10.442 million tons of copper reserves, gold reserves of 227 369t, the total value of at least 100 to $ 20 billion; the feasibility of the Climax-the Arimco mining company The study shows that in NuevaVizcaya Dinkidi copper project, copper ore reserves of more than 17 million tons.
1.2.2 The gold resources
Philippines gold composite ore and rock in the form exists, the main mining area in Baguio, Paracale, Masbate, Surigao, and Masara. Geological experts that, according to the geological features of the Philippines, the largest and richest gold deposits are likely hidden dislocation region close to the natural forces in the Philippines, the recent gold exploration operations has been the development of shallow storage area. Australian prospecting company in Rapu-Rapu Island reserves of more than 600 million t of gold – copper – silver, ore, gold 3g / t, silver 37g / t; copper content of 1.46%, 2.33% of the zinc content.
1.2.3 nickel ore resources
Philippine nickel ore reserves of about 1.09 billion tons, accounting for 15.5% of the total reserves of metal ores. Which has proven reserves of 1.02 billion tons, accounting for 93.72% of the total reserves of nickel ore, with an average grade of 0.23% to 2.47%; of reserves of 56.3 million tons, accounting for 5.17%, with an average grade of 0.36% to 1.24%; probable reserves for 1210 million t, with an average grade of 0.23% to 2.27% (Note: The total reserves to proved reserves, can be expected reserves and probable reserves, and). Philippine nickel ore bauxite mostly high nickel content, the majority in the shallow soil, easy mining and low cost. Nickel ore is concentrated in Davao Oriental, and Palawan, the reserves were 475.7 million tons (43.69% of total reserves) and 407.1 million tons (37.38%) of the total reserves. Other large-scale nickel deposit the Province the Surigaodel Norte, and Zambales. Mindex ASA, Norway prospecting companies in the exploration of Mindoro, the total reserves of 225 million tons (dry weight) of nickel ore, nickel metal content of 1% cobalt content of 0.1% (cobalt is usually associated with nickel, an important byproduct of the production of nickel .)
1.2.4 chromite resources
Chromite is mainly found in the Zambales province and SurigaodelNorte, Province of Dinagat Island. The size of the chromite ranging from large-scale chromite reserves in millions of tons. Zambales province Coto chromite It is believed that the world’s largest known reserves of chrome ore difficult financial.
In addition, the bauxite resources in the Philippines is very rich. Bauxite resources are mainly concentrated in the the SAMAR region in East Visayas, estimated geological reserves of 242 million tons, an average of 40.80% Al2O3 content, the total value of approximately $ 21 billion.
1.3 Non-metallic mineral resources
Non-metallic mineral is an important source of the Philippines, construction, agriculture and electricity. Is the Philippines largest reserves of non-metallic minerals, limestone have been found in the Philippines around the reserves of 29 billion tonnes, accounting for 57% of non-metallic mineral reserves; marble reserves of 8.5 billion tonnes, accounting for 16.7 percent of non-metallic mineral reserves; Philippine coal reserves were high and of poor quality, mainly found in Surigao and ZamboangadelNorte, Province; phosphate located Lligan; silicon deposits the ZamboangadelNorte province; the world’s largest magnesium mine in the vicinity of Davao found.
2 Philippine Mining Development
2.1 Philippine Mining Development Overview
The development of the Philippine mining by domestic political and economic environment, mining techniques, international market prices, as well as environmental protection and other factors show large fluctuations.
By the 1980s, the Philippines has taken the open economic policies, and actively attract foreign investment, economic development has achieved some success, in 1982, the World Bank as middle-income countries. During this period, the Philippine mining industry has been rapid development, especially the mining of metal ores showing prosperity. The Philippines was one of the top five gold producing countries in the world production of copper, chromium and nickel is also ranked within the world’s top ten. The Philippines has no smelter, metal mineral products used for export. In 1970 and 1981, mineral exports the largest contribution to export to the Philippines, accounting for 15% to 25% of the annual total exports of the Philippines. Its peak in 1974, mineral exports accounted for 25% of the total exports of the Philippines.
The mid-1980s to the early 1990s, mining production scale in the Philippines reached its peak. New output value accounted for the proportion of the Philippine’s GDP was maintained at between 1.5% to 2.08% this period, mining, mining added output value of the highest on record is 12.3 billion pesos in 1986, accounting for 2.08 percent of GDP; mining employees an average of 14.7 million mining employees in 1988 had reached the highest value of 15.7 million; the mineral highest amount of 1992 to reach the benchmark mineral amount (mine output in 1978 1) 3.14 times, due to the decline of international market prices and domestic demand. increase in mineral exports accounted for only about 6.5% of the total exports of the Philippines.
Since the mid-1990s, due to political instability, fluctuations in international market for metals and minerals prices and exploitation of backward technology and shortage of funds and environmental protection issues, the Philippines have been closed in several major metal mine, so the amount of a straight line of metal ores decline. In particular, copper production decreased by 302 000 t in 1981 to 20 000 t in 2001. However, due to non-metal mines during this period of high growth, especially between 1996 and 1999, non-metallic mineral values ​​than metallic mineral values, and become the protagonist of the mining sector, the Philippine mining industry as a whole maintained at a relatively stable lower level. During this period, mining added output value of about 10 billion pesos a year, accounted for only 1.01% of GDP in 2001, mining employees an average of 10 million, mining employees in 1999 reached the lowest point in 20 years, 8.9 million people ; mineral is about 1.5 times of the benchmark mineral and mineral exports account for about 2% of the total exports of the Philippines.
President Arroyo came to power, mining development, high hopes for mining recovery plan, and actively encourages foreign investment in the development of the mining industry of the Philippines, the Philippine mining industry showed signs of recovery. The Philippine mining industry output value of 33 billion pesos in 2002; new output value of 15.3 billion pesos, accounting for 1.46 percent of GDP in Philippines; mineral exports of $ 519 million, accounting for 1.47% of total exports; the country’s total tax revenue of 2.06 billion pesos; direct employing 10.1 million people, accounting for 0.3% of the total employment population in the Philippines.
At present, the Philippines is running a mining project, including two large-scale mines (Padcal copper and Victoria gold), five medium-sized mines (RioTuba nickel ore, Cagdianao nickel ore, Taganito nickel mine SurigaoKrominco chrome ore, Masinloc chrome ore), 18 a cement plant and quarry, a medium-sized marble factory, about 2500 small mines and quarries (small-scale miners of gold, chrome ore, quarries, mainly marble, limestone, construction aggregate, etc.).
2.2 the development of metal mining
Before the mid-1990s, the metal mining has been a dominating position in the Philippine mining, production and value has been declining, to the mining industry output value of the metal mining output in 1995 accounted for only 54.43%. 1996-1999, metal mining output to lag behind non-metallic mineral values ​​peaked at nine percent. In 2000, the Metal Mining output value to more than the non-metallic mineral, showing a recovery and development state of affairs. In metal ore mining, copper and chrome ore production overall performance decline, gold and nickel production fluctuations continue to grow.
2.2.1 The development of the copper industry
Philippine copper mining began in the 14th century. After World War II, large-scale mining porphyry copper deposits in the new technology, a new development opportunities for the development of the copper industry in the Philippines. 1980 copper industrial development in the Philippines during the peak period, when 1 million tons of annual output of copper concentrate, is the world’s fifth largest copper-producing countries. At the same time, geological exploration work has also made brilliant progress, and found at least 48 brass bed and a large number of far attractions. Since 1982, copper production slow decline in copper production in 1990 was 60% in 1981. Because some of the problems in the mining and geological, as well as international market prices continued to fall and two copper company in the Philippines before and after 1996 in violation of Government Environmental Protection Act, was closed down, several other copper projects have been closed or discontinued, and many other the impact of factors, copper production fell sharply in 2000, copper output was only 6.6% in 1981. Although the two copper project started in 1999 and 2000, respectively, slowed the rate of decline of the copper industry, but still not enough to reverse the rapid decline since 1996, the first half of 2003, refined copper production in the Philippines is only 4.1 million t
2.2.2 chromite industry
Chromite production due to changes in the international market demand large from the big V, is very unstable. 439,000 tons of annual output of chrome ore in the Philippines in 1979, 1988, dropped to 171,000 tons, after a short-term rebound in 1989 to 1991, once again fell into a trough in 1993, when the output of only 65,000 t. 1993 to 1996, the Japanese steel industry demand chromium mineral is again an average of 22% of the annual growth rate, however, reduced due to the Visayas and Mindanao region part of the small size of the chromite in 1997, while production fell 16.7 percent, further decline of 58 percent in 1998 annual output. Philippines in April 2000 only the ability to produce hard financial chromium Benguet company to resume production of the Masinloc chromite, only chromite industry development in the Philippines has been breathing chance, the 2001 annual production reached 28,000 tons.
2.2.3 the development of the gold mining industry
The development of the Philippine gold mining industry is relatively stable, the average annual output of more than 30 tons. Due to diminished investor interest in gold, the gold mining industry continues to grow. Although in recent years in the international market price of gold fell some impact on gold production, but four gold projects newly started and small mineral amount of the increase is still significantly grow gold production increased to 1991 25.95t 2001 33.84t. The first half of 2003, production reached 16.82t.
2.2.4 the development of nickel mining
Nickel mines are open pit mining, and by climatic conditions. In the early 1990s, after a slight decline due to adverse natural factors, the production of nickel ore, nickel production has been growing faster. In recent years, El Niño, the Philippines dry season extended to provide a longer operating time for the nickel mining, nickel production to unprecedented growth from 1993 to 7952t leap to 20685t in 1998, an increase of nearly six years 1.6 times. The first half of 2003, nickel ore production reached 539858t (dry weight), to create the output value of 819 million pesos.
2.3 Non-metallic mining
Non-metallic mining is the most active part of the local mining industry in the Philippines, including building sand, stone, cement and coal mining. Since the early 1980s, in addition to individual years, the production and value of non-metallic mining maintained a sustained and stable growth. Since 1995, the booming domestic construction industry in the Philippines, sand, stone and cement and other building materials demand a sharp increase in yield a substantial increase of these three minerals, the Philippine cement production reached 134 000 t in 2002, non- the overall output of the metal mining sector will experience a few years of high growth, once accounted for 54% to 59% of the mining output. After 2000, developmental delay due to non-metallic mining sector, non-metallic mineral value of the ratio of total mining output value dropped to 36.7 percent in 2002.
Coal is an important energy mineral in the Philippines, with the development of the Philippine economy, the increasing demand for coal. Since 2000, the Philippine’s annual demand for coal are more than 8 million tons in 2002 to reach 8.5 million tons. Philippine coal production has always been about 1.3 million tons per year, the highest production yield of the Year 2002 only 1.665 million tons of coal demand gap by importing large quantities of to solve the coal imports in the Philippines in 2002 reached 5.93 million tons.

Mineral Resources of the Philippines

The Philippines has abundant mineral resources, mainly divided into the six types of precious metal ore, ferroalloy ore, base metals mining, fertilizer, ore, industrial minerals, precious stones and decorative quarry, etc.. Is the world’s major copper, gold, chromium, nickel, and cobalt-producing countries and exporting countries, iron, coal, oil and gas, silica sand and other mineral resources are also very rich. Currently has proven reserves of mineral resources, there are gold, copper, nickel, aluminum, chromium, cobalt, silver, lead, zinc and other 13 kinds of metal ore and phosphate ore, clay, dolomite, feldspar and other 29 kinds of non-metallic mine.

According to the 1996 report released by the Philippine National Bureau of Mines data, metal ore reserves in the Philippines was 71 million tons of non-metallic mineral reserves of 78.5 billion tons. Which accounted for the majority of the mineral reserves of the metal copper, the ratio of 70%, followed by nickel, accounting for 16%; non-metallic minerals, limestone and marble, accounting for almost 85% of the reserves. Benguet Province, Philippines northern Luzon, Zambales province, Marinduque Province; Samar areas in Central Visayas, Negros the Occidental Province; west of Palawan and Mindanao, Surigao del Norte, Province, Davao Province, Davao Oriental province, Zamboanga del Norte, Province are important mineral district.

According to the Philippine National Geological and Mining Bureau data, calculated per unit area of ​​mineral reserves, gold reserves of the Philippines ranks third in the world copper reserves, ranks fourth in the world, fifth in the world reserves of nickel ore, chrome ore reserves in the world six.

According to the needs of economic development and mining conditions and other factors limit, currently only selectively mined gold in the metal ore, phosphate ore, chromium, nickel, copper and non-metallic mineral guano, clay, dolomite, , feldspar, limestone, marble, perlite, silica, stone, sand, salt, diorite, serpentine rock. Southeast Asia’s biggest copper producer in the country and the world’s third-largest gold-producing base.

(A) of metallic mineral resources

1, copper resources

Metal ores in the Philippines, copper reserves of 4.8 billion tons, accounting for 67.5% of the total reserves of metal ores. According to data reported in the country per square kilometer copper 134 tons, ranking fourth in the world. 2002 Philippine Environment and Natural Resources Ministry of Mines and Geosciences Bureau to assess the Philippine copper of 5.3 billion tons.

Philippine copper porphyry copper-based, are distributed all over the country. Major copper-producing areas in the mountains of Northern Luzon, Zambales, Benguet, Nueva, Viscaya and southern Surigao del Norte, Davao, Davao Oriental,. Geological exploration work, the Philippines, there are still a large number of copper deposits and copper far attractions. Large copper and gold mine in the Tampakan region of the southern island of Mindanao is expected to contain 18.75 million tons of copper and 454 t of gold. Recently, the Australian Western Mining Corporation announced a world-class copper – gold found in South Cotabato, estimated copper reserves of 10.442 million tons, 227-369 tons of gold reserves, the total value of at least 100-200 billion U.S. dollars; Climax-Arimco mining is feasible The research report shows copper project in Nueva, Vizcaya, the Dinkidi, copper ore reserves of more than 17 million tons; South Africa, Anglo American (Anglo American) and the Philippines Philae Phoenix Mining Company (of Philex Mining), a joint venture, plans to develop the southern North special delicacies Province, Bo Wing copper (Boyongan), geologists estimate the ore reserves of about 219 million tons.

, Cebu Province, copper is mainly concentrated in the town of Toledo. Toledo town (Toledo) Copper was once the largest copper mine in Southeast Asia. 1994, Atlas Consolidated Mines Development Group in mining, has been mined for copper ore, 863 million tons, 6.34 tons refined refined copper, the copper content of 0.41%. The mine was once Southeast Asia’s biggest copper mine closed in 1994 due to typhoons and metal prices fell. The mine consists of three main mining area, respectively Lutopan mine, the Biga mine and Carmen mine, proven remaining copper ore for 874 million tons. Currently, the company has gather together ready to re-mining of the $ 100 million, is expected to be able to produce annually 175,000 tons of copper concentrates, including about 60,000 tons of copper. The other regions have proven there is copper: Sinsin and Sudlon, Biga and Kanapnapan Pansol, Maypay, Matugan, these areas of the copper content ranged from 0.15% to 1.32%.

1980s, the the East Negro province the the Basay region Maglinao Village, a copper mining and copper content of 0.14% -0.56%, has stopped mining. The Bayawan areas in the province Magting Village and Tayawan Village copper, take the ore sample analysis of copper content of 0.14% -0.28%. San Jose Siapo Village, proven mining area of ​​506 hectares, the copper content of 12.18% -36.40%.

Table 1 copper resources in the Philippines

Deposits or mines

Ore (100 million t)

Average grade (%)

The amount of metal (million t)

Tan Pokan

22.0

0.75

1280

Jinao An

5.0

0.37

185

Jinjin

3.15

0.44

139

Hinobaan

180.6

Kinhking

1875

Maricalum

200

Tampakan

6.59

Cu0.81

Dinkidi

1700 tons

Toledo

8.81

359

Boyongan

2.19

South Cotabato

1044.2

2, chromite resources

Philippines 9 chromium-containing ophiolite belt, chromite rich in natural resources. According to official information of the Philippines chromite reserves of 30.2 million tons in 1982. Chromite exist in Luzon in Zambales Province and North Surigao province of Dinagat Island. Chromite bed size ranging from large-scale chromite reserves in millions of tons. The main magmatic deposits, chromite sand deposits in Samar.

(1) of Zambales Province, chromite resources

Known three Zambales Mountains 62 chromite origin, geological data is only 21. The typical deposit of each block the Acoje (Ake Jie), Kinamaligan, Gahalao, Silaguin, Coto, (Coto chromite beds located in Zambales, Masinloc area), while chromite bed Acoje famous.

Acoje (A Kejie) deposits, about 16 kilometers, is located in the the Zambales Hill north-central 圣克鲁斯南 stuff reserves of about 3.48 million tons, are being exploited. Is the largest metallurgical grade chrome ore producer. It is believed that the world has ever known the largest reserves of chrome ore difficult financial. Orebodies parallel to the wall rock intrusion, along the strike of the 8 km long, spanning Acoje, Dawn, Aurora3 mines, thickness of 10m, by the faults and squeeze local up to 40m. The surrounding rocks are dunite, harzburgite, chromite ore types are blocky, Article sash-like, disseminated by the rich to the poor, and gradually over. Ore grade: Cr2o347-49%, Al2O314.1%, MgO6.8%, SiO21.2%, ferrochrome than 2.7, belonging to the metallurgical grade.

(2) Diener Ghat (Dinagat) Island chromite resources

Diener Ghat Island is one of the relatively rich areas of the Philippines, the country’s major chromite resources in the 1830s. First discovered chromite exist, the natural resources of the United Nations Loan Fund in 1989-1990 chose two regions of the western Philippines island of Palawan and the eastern part of Diener Ghat Island to carry out mineral exploration for chromite, with an emphasis on Diener Ghat Island chromite area evaluated. Diener Ghat Island hair chromite-based, two gold and two nickel ore body.

Diener Ghat, the main intrusive rocks, a small amount of sedimentary rock. Intrusive rocks are the most important orthopyroxene olivine rocks and dunite, part of the gabbro, basalt; sedimentary rocks only a small amount of reef limestone and Quaternary alluvial and flood. Fault structure and development, north-east fracture earlier than the North West to fracture, post-northeast-trending faults further activation, cutting northwest trending faults. Has been found in many islands, north-central chromite, northern Acojc – the Mount Kanbilio – 7 deposits in Krominco the the Central Velqre 7 deposits, mine sites spread all over not less than 50, according to preliminary statistics, but Tarzan mode are small.

Chromite district general mainly exposed orthopyroxene peridotites, faulted structure development, the main north-east, north-west to the two groups. Chromite body is produced in the contact zone of dunite and orthopyroxene of peridotite, the ore body as veins, toward the northwest, dips, dip 50 – 60 degrees, by the tectonic impact of changes in complex form, often branch complex phenomenon. By a number of lode ore belt, length 200m – 500m wide and tens of meters to more than one hundred meters. Single ore body length is generally 30m – 200m, width at least tens of centimeters up to ten meters. The veins are often small fault cut. Ore body and surrounding rock boundaries clear.

Massive ore, banded, disseminated structure, chromite, chrome spinel, olivine, pyroxene and other components, particle size 2mm – 5mm. Cr2O3 content 26 – 53%, generally 35 – 45% Cr / Fe is generally about 3.

The orebodies surface often residual slope plot chromite ore distribution wider than that of native ore body large, is one of the primary ore prospecting criteria. The deposit type is the magma deposits.

(3) Juan Island chromite sand deposits

Samar chromite sand deposits exploration 1976 to 1981, including three Mcarthar, Porlos, Salcedo ferrochrome sand deposits. Which Mcarthar deposit ore area of ​​50 square kilometers in the residual laterite covers over the top of the serpentinized peridotite and peridotite, the thickness of 1-6 m, ore body was layered ore volume of 35.4 million cubic meters, The average ore was 59.3 kg / m. The composition of the of ferrochromium sand ore: Cr2o347.88%, Al2O312.05%, MgO6.09%, SiO21.37%, ferrochrome than 1.3-2.1. Located in karst depressions, the effect due to the flow of mine shafts, ore rates up to 140.72 kg / cubic meter.

3, nickel and mineral resources

According to the survey of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Philippine nickel ore reserves of about 1.586 billion tons (total reserves of proven reserves can be expected reserves and probable reserves), accounting for 15.5% of the total reserves of metal ores. Which has proven reserves of 1.02 billion tons, accounting for 93.72% of the total reserves of nickel ore, the average quality in the range 0.23% -2.47%; can be expected reserves of 56.3 million tons, accounting for 5.17%, the quality of the range of 0.36% -1.24%; may reserves of 12.1 million tons, the quality in the range 0.23% -2.27%.

Native of the Philippines little nickel ore, nickel ore almost all secondary deposits, 99% of nickel laterite, and more for the high nickel content of laterite, mostly in the shallow soil, easy mining and low cost. Laterite nickel ore is concentrated in Davao Oriental, and Palawan, the reserves were 475.7 million tons (43.69%) of total reserves and 407.1 million tons (total reserves of 37.38%). Other large-scale nickel deposits in the province of Surigao del Norte and Zambales. Another, NiHAO Mineral Resources International, Inc. for its Zambales (the Zambales) provincial the Botolan mining area early exploration ore nickel grade of 1.4%, 1.6% and 1.8%.

Philippine laterite deposit as follows:

(1) Nonoc nickel mine

Nonoc nickel ore 1960s, the world’s largest nickel mine one. According to the feasibility study report in June 2000, the nickel resources inferred reserves of 130 million tons.

(2) Mindoro nickel mine

Mindoro Island, 200 kilometers in Manila, the Norwegian Mindex ASA prospecting company in the exploration of Mindoro, the total reserves of 225 million tons (dry weight) of nickel ore, and its nickel-metal content of 1%, 0.1% of the cobalt metal content. (Cobalt is usually associated with nickel, an important byproduct of the production of nickel).

(3) the Caga Nickel Mine

Recoverable reserves of 12.74 million tons of nickel grade of 1.58%, 0.11% cobalt grade.

(4) Taganito nickel mine

Reserves of 11.5 million tons of nickel grade of 2.38%.

(5) Rio Tuba Nickel Mine

Ore reserves of 1.5 million tons, 2.3% nickel grade.

(6) the Hinatuan nickel mine

Reserves of 25 million tons, 1.4% of the nickel grade.

(7) Adlay nickel mine

Recoverable reserves of 5.82 million tons of nickel grade of 1.61%, 0.09% cobalt grade.

4, cobalt and mineral resources

Philippines cobalt is mainly distributed in lateritic nickel deposit, usually associated with nickel, an important byproduct of the production of nickel. According to the statistics of the U.S. Geological Survey, 2002, the Philippines cobalt metal content of reserve base of 400,000 tons. Norwegian Mindex ASA prospecting companies in the exploration of Mindoro (Mindoro), found that a huge amount of resources of nickel – cobalt, 0.1 percent of its cobalt content. Caga nickel mine cobalt grade of 0.11%. Adlay nickel-cobalt ore grade of 0.09%.

5, bauxite resources

Bauxite is mainly concentrated in the central Philippine Islands East Visayas, Samar Island. The estimated geological reserves of 242 million tons, an average of Al2O3 content of 40.80%, the total value of about $ 21 billion. The last century, the 1970s, geological exploration work is very active, had a foreign company has developed a development plan, due to the Marcos government announced that the Philippine government to develop bauxite resources of the region did not materialize, and stagnation so far.

Mining area of ​​which the greatest potential for the mine for the the Xi Sama province of BARI, AMPI mining area, deposit type of lateritic bauxite, no native bauxite, deposits occur in the karst depressions in the ore was loose earthy ore minerals are gibbsite and boehmite, the AI2O3 average 45%.

6, gold, silver resources

Indonesia located in the west Pacific tectonic magmatic activity with a Philippine region, producing a large number of low-sulphidation epithermal epithermal gold deposits.

The main gold mining area of ​​the Philippines in Baguio, Paracale, Masbate, Surigao, and Masara. Gold ore reserves of 136 million tons. Philippine Environment and Natural Resources Ministry of Mines and Geosciences Bureau in 2002 to assess the Philippine gold ore reserves of 970 million tons. Geological experts that, according to the geological features of the Philippines, the largest and richest gold deposits are likely hidden dislocation region close to the natural forces in the Philippines, the recent gold exploration operations has been the development of shallow storage area. Australian prospecting company in Rapu-Rapu Island, discovered reserves of more than 600 tons of gold – copper – silver, 3 grams per ton of ore gold, silver, 37 grams; copper content of 1.46%, 2.33% of the zinc content. (Silver is usually associated with gold, copper, is a byproduct of the production of gold, copper). 61% of the whole Philippine gold reserves in the Visayas region, East Negro province is also an important mineral district.

Cebu provincial gold copper mine in Toledo town, 1994, while copper mining, has been mined and refined to 42.95 thousand ounces of gold per tonne of ore gold to 0.23 g. Atlas estimates that the mine also collected 461,256 ounces of gold. In addition, the Toledo town Sigpit region there are some small-scale mining, the gold content is relatively high, 9.85 grams per ton of ore gold can reach. The Kang Suola Kaohsiung City (Consolacion) Garing region also found a gold mine. Ayungon, Negro province, region, East ore sampling, analysis, found that per ton of ore gold content can be up to 4-5 grams, 3 grams of ore gold content of Amlan River Gorge. The Siaton area may be gold. Paul and provincial small-scale gold mining, gold in the Tuba-tuba, Kauswagan, Bonakan, Sto. Nino, Cangmundo, San Vicente, Cantabugnay these areas have to take the ore sample analysis, the gold content of 4.1 g.

In 2007, the world’s fourth largest copper producer Xstrata Copper announced Tanpa Kan (the Tampakan) copper-gold project, according to new data, has proven ore reserves of 659 million tons, measured resources, the presumption of resources, speculate that resources totaling 2.2 billion tons (0.32 grams of gold per ton of ore), containing a total of 15.2 million ounces of gold.

Another Toledo, copper gold reserves of 5 million ounces.

Silvermine general and associated with copper, is a byproduct of the production of gold, copper. Atlas, Toledo Mining Area, per ton of ore containing silver 2.05 grams, also refined to approximately 1.75 million ounces. The other Silvermine areas, there Maypay Matugan, Mabini-Panoypanoy. Matugan silver content higher per ton of ore containing silver 0.2-6.02 oz.

Geological features, such as northern Luzon in the Philippines Baguio mine Acupan-Antamocu gold deposits, veins occur both in the body of intrusive rocks of the Oligocene Pliocene volcanic rocks and volcanic sedimentary rocks appeared in the same period. Deposits by faults and volcanic agencies control. The main mineralization type of quartz vein mineralization. Into because of the shallow epithermal gold deposits, and formed at the top of the underlying porphyry copper deposit.

7, the iron ore resources

Region iron ore reserves will can up to 140 million tons. In the East Negro province Tagpo, Sab-Ahan and Lonoy, Bais City, 89,000 tons of iron ore reserves. In the east of Luzon in the north province of Gan MA Ren (camarines norte) Domaco iron ore deposits, iron ore resources of 10 million tons. Another in Talamban, Cebu Province metasomatic iron ore deposits.

In Cebu province of iron ore in the Talamban storage metasomatic deposit, concentrated along the calcareous layer of volcanic-sedimentary formation of the bright color of ore, a large number of hematite, magnetite, followed by limonite and pyrite, gangue consists of malachite, azurite, calcite, garnet, chlorite, epidote, quartz and mafic minerals.

Domaco iron ore deposits, located in the southwest of Luzon Island in the eastern North Gan MA Ren, camarines norte Bage Ni Ban City (jose panganniban),. Pre by the detailed investigation of the region of iron ore resources of 10 million tons.

The iron formation Fu there are change andesitic volcanic breccia and sand, shale contact zone of mineralized skarn zone, close to, or exposed at the surface, and the terrain slope is consistent with the surface subjected to a tropical rain intense weathering and erosion, manifested in the surface of iron ore partial spherical weathering characteristics or into a powder-like, granular, or magnetic weakening characteristics, mineralization grade uneven, in the middle of the strong magnetization of the rich iron ore, TFe grade of , surrounded by a weak magnetization of depleted iron ore for more than 50% of TFe grade of about 30%, and generally contain copper mineralization, grade 0.1%, local enrichment up to 12%.

Mainly by the the ⅰ number ⅱ No. ore body. The the ⅰ ore body about 390 meters, control inclined depth of 200 m, ore body at the top of the depth from 0-51 m, preliminary estimate of the iron ore resource of 2869.81 tons (332,333), the average true thickness of 14.45 meters ( The average vertical thickness of 15.74 m), with an average grade of 36.15% copper grade of 0.24%; depleted ore body resource of 173.21 tons (334), an average grade of 22.89% copper grade of 0.14%. The total iron ore resource of 3043.02 tons (332 333 334).

The ⅱ number of iron ore body is about 450 meters, maximum wear mine thickness of 72 meters, control inclined depth of 500 meters depth from 10 m to 50 m. See results from the 37 line part of the drilling of copper laboratory, drilling ddh24 Kong, the average copper grade of 0.47%, 48.05 m thickness of the wear mine; ddh16 hole copper an average grade of 0.44 percent, to wear mine the thickness of 21.00 meters; ddh3701 hole two layers of copper ore body, the first layer of an average grade of 0.58 percent, to wear mine the thickness of 16.07 meters, the second layer of copper an average grade of 2.00%, 10.88 m thick, the highest grade of 4.37%, indicating that the local existence of Heavy copper ore body. Estimate the amount of iron ore resources of over ten million tons.

The ore is mainly magnetite ore. Natural type is disseminated, dense massive weakly magnetic iron ore; type of industry: According to the ratio of (CaO MgO) / (SiO2 Al2O3) 0.27, identified as the acidic ore and associated useful elements and harmful elements (S content of 2.70% ) exceeded the requirements, to take advantage of the need for beneficiation after, so the industry types need to choose the magnetite ore.

Type of contact metasomatic iron deposits – hydrothermal iron deposits. The ore mainly to shape it a granular texture and massive structure.

Orebody footwall pyrrhotite, pyrite of the skarn and hornfels, tuffaceous marble, sandstone and shale. On the disk is altered andesitic breccia, mainly locally altered andesitic porphyry, andesite, folders rock skarn pyritization.

Hydrology and engineering geology of mining technical conditions belong to the simplicity of the type.

8, manganese resources

Manganese in Bohol province, volcanic rock weathering out of the limestone surface.

Anda peninsula southeast of Tabanan, Guindulman Bo.Tayud Anda, regional and northern Pangpang areas have had the commercial exploitation of manganese, as well as the reserves of smaller areas such as Jagna, Duero and Buenavista, Carmen, Guindulman Anda area New Frontier Mine, the company has proven reserves of manganese 20% manganese ore 120,000 tons. Such as Larena, Siquijor province, Maria Zambales Base Metal Company belongs to the manganese content of 28% manganese ore reserves of 119,000 tons, Larena, Maria, Enrique Villanueva of regional New the Frontier Mines, Company-owned manganese 33.61% of the manganese 117,000 tons. According to another report, in the Duke Verapaz region of Luzon manganese ore (270 million tons of manganese-rich).

(B) non-metallic mineral resources

Non-metallic mineral is an important source of the Philippines, construction, agriculture and electricity. Is the Philippines largest reserves of non-metallic minerals, limestone have been found in the Philippines around the reserves of 29 billion tonnes, accounting for 57% of non-metallic mineral reserves; marble reserves of 8.5 billion tonnes, accounting for 16.7 percent of non-metallic mineral reserves; Philippine coal reserves were high and of poor quality, mainly found in Surigao and Zamboanga del Norte province; phosphate located Lligan; silicon deposits in Zamboanga del Norte province; found in Davao near the world’s largest magnesium mine.

1, clay

Cebu province Guinsay, Danao City; Kotkot, compostela; Cogon, Lataban and Tayud Liloan; pooc, Talisay; Lipata, Minglanilla, Valladolid, Carcar and other City there are 763 million tons of reserves, the in Calong-calong, Bato Toledo; Mangoto, Pandacan 21,000 cubic meters, Pinamungajan in Langub, Mangiao, Asturias 210,000 tons. In Jagna, Bohol Province, Valencia, Alburquereque Calape, Tubigon, Talibon 20,000 tons of red clay. Three coastal areas of East Negro province in Sibulan, Zamboanguita, Manjuyod 930,000 cubic meters, with an average thickness of 0.4-0.5 m in the Manjuyod the Canlabe Compayo by Sycip Plantation exploration at least 465,000 cubic meters, was the mustard color in the Guihulngan northwest the Barangay mountains Sandayao, the Imelda, Talpao, area of ​​62.75 hectares of 1.06 million cubic meters of red clay reserves in the the Ayungon region of Banban in, Tibiawan and Poblacion of approximately 65.6 hectares and 1.08 million cubic meters of white and red clay, clay thickness of 0.8 -3.58 m.

2, limestone, gypsum

50% of the islands have limestone deposits of different geological ages in Bohol province, is an important non-metallic mineral resources in the province, in Garcia-Hernandez, about 180 million tons of industrial reserves of limestone (Phil. Sinter Corp.-owned). East Negro Province Guihulngan and La Libertad town of about 1935 hectares cement raw materials, 947,300 tons of limestone, chemical analysis to contain 0.32% -55.32% silicon oxide, 0.57% -8.97% of ferric oxide, 0.12% -21.18% of aluminum oxide, calcium oxide of 6.41% -53.38% 0.28% -17.16% magnesium oxide. In Barangay Dalaopan and Tayasan 500,000 tons of gypsum reserves of 77% -89% calcium sulfate. Naga and San Fernando in Cebu Province, the main limestone storage, gypsum storage in Aloagate and Languyon River basin. Siquijor province Brrio Simaculong and the Lazi limestone storage in Bgy, Helen, Larena of calcium calcirudite and gray debris rock.

3, silica and silica sand

In Catigbian, Bohol Province, Buenavista silicon soil reserves of 36.47 million tons and 6.91 million tons of silica sand in Ubay, Talibon, Bien Unido Jetafe, Buenavista. 2.59 million tons the Cebu the the Pinamungajan region Mangoto and Bonbon silica sand.

4, marble and stone

Marble reserves of 195 million tons in Alegria, Cebu Province, Naga, Toledo, and Tuburan-Gaway gaway, Bo Uling, Naga stone 10.5 billion cubic meters mined by Teresa Marble Corporation Uling marble is mostly pink. Mactan stone carcar limestone used as a stone, as the indoor and outdoor decoration. 21 large and small stone art factory in Cebu.

(C) other resources

Rich in geothermal resources, an estimated 20.9 million barrels of crude oil standard energy.

The Philippines to the present, a total of 19 oil and gas fields, including Palawan and Su Hailu’s crude oil reserves of about 50 × 108 barrels. Philippine’s most important oil and gas producing area located in the Nansha Islands Camago – Malampaya gas field and Luzon southwest Malan Paya gas field

Five, the ore-forming environment in the Philippines

Located in the Western Pacific island arc chain, complex geological structure. The area is one of the most complex tectonically active region in the Earth’s lithosphere by the nearby West Pacific shell, the shell of India and Australia since the Mesozoic, the interaction and the new generation of Asian continental margin expansion, since the Late Cretaceous strong large-scale tectonic-magmatic activity have been ongoing since become the main places of the island arc volcanism, hydrothermal activity.

This particular geological environment determines the Philippines rich in mineral resources prospecting has great potential, and metal deposit types are mostly of the mafic – ultramafic rocks of magmatic chromium, nickel deposits, and in acidic volcanic rocks, volcanic rocks porphyry and massive sulfide deposits in the shallow epithermal gold deposits and weathering and deposition of lateritic nickel, bauxite.

Regional ore-controlling structure is nearly north and south to the large faults in the Philippines. Mining area ore-controlling structure for fault structures and volcanic agencies.

Gold deposit is mainly produced in the zone, and subduction-related magmatic activity and composition from rhyolite, dacite and andesite of calc-alkaline high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and subvolcanic rocks lithology, volcanic agencies, fault structure and hydrothermal activity related to the fracture system, the ore-forming fluid activity and precipitation are the favorable places, they control the deposit in place.

Related to porphyry deposits are mainly massive sulphide copper-gold at the top often for epithermal gold deposit. Along the nearly north and south to construct a magma with the distribution.

Lateritic bauxite ore-forming elements compared to the Al-rich mafic rocks and karst depressions. Weathering broken high alumina mafic transported to the nearby karst depressions, tropical marine monsoon climate, hot and humid environment of vegetation development, microbial growth, microbial corrosion of the rock to produce organic acid a weak acid continuously leaching depression deposits, siliceous activation of migration while iron aluminum enrichment of the formation of lateritic bauxite.

(A) the type of metal deposits

Philippines main deposit magma with the mafic – ultramafic rocks chromium, nickel deposits, and acidic volcanic rocks subvolcanic porphyry and massive sulphide deposits, shallow epithermal gold deposits and weathered sedimentary lateritic nickel, bauxite, and so on.

1, with the mafic – ultramafic rocks related to magma chromium deposits

The Philippines, 9 chromium-containing ophiolite belt, chromite district general mainly exposed orthopyroxene peridotites. Chromite body is produced in the contact zone of dunite and orthopyroxene of peridotite, orebody parallel intrusive in the surrounding rock, the ore body as veins, by the change of tectonic influence, shape complexity, branch often complex phenomenon . By a number of lode ore belt, length 200m – 500m wide and tens of meters to more than one hundred meters. Single ore body length is generally 30m – 200m, width at least tens of centimeters up to ten meters. The veins are often small fault cut. Surrounding rock dunite, harzburgite, clear lines of the ore body and surrounding rock.

Massive ore, banded, disseminated structure, chromite, chrome spinel, olivine, pyroxene and other components, particle size 2mm – 5mm. Cr2O3 content 26 – 53%, generally 35 – 45% Cr / Fe is generally about 3.

The orebodies surface often residual slope plot chromite ore distribution wider than that of native ore body large, is one of the primary ore prospecting criteria. The deposit type is the magma deposits.

2, porphyry copper (gold) deposit

Philippine porphyry copper (gold) deposit is located in the circum-Pacific volcanic belt in the Central Cordillera, near the north-south orogenic belt distribution. Copper-gold mineralization in calc-alkaline intrusive rocks. Closely related to mineralization and quartz diorite porphyry intrusion and mineralization times more than the Late Pliocene.

3, epithermal gold deposits

Studies have shown that strong in Southeast Asia since Cenozoic tectonic magmatic activity occurred shallow epithermal gold mineralization in the most favorable tectonic setting of calc-alkaline high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and subvolcanic activity is the formation of shallow epithermal gold deposits in the most favorable geological structure background.

Deposit in the gold telluride symbiotic may come from the magma, but may also in part from the ore-surrounding rock or deep crust basement (l996, Cooke). The underlying basement gold mineralization may provide part of the ore-forming materials, but most of all provides the material basis for the formation of ore-forming elements area combination. The main source of gold from the deep upper mantle and lower crust and lithosphere, shallow surrounding rock and its physical and chemical properties of local structures, the degree of development such as the final decision to shallow epithermal gold deposits are in place.

Regional ore-controlling structure is nearly north and south to the large faults in the Philippines. Deposits by faults and volcanic agencies control. Veins both appear in the body of intrusive rocks of the Oligocene Pliocene volcanic rocks and volcanic sedimentary rocks appeared in the same period. The main mineralization type of quartz vein mineralization. Into a shallow epithermal gold deposits, to form the top of the underlying porphyry copper deposit.

The boiling may be the main mechanism of these deposits led to gold precipitation.

4, weathering and deposition of lateritic nickel, aluminum deposits

(1) lateritic nickel ore

Philippine native little nickel ore, nickel ore almost all secondary deposits, of which 99% of the laterite nickel ore, mostly high nickel content iron bauxite, most in the shallow soil.

(2) lateritic bauxite

Deposit type of lateritic bauxite deposit occurrence of tectonically tectonic activity of the circum-Pacific volcanic island arc with the position in the Al-rich mafic volcanic rocks, karst landform development. Karst depressions as the mafic volcanic material by leaching mineralization mineralization environment. The elevation of these depressions in the 200m – 450m. Karst depressions surrounded by peaks, a relatively closed space. In the slope outside the depression, the plateau is not found in bauxite.

The deposit is the aluminum-containing sand layer. Limestone for the direct wall rock of the bauxite, the ore body is often conferred in limestone depressions and cave. Accumulation of the ore body in depression, small depression in general as a single ore body, ore body to the impact of depression, the big depression due to factors such as rock convex orebody continuity, a large depression is not only an ore body, ore body some were the lens body, cystic. The ore bodies are attached, produced in the basal lava, the morphological scale depression size, shape, roof and floor control, with irregular-shaped.

Orebody have topsoil covered with a thickness of 0.20 to ~ O. 40m, topsoil, floor Daram Group bedrock. Basal ups and downs.

Ore color to brown red a purple, sub-yellowish brown and mottled. Structure like sand, oolitic, lentiform clastic and massive distribution of clutter, no significant stratification characteristics. Lcm of the majority of ore particle size, the total share of ore <20%. The ore was loose earthy, mineral ores are mainly gibbsite and boehmite, the AI2O3 average 45%. Mineralization mechanism is: weathered broken high alumina mafic transported to the nearby karst depressions, tropical marine monsoon climate, hot and humid environment, vegetation growth, microbial growth, microbial corrosion of rock to produce organic acid a weak acid continuously leaching depression deposits, so that the silicon mass mobilization and migration to the Fe-Al-enriched formation of lateritic bauxite. Al-rich mafic material source of the mineralization; due to the topography and exogenic geological, Al-rich rocks can not be in situ mineralization, karst depressions is the formation of deposits and ore-forming elements. (B) metal mineral distribution space law Cu (Au) deposits in the Central Cordillera, near the north-south orogenic belt along the circum-Pacific volcanic belt was with the distribution. Major copper producing area in the mountains of Northern Luzon, Zambales, Benguet, Nueva, Viscaya and southern Surigao del Norte, Davao Oriental, Davao, Mindanao, Tampakan and other areas. Chromite is mainly distributed in Luzon in Zambales Province and North Surigao province of Dinagat Island, 9 chromium-containing ophiolite belt. Laterite nickel and cobalt ore concentrated in the southern Philippines, Davao Oriental, and Palawan, and other large-scale nickel deposits in the province of Surigao del Norte and Zambales. Bauxite is mainly concentrated in the karst depressions in East Visayas, Philippine Islands Central Samar region. The gold is mainly distributed in the body of intrusive rocks in the Baguio, Paracale, Masbate, Surigao and Masara tectonic magmatic activity with the same period of volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Iron ore are mainly distributed in the region will can the East Negro province Tagpo, the Sab-Ahan, Lonoy and Bais, the eastern part of Luzon in the north province of Gan MA Ren Domaco, Cebu Province, Talamban area. The main types of contact metasomatic - hydrothermal iron deposits. (C) the formation time of the main metal ores Region magma chromium deposits in the formation of Cretaceous mafic - ultramafic rocks; acidic volcanic rocks subvolcanic porphyry and massive sulfide deposits, epithermal gold deposits, such as the formation of shallow from Oligocene to early Miocene to Pleistocene large-scale structure - related to magmatic activity. Weathered sedimentary lateritic nickel (cobalt), aluminum is formed in the Quaternary Holocene. (E) metallogenic belts According to the geological background of the Philippines, the geological conditions, mineral type, and resource distribution characteristics, initially divided into four important metallogenic prospective areas. Luzon - Medan Island chromium, copper, gold, iron ore-forming prospective areas; Palawan - Mindoro lateritic nickel and cobalt mineralization prospect area; Samar aluminum, chromium ore-forming vision area; 4 Diener Ghat Island chrome, gold, nickel mineralization prospect area. (F) prospecting potential areas After preliminary analysis, the main metal minerals ring 14 prospecting potential areas in the Philippines. (1) Luzon - Medan Island, chromium, copper, gold, iron ore-forming vision area (2) Zamboanga province West will tower of gold, copper prospecting potential areas The West will tower of gold and copper pool is one of the great potential of the Philippines several gold and copper prospect area. (3) North special meat dish copper-gold, chromium prospecting potential area The district, Bo Wing copper (Boyongan), geologists estimated ore reserves of about 219 million tons. (4) Visa gold and copper prospecting potential area (5) North Luzon copper, gold, iron ore prospecting potential (6) Mindanao Tampakan copper, gold prospecting potential areas (7) South Luzon Zambales chromium, copper prospecting potential areas (8) Cebu Toledo copper, gold prospecting potential areas (9) must be of iron ore prospecting potential area (10) Palawan - Mindoro lateritic nickel and cobalt mineralization prospect area (11) Palawan nickel, cobalt prospecting potential areas (12) Mindoro nickel, cobalt, prospecting potential areas (13) Juan Island, aluminum, chromium metallogenic prospect area Samar chromium, bauxite prospecting potential area, where the greatest potential for the mine for the the Xi Sama province of BARI mining area, AMPI mining area. Mainly looking for sedimentary chromite sands, lateritic bauxite. (15) the Diener Ghat Island chromium, gold, nickel mineralization prospect area (2) Diener Ghat north of the island chrome, gold prospecting potential areas (2) Diener Ghat Island Central chrome prospecting potential areas (2) Diener Ghat southern island of nickel prospecting potential areas Philippines unique geographical and geological conditions, a relatively small land area is rich in natural mineral resources, occupies an important position in the world reserves of mineral resources. According to the Philippine National Geological and Mining Bureau data, calculated per unit area of ​​mineral reserves, gold reserves of the Philippines ranks third in the world copper reserves, ranks fourth in the world, fifth in the world reserves of nickel ore, chrome ore reserves in the world six. Only the current proven reserves of mineral resources, there are 13 kinds of metal ore and 29 kinds of non-metallic minerals. Mining in the Philippines after a brilliant period of development in the pre-1980 development has been relatively slow in recent years. Compared to far cry from the role played by the mining industry in the national economy with its rich mineral resources. Add Philippine mining industry over the past decade annual output accounting for the proportion of the Philippine's GDP in the 1.01-1.58%, mineral products exports accounted for 1.47-6.38% proportion of total exports of the Philippines mining industry directly employed population accounted for the proportion of total employment population in the Philippines in the 0.3- 0.6%, the multiplier effect generated by the mining of about 4-10, the vast majority of the mineral products of the Philippines for export, especially metal mineral products used for export. The major exporting countries are Japan, the rest of the exporting regions and countries, including Asia, North America, Europe and China, mining is the economic development of the Philippines stable source of foreign exchange. In recent years, the Philippine government, according to the needs of national economic development, and vigorously advocate mining reform proposed mining of the mining system to nurture and develop the prosperity and competitive recovery plan, hoping to attract more mining investment and create employment opportunities through the revival of the Philippines mining increase government revenue, reduce poverty, promote economic growth. China is a relative lack of national mineral resources, rich mineral resources in the Philippines, and China's neighboring excellent location, ideal region in the overseas exploitation of mineral resources in China. China and the Philippines to develop the mineral resources of the Philippines, will bring a win-win outcome for both countries. Philippines has many world-class high-quality mineral resources, mineral resources, reserves are huge, widely distributed. According to the 1996 report released by the Philippine National Bureau of Mines data, metal ore reserves in the Philippines for 7.1 billion tonnes of non-metallic mineral reserves of 51 billion tonnes. Benguet Province, Philippines northern Luzon, Zambales province, Marinduque Province; Samar areas in Central Visayas, Negros the Occidental Province; west of Palawan and Mindanao, Surigao del Norte, Province, Davao Province, Davao Oriental province, Zamboanga del Norte, Province are important mineral district. (A) of the Philippine mineral resources classified mineral resources of the Philippines is divided into the precious metal ore, ferroalloy ore, base metals mining, fertilizer, ore, industrial minerals, precious stones and decorative quarry and other six. According to the needs of economic development and mining conditions and other factors limit, currently only selectively mined gold in the metal ore, phosphate ore, chromium, nickel, copper and non-metallic mineral guano, clay, dolomite, , feldspar, limestone, marble, perlite, silica, stone, sand, salt, diorite, serpentine rock. The main metal minerals in the Philippines is the direct sale of raw ore (ORES) and grinding, washing, drying, grading and processing of the concentrate product (CONCENTRATE). Non-metallic mineral products in accordance with the requirements of the different technical indicators on the market for reprocessing. (B) of metallic mineral resources 1 copper resources in the Philippines, metal ores, copper reserves of 4.8 billion tons, accounting for 67.5% of the total reserves of metal ores. Philippines copper porphyry copper deposits are distributed all over the country. Major copper-producing areas in the mountains of Northern Luzon, Zambales, Benguet, Nueva, Viscaya and southern Surigao del Norte, Davao, Davao Oriental,. Geological exploration work, the Philippines, there are still a large number of copper deposits and copper far attractions. Recently, the Australian Western Mining Corporation announced a world-class copper - gold found in South Cotabato, estimated copper reserves of 10.442 million tons, 227-369 tons of gold reserves, the total value of at least 100-200 billion U.S. dollars; Climax-Arimco mining is feasible The study report shows that the copper project in Nueva, Vizcaya, the Dinkidi copper ore reserves of more than 17 million tons. Gold resources, the Philippines, gold, composite ore and rock in the form exists, the main mining area in Baguio, Paracale, Masbate, Surigao, and Masara. Geological experts believe that the geological features of the Philippines, the largest and richest gold deposits are likely to reserves the dislocation region close to the natural forces in the Philippines, the recent gold exploration operations has been the development of shallow storage area. Australian prospecting company in Rapu-Rapu Island reserves of more than 600 tons of gold - copper - silver, 3 grams per ton of ore gold, silver, 37 grams; copper content of 1.46%, 2.33% of the zinc content (usually silver and gold , copper and associated by-product of the production of gold, copper.) 3 nickel ore resources Philippine nickel ore reserves of about 1.09 billion tons, accounting for 15.5% of the total reserves of metal ores which has proven reserves of 1.02 billion tons, accounting for 93.72% of the total reserves of nickel ore, the average quality in the range 0.23% - 2.47%; can be expected reserves of 56.3 million tons, accounting for 5.17% quality in the range 0.36% -1.24%; probable reserves of 12.1 million tons, the quality of the range of 0.23% -2.27% (Note: The total reserves of proven reserves, of reserves and probable reserves and). Philippine nickel ore bauxite mostly high nickel content, the majority in the shallow soil, easy mining and low cost. Nickel ore is concentrated in Davao Oriental, and Palawan, the reserves were 475.7 million tons (43.69%) of total reserves and 407.1 million tons (37.38%) of the total reserves. Other large-scale nickel deposits of the province of Surigao del Norte, and Zambales Norway Mindex ASA prospecting companies in the exploration of Mindoro, the total reserves of 225 million tons (dry weight) of nickel ore, nickel metal content of 1% cobalt metal content of 0.1% (cobalt is usually associated with nickel, an important byproduct of the production of nickel.) 4 chromite resources chromite exist in the Zambales province and the province of Surigao del Norte, Dinagat Island. Chromite size ranging from large-scale chromite reserves in millions of tons. Zambales province Coto chromite It is believed that the world's largest known reserves of chrome ore difficult financial. In addition, the bauxite resources in the Philippines is very rich. Bauxite resources are mainly concentrated in the the SAMAR region in East Visayas, estimated geological reserves of 242 million tons, an average of 40.80% Al2O3 content, the total value of approximately $ 21 billion. (C) non-metallic mineral resources Non-metallic mineral is an important source of the Philippines, construction, agriculture and electricity. Is the Philippines largest reserves of non-metallic minerals, limestone have been found in the Philippines around the reserves of 29 billion tonnes, accounting for 57% of non-metallic mineral reserves; marble reserves of 8.5 billion tonnes, accounting for 16.7 percent of non-metallic mineral reserves; Philippine coal reserves were high and of poor quality, mainly found in Surigao and Zamboanga del Norte province; phosphate located Lligan; silicon deposits in Zamboanga del Norte province; found in Davao near the world's largest magnesium mine. 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《If you have 500 thousand dollars, five million yuan?》有一个想法

  1. Orebody footwall pyrrhotite, ang-pyrite ng ng ang skarn at hornfels, tuffaceous marmol, senstoun at pisara. Sa disk ay-binago andesitic breccia, pangunahing lokal na binago andesitic porpiri, andesite, folder ng bato skarn pyritization.

    Hydrology at engineering heolohiya ng pagmimina teknikal na mga kondisyon ay nabibilang sa ang simple ng uri.

    8, mangganeso mapagkukunan

    Mangganeso sa Bohol lalawigan, ang bulkan bato pagbabago dulot ng panahon ng apog ang mga ibabaw.

    Anda peninsula timog-silangan ng Tabanan, ang Guindulman Bo.Tayud Anda, rehiyon at hilagang Pangpang lugar ay ang mga komersyal na pagsasamantala ng mangganeso, pati na rin ang mga reserbang ng mas maliit na mga lugar tulad ng Jagna, Duero at Buenavista, Carmen, Guindulman sa Anda lugar Bagong Frontier Mine, ang kumpanya ay napatunayan mga reserbang ng mangganeso 20% mangganeso mineral 120,000 tons. Tulad ng Larena, Siquijor lalawigan, kabilang ang metal Company ng Maria Zambales Base sa mangganeso nilalaman ng 28% mangganeso reserbang mineral ng 119,000 tons, Larena, Maria, Enrique Villanueva ng rehiyon Bagong ang mga Frontier mina, Company-owned mangganeso 33.61% ng ang mangganeso 117,000 tons. Ayon sa ibang ulat, sa Duke Verapaz rehiyon ng Luzon mangganeso mineral (270 milyong tons ng mangganeso-mayaman).

    (B) di-metal na mineral mapagkukunan

    Di-metal na mineral ay isang mahalagang pinagkukunan ng Pilipinas, pagbuo, agrikultura at koryente. Ay ang Pilipinas pinakamalaking reserbang ng mga non-metal mineral, apog na ay natagpuan sa Pilipinas sa paligid ng ang reserbang ng 29 bilyong tonelada, accounting para sa 57% ng mga non-metal reserbang mineral; marmol reserbang ng 8.5 bilyong tonelada, accounting para sa 16.7 porsyento ng mga non-metal reserbang mineral; Philippine karbon reserbang ay mataas na at ng mahinang kalidad, pangunahing matatagpuan sa Surigao at Zamboanga del Norte lalawigan; pospeyt matatagpuan Lligan; sa silikon deposito sa Zamboanga del Norte lalawigan; natagpuan sa Davao malapit sa pinakamalaking ng magnesiyo ang mundo mina.

    1, luad

    Cebu lalawigan Guinsay, Danao City; Kotkot, Compostela; Cogon, Lataban at Tayud Liloan; pooc, Talisay; Lipata, Minglanilla, Valladolid, Carcar at iba pang City doon ay 763 milyong tons ng reserbang, ang sa Calong-calong, Bato Toledo; Mangoto, Pandacan 21,000 kubiko metro, Pinamungajan sa Langub, Mangiao, Asturias 210,000 tons. Sa Jagna, Bohol Province, Valencia, Alburquereque Calape, Tubigon, Talibon 20,000 tons ng pulang luwad. Tatlong coastal lugar ng East Negro lalawigan sa Sibulan, Zamboanguita, Manjuyod 930,000 kubiko metro, na may isang average na kapal ng 0.4-0.5 m sa Manjuyod Canlabe Compayo ng ng Sycip plantasyon paggalugad ng hindi bababa sa 465,000 kubiko metro, ang kulay ng mustasa sa ang Guihulngan hilagang-kanluran sa Barangay bundok Sandayao, ang Imelda, Talpao, lugar ng mga 62.75 hectares ng 1,06 milyong kubiko metro ng red reserbang luad sa ang ang rehiyon Ayungon ng Banban sa, Tibiawan at Poblacion ng humigit-kumulang na 65.6 hectares at 1,08 milyong kubiko metro ng puti at pulang luwad, luad kapal ng 0.8 -3.58 m.

    2, apog, dyipsum

    50% ng ang isla ay may deposito ng apog ng ibang geological edad sa Bohol probinsiya, ay isang mahalagang di-metal na mineral resources sa lalawigan, sa Garcia-Hernandez, tungkol sa 180 milyong tons ng pang-industriyang reserbado ng apog (ng Phil. Sinter Corp.-owned). East Lalawigan Guihulngan Negro at bayan ng La Libertad ng tungkol sa 1935 hectares ng latagan ng simento raw materyales, 947,300 tons ng apog, kemikal analysis naglalaman ng 0.32% -55.32% silikon oksido, 0.57% -8.97% ng ferric oksido, 0.12% -21.18% ng aluminyo oksido, kaltsyum oksido ng 6.41% -53.38% 0.28% -17.16% magnesiyo oksido. Sa sa Barangay Dalaopan at Tayasan 500,000 tons ng dyipsum reserbang ng 77% -89% kaltsyum sulpate. Naga at San Fernando sa Cebu Province, ang pangunahing apog imbakan, ng dyipsum imbakan sa Aloagate at Languyon River palanggana. Lalawigan ng Siquijor Brrio Simaculong at ang Lazi apog imbakan sa Bgy, Helen, Larena ng ng kaltsyum calcirudite at kulay-abo na mga labi ng bato.

    3, kwats at kwats buhangin

    Sa Catigbian, Bohol Province, Buenavista silikon lupa reserbang ng 36,470,000 tons at 6,910,000 tons ng kwats buhangin sa Ubay, Talibon, Bien Unido Jetafe, Buenavista. 2,590,000 tons ang Cebu sa Pinamungajan rehiyon ng Mangoto at Bonbon kwats buhangin.

    4, marmol at bato

    Marble reserbang ng 195 milyong tons sa Alegria, Cebu Province, Naga, Toledo, at Tuburan-Gaway gaway, Bo Uling, Naga bato 10.5 bilyong kubiko metro na may mina ng marmol sa Teresa Marble Corporation Uling ay halos kulay rosas. Mactan bato carcar apog ginamit bilang isang bato, bilang panloob at panlabas na medalya. 21 malaki at maliit na bato sining pabrika sa Cebu.

    (C) iba pang mga mapagkukunan

    Mayaman sa geothermal resources, isang tinatayang 20,9 milyong barrels ng krudo pamantayan ng enerhiya langis.

    Sa Pilipinas hanggang sa kasalukuyan, ang isang total ng 19 langis at gas patlang, kabilang ang Palawan at langis na krudo ng Su Hailu ay mga reserbang ng tungkol sa 50 × 108 barrels. Pinaka-mahalagang langis Philippine at gas paggawa lugar na matatagpuan sa ang Nansha Islands Camago – Malampaya gas field at Luzon timog-kanluran Malan sa Paya gas patlang

    Limang, ang mineral na bumubuo ng kapaligiran sa Pilipinas

    Matatagpuan sa ang Western Pacific chain isla arc, kumplikadong geological istraktura. Ang lugar ay isa sa mga pinaka-kumplikadong tectonically aktibong rehiyon sa lithosphere ng Earth sa pamamagitan ng sa katabing West Pacific shell, ang shell ng India at Australia dahil ang Mesozoic, ang pakikipag-ugnayan at ang bagong henerasyon ng Asian kontinental margin paglawak, dahil ang huli Cretaceous malakas malakihan pangkayariang-lupa-magmatic na aktibidad ay patuloy dahil maging ang mga pangunahing lugar ng arc isla ang volcanism ng, napakalamig na aktibidad.

    Ito partikular na geological kapaligiran ay tumutukoy sa Pilipinas mayaman sa mga mapagkukunan ng mineral prospecting ay may malaking potensyal na, at mga uri ng metal deposito ay nakararami ng ang pamapya – ultramafic bato ng magmatic kromo, nikelado deposito, at sa acidic bulkan bato, bulkan bato porpiri at napakalaking sulfide deposito sa ang mababaw epithermal na deposito ginto at pagbabago dulot ng panahon at salaysay ng lateritic nikel, bauxite.

    Pampook na mineral-pagkontrol ng istraktura ay halos hilaga at timog sa malaking faults sa Pilipinas. Lugar ng mineral Pagmimina-pagkontrol istraktura para sa mga kaayusan ng kasalanan at bulkan ahensya.

    Gold deposito ay pangunahing ginawa sa zone, at na may kaugnayan sa subduction-magmatic aktibidad at komposisyon mula sa rhyolite, dacite at andesite ng calc-ng alkalina mataas-K calc-alkalina bulkan at subvolcanic lithology bato, mga ahensya ng bulkan, istraktura ng kasalanan at napakalamig na aktibidad na may kaugnayan sa sistema bali, ang mga mineral na bumubuo ng aktibidad fluid at ulan ang mga kanais-nais na mga lugar, kontrolin nila ang deposito sa lugar.

    Kaugnay sa porpiri deposito ay higit sa lahat napakalaking sulpid tanso-ginto sa tuktok madalas para sa epithermal gintong deposito. Kasama ang halos hilaga at timog ay makagawa ng isang magma sa pamamahagi.

    Lateritic bauxite mga elemento na bumubuo sa mineral-kumpara sa Al-mayaman pamapya bato at karst depressions. Pagbabago dulot ng panahon sirang high alumina pamapya transported sa katabing depressions karst, tropiko marine tag-ulan klima, mainit at mahalumigmig kapaligiran ng mga halaman pagbuo, microbial paglago, microbial kaagnasan ng ang bato upang gumawa ng organic acid ng mahina acid patuloy leaching depression deposito, siliceous activation ng migration habang bakal aluminyo pagpayaman ng pagbuo ng lateritic bauxite.

    (A) ang uri ng mga deposito ng metal

    Pilipinas pangunahing deposito magma sa ang pamapya – ultramafic bato kromo, nikelado deposito, at ang acidic bulkan bato subvolcanic porpiri at napakalaking sulpid deposito, mababaw epithermal na gintong deposito at weathered nalatak nikel lateritic, bauxite, at iba pa.

    1, sa ng ang pamapya – ultramafic bato na may kaugnayan sa magma kromo deposito

    Ang Pilipinas, 9 kromo-na containing ophiolite sinturon, ng chromite distrito pangkalahatang pangunahing nakalantad orthopyroxene peridotites. Chromite katawan ay ginawa sa contact zone ng dunite at orthopyroxene ng peridotite, orebody kahilera pakialam sa nakapaligid na bato, ang katawan ng mineral bilang veins, sa pamamagitan ng pagbabago ng pangkayariang-lupa impluwensiya, kumplikado ng hugis, branch madalas kumplikadong kababalaghan . Sa pamamagitan ng isang bilang ng mga deposito ng metal na haba ng sinturon ng mineral, 200m-500m malawak at sampu-sampung ng metro sa higit sa isang daang metro. Single haba katawan ng mineral ay 30m – 200m, lapad ng hindi bababa sa sampu-sampung ng sentimetro hanggang sa sampung metro. Ang mga veins ay madalas maliit na kasalanan hiwa. Ang nakapaligid ang bato dunite, harzburgite, malinaw na linya ng katawan ng mineral at nakapaligid bato.

    Napakalaking mineral, may lupi, ng disseminated istraktura, chromite, ang chrome spinel, olivine, payroksin at iba pang mga bahagi, laki ng tinga 2mm – 5mm. Cr2O3 nilalaman 26 – 53%, karaniwang 35 – 45% CR / Fe ay karaniwang tungkol sa 3.

    Ang orebodies ibabaw madalas ang tira sapakatan chromite libis ng mineral pamamahagi mas malawak na kaysa sa na ng katutubong katawan ng mineral malaki, ay isa sa mga pangunahing mineral prospecting pamantayan. Ang uri ng deposito ay ang mga magma deposito.

    2, porpiri tanso (ginto) deposito

    Philippine porpiri tanso (ginto) na deposito ay matatagpuan sa circum-Pacific belt bulkan sa Central Cordillera, malapit sa hilaga-timog na orogenic pamamahagi ng sinturon. Copper-na ginto mineralization sa sa calc-alkalina pakialam bato. Malapit na nauugnay sa mineralization at ng kuwarts diorite porpiri panghihimasok at mineralization na beses na higit pa kaysa sa huli Playosin.

    3, epithermal deposito ng ginto

    Pag-aaral na ipinapakita na malakas sa Timog-silangang Asya dahil Cenozoic pangkayariang-lupa magmatic aktibidad naganap ang mababaw epithermal ginto mineralization sa mga pinaka-kanais-nais na pangkayariang-lupa setting ng calc-ng alkalina mataas-K calc-alkalina bulkan at subvolcanic aktibidad ay ang pagbuo ng mababaw epithermal gintong deposito sa ang pinaka-kanais-nais na geological istraktura background.

    Deposito sa ginto telluride symbiotic ay maaaring nanggaling mula sa magma, ngunit maaari ring sa bahagi mula sa mineral-pumapalibot sa bato o malalim na tinapay basement (l996, Cooke). Ang kalakip na basement na ginto mineralization maaaring magbigay bahagi ng mineral na bumubuo ng mga materyales, ngunit karamihan ng lahat ng mga nagbibigay ng materyal na batayan para sa pagbuo ng mga elemento na bumubuo sa mambato-kumbinasyon lugar. Ang pangunahing pinagkukunan ng ginto mula sa malalim na mantle itaas at mas mababa na tinapay at lithosphere, mababaw na pumapalibot sa bato at ang pisikal at kemikal na mga katangian ng mga lokal na kaayusan, ang mga antas ng pag-unlad tulad ng pangwakas na pasiya sa mababaw epithermal deposito ng ginto ay sa lugar.

    Pampook na mineral-pagkontrol ng istraktura ay halos hilaga at timog sa malaking faults sa Pilipinas. Deposito sa pamamagitan ng mga faults at bulkan ahensya control. Veins parehong lumitaw sa katawan ng mga mga pakialam bato ng Oligocene Playosin bulkan bato at bulkan nalatak na bato lumitaw sa parehong panahon. Ang mga pangunahing uri ng mineralization ng kuwarts ugat mineralization. Ang sa isang mababaw epithermal na deposito ng ginto, upang bumuo ng tuktok ng kalakip na deposito ng tanso ng porpiri.

    Ang bulak ay maaaring ang pangunahing mekanismo ng mga deposito na ito na humantong sa ginto ulan.

    4, pagbabago dulot ng panahon at salaysay ng lateritic nikel, aluminyo deposito

    (1) lateritic nikel ng mineral

    Philippine katutubong maliit nikel mineral, nikel mineral halos lahat ng pangalawang deposito, kung saan 99% ng ang laterite mineral nikel, kadalasang mataas na nilalaman ng nikel bakal bauxite, karamihan sa mababaw lupa.

    (2) lateritic bauxite

    Uri ng deposito ng sa paglitaw bauxite deposito lateritic ng tectonically pangkayariang-lupa na aktibidad ng circum-Pacific arc bulkan isla sa posisyon sa ang Al-mayaman pamapya na na bulkan bato, karst landform unlad. Karst depressions bilang ang pamapya na bulkan materyal sa pamamagitan ng leaching kapaligiran mineralization mineralization. Ang elevation ng mga depressions sa 200m – 450m. Karst depressions na napapalibutan ng mga peaks, ang isang relatibong sarado na puwang. Sa ang libis sa labas ng depression, ang talampas ay hindi nahanap sa bauxite.

    Ang deposito ay ang aluminyo-naglalaman ng layer ng buhangin. Ng Limestone para direct bato pader ng bauxite, ang katawan ng mineral ay madalas na conferred sa mga depressions ng apog at gumuho. Akumulasyon ng ng mineral katawan sa depression, ang maliit na depression sa pangkalahatan bilang isang solong katawan ng mineral, mineral katawan sa ang mga epekto ng depression, ang malaki depression dahil sa mga kadahilanan tulad bato pagpapatuloy matambok orebody, isang malaking depression ay hindi lamang isang mineral katawan, katawan ng mineral ilang ay ang katawan ng lens, cystic. Ang katawan ng mineral ay nakalakip, na ginawa sa saligan lava, ang morphological depression sukat na sukat, hugis, bubong at kontrol ng sahig, na may irregular-hugis.

    Orebody lupang pang-ibabaw sakop na may isang kapal ng 0.20 sa ~ O. 40m, lupang pang-ibabaw, bedrock ng Grupo ng Daram sa sahig. Mga saligan up at down.

    Mineral ng kulay sa brown red isang lilang, sub-madilaw-dilaw na brown at may batik-batik. Istraktura tulad ng buhangin, oulitik, lentiform klastiko at napakalaking pamamahagi ng mga kalat, walang makabuluhang mga katangian ng pagsasapin-sapin. Lcm ng karamihan ng mineral tipik laki, ang kabuuang magbahagi ng mineral <20%. Mineral ay maluwag makadaigdig, mineral ores ay sa pangunahing gibbsite at boehmite, ang AI2O3 average na 45%.

    Mineralization mekanismo ay: weathered nasira high alumina pamapya transported sa ang malapit depressions karst, tropiko marine tag-ulan klima, mainit at mahalumigmig kapaligiran, mga halaman paglago, microbial paglago, microbial kaagnasan ng mga bato upang gumawa ng organic acid ng mahina acid patuloy leaching depression deposito, kaya na ang silikon pagpapakilos ng masa at migration sa Fe-Al-enriched pagbuo ng lateritic bauxite. Al-mayaman pamapya na materyal na pinagkukunan ng ang mineralization; dahil sa topographiya at exogenic na geological, Al-mayaman na mga bato ay hindi maaaring maging sa lugar ng kinaroroonan mineralization, karst depressions ay ang pagbuo ng mga deposito at mga mineral na bumubuo na mga elemento.

    (B) metal espasyo ng pamamahagi ng mineral batas

    Ta (Au) deposito sa Central Cordillera, malapit sa hilaga-timog orogenic sinturon kasama ang circum-Pacific bulkan sinturon ay sa pamamahagi. Major tanso paggawa sa lugar sa mga bundok ng Northern Luzon, Zambales, Benguet, Nueva, Viscaya at timog Surigao del Norte, Davao Oriental, Davao, Mindanao, Tampakan at iba pang mga lugar.

    Ang Chromite ay pangunahing maibahagi sa Luzon sa Zambales Lalawigan at North Surigao lalawigan ng Dinagat Island, 9 kromo-naglalaman ophiolite na sinturon.

    Laterite nikel at kobalt ng mineral na puro sa katimugang Pilipinas, Davao Oriental, at Palawan, at iba pang malalaking scale deposito ng nikel sa lalawigan ng Surigao del Norte at Zambales.

    Bauxite ay higit sa lahat puro sa karst depressions sa Silangang Visayas, Philippine Islands Central Samar rehiyon.

    Ginto ang pangunahing maibahagi sa katawan ng mga mga pakialam bato sa ang Baguio, Paracale, Masbate, Surigao at Masara pangkayariang-lupa magmatic aktibidad sa parehong panahon ng bulkan at nalatak na bato.

    Batong-bakal ay pangunahing maibahagi sa rehiyon ay maaari sa East Negro lalawigan Tagpo, ang Sab-Ahan, Lonoy at Bais, ang silangang bahagi ng Luzon sa hilaga lalawigan ng Gan MA Ren Domaco, Cebu Province, Talamban area. Ang mga pangunahing uri ng contact metasomatic - napakalamig na bakal deposito.

    (C) ang oras sa pagbuo ng pangunahing metal ores

    Rehiyon ng magma kromo deposito sa pagbuo ng ng Cretaceous pamapya - ultramafic bato; acidic bulkan bato subvolcanic porpiri at napakalaking sulfide deposito, epithermal mga deposito ng ginto, tulad ng pagbuo ng malanday mula sa Oligocene sa ang maagang Mayosin sa Pleystosin malakihan istraktura - kaugnay sa magmatic aktibidad.

    Weathered nalatak lateritic nikel (kobalt), ang aluminyo ay nabuo sa Quaternary Holocene.

    (E) metallogenic na sinturon

    Ayon sa ang geological background ng Pilipinas, ang mga geological kondisyon, uri ng mineral, at mga katangian ng mapagkukunan pamamahagi, una hinati sa apat mahalagang metallogenic na inaasahang lugar.

    Luzon - ang Medan Island kromo, tanso, ginto, bakal mineral-bumubuo ng prospective lugar;

    Palawan - ng Mindoro lateritic nikel at kobalt mineralization inaasahan lugar;

    Samar aluminyo, kromo mineral-lugar ng bumubuo ng paningin;

    4 Diener gat Island chrome, ginto, nikel mineralization inaasahan lugar.

    (F) prospecting potensyal na lugar

    Matapos ang paunang pagtatasa, ang mga pangunahing mineral na metal Ring 14 prospecting mga potensyal na mga lugar sa Pilipinas.

    (1) Luzon - Medan Island, kromo, tanso, ginto, batong-bakal-bumubuo ng lugar ng paningin

    (2) Zamboanga lalawigan West Tower ng ginto, tanso prospecting mga potensyal na lugar

    Ang West ay Tower ng ginto at tanso pool ay isa ng malaking potensyal ng Pilipinas ilang inaasahan lugar ng ginto at tanso.

    (3) North espesyal na karne ulam tanso-gold, kromo prospecting potensyal na lugar

    Distrito ang, ang Bo Wing tanso (Boyongan), mga geologists tinatantya reserbang mineral ng tungkol sa 219 milyong tons.

    (4) Visa ginto at tanso prospecting ng mga potensyal na lugar

    (5) North Luzon tanso, ginto, batong-bakal prospecting potensyal na

    (6) Mindanao Tampakan tanso, ginto prospecting potensyal na lugar

    (7) South Luzon Zambales kromo, tanso prospecting ng mga potensyal na lugar

    (8) Cebu Toledo tanso, ginto prospecting potensyal na mga lugar

    (9) ay dapat ng batong-bakal prospecting potensyal na lugar

    (10) Palawan - ng Mindoro lateritic nikel at kobalt mineralization inaasahan lugar

    (11) Palawan nikelado, kobalt prospecting potensyal na lugar

    (12) Mindoro nikelado, kobalt, prospecting ng mga potensyal na lugar

    (13) Juan Island, aluminyo, ng kromo metallogenic inaasahan lugar

    Samar kromo, sa bauxite prospecting ng mga potensyal na lugar, kung saan ang pinakamalaking potensyal na para sa mina para sa XI lalawigan Sama ng ng Bari pagmimina lugar, AMPI pagmimina lugar. Ang pangunahin naghahanap para sa mga nalatak Sands chromite, bauxite lateritic.

    (15) ang Diener gat Island kromo, ginto, ang lugar ng pag-asam ng nikel mineralization

    (2) Diener gat hilaga ng isla chrome, ginto prospecting potensyal na lugar

    (2) Diener gat Island Central chrome prospecting potensyal na lugar

    (2) Diener gat katimugang isla ng nikel prospecting potensyal na lugar

    Pilipinas natatanging heograpikal at geological mga kondisyon, ang isang relatibong maliit na lugar ng lupa ay mayaman sa likas na yaman mineral, ay sumasakop isang mahalagang posisyon sa taglay ng mundo ng mga mapagkukunan ng mineral. Ayon sa Philippine Pambansang Geological at Pagmimina data Bureau, kinakalkula sa bawat yunit ng lugar ng mga reserbang mineral, ginto reserbang ng Pilipinas ranks ikatlong sa ang taglay ng mundo tanso, ranks ika-apat na sa mundo, ikalima sa ang taglay ng mundo ng nikel ng mineral, chrome reserbang mineral sa mundo anim. Tanging ang kasalukuyang napatunayang reserbang ng mga mapagkukunan ng mineral, may mga 13 uri ng mga metal mineral at 29 mga uri ng mga di-metal na mineral.
    Pagmimina sa Pilipinas pagkatapos ng isang makinang na panahon ng pag-unlad sa pre-1980-unlad ay relatibong mabagal sa nakaraang taon. Kumpara sa malayo umyak mula sa papel na nilalaro ng industriya ng pagmimina sa pambansang ekonomiya na ang mga rich mineral resources. Magdagdag ng Philippine pagmimina industriya sa loob ng nakaraang dekada taunang output accounting para sa proporsyon ng ang Philippine ng GDP sa ang 1.01-1.58%, mineral produkto-export ng accounted para sa 1.47-6.38% bahagdan ng kabuuang export ng ang Pilipinas populasyon pagmimina industriya direkta trabaho accounted para sa proporsyon ng kabuuang trabaho populasyon sa Pilipinas sa ang 0.3- 0.6%, ang multiplier epekto na nalikha sa pamamagitan ng pagmimina ng tungkol sa 4-10, ang karamihan ng mga produkto ng mineral ng Pilipinas para sa export, lalo na metal mineral produkto na ginagamit para sa pag-export. Ang pangunahing export na mga bansa ay bansang Hapon, ang mga natitirang ang export na mga rehiyon at bansa, kabilang ang Asya, North America, Europa at Tsina, ang pagmimina ay ang ekonomiya ng Pilipinas matatag ang source na ng mga banyagang exchange.
    Sa nakaraang taon, ang Philippine pamahalaan, ayon sa ang mga pangangailangan ng pambansang pang-ekonomiyang pag-unlad, at masigla tagapagtaguyod pagmimina reporma iminungkahi pagmimina ng ang sistema ng pagmimina sa pag-aalaga at bumuo ng kasaganaan at mapagkumpitensyang pagbawi plano, hoping upang maakit ang higit mining investment at lumikha ng mga pagkakataon ng trabaho sa pamamagitan ng malay-tao ng ang Pilipinas pagmimina dagdagan ang pamahalaan kita, mabawasan ang kahirapan, magsulong ng pang-ekonomiyang paglago. Tsina ay isang kamag-anak kakulangan ng pambansang mineral mapagkukunan, mayaman sa mineral resources sa Pilipinas, at China kalapit mahusay na lokasyon, mainam na rehiyon sa ibang bansa pagsasamantala ng mga mapagkukunan ng mineral sa China. Tsina at sa Pilipinas upang bumuo ng mga mapagkukunan ng mineral ng Pilipinas, ay magdala ng isang manalo-manalo kinalabasan para sa parehong bansa.
    Ang Pilipinas ay may maraming mga mundo klase mataas na kalidad na mga mapagkukunan ng mineral, mineral resources, mga reserbang ay malaking, malawak ipinamamahagi. Ayon sa 1996 ulat na inilabas ng Philippine Pambansang Kawanihan ng mina data, metal mineral mga reserbang sa Pilipinas para sa 7.1 bilyong tonelada ng mga di-metal na reserbang mineral ng 51 bilyong tonelada. Benguet Province, Pilipinas hilagang Luzon, lalawigan ng Zambales, Marinduque Lalawigan; Samar lugar sa Central Visayas, Negros Occidental Lalawigan; kanluran ng Palawan at Mindanao, Surigao del Norte, Province, Davao Province, lalawigan ng Davao Oriental, Zamboanga del Norte, Lalawigan ay mahalagang mineral distrito.
    (A) ng Philippine mineral mapagkukunan naiuri mapagkukunan ng mineral ng Pilipinas ay nahahati sa ang mahalagang metal mineral, ferroalloy mineral, base riles pagmimina, pataba, mineral, pang-industriya mineral, mahalagang bato at pandekorasyon magtibag at iba pang anim. Ayon sa mga pangangailangan ng ekonomiya at mga kondisyon ng pagmimina at iba pang mga kadahilanan limitasyon, ang kasalukuyan lamang selectively may mina ng ginto sa metal mineral, mineral ng pospeyt, kromo, nikelado, tanso at di-metal na mineral guano, luad, dolomit, , feldspar, apog, marmol, perlite, kwats, bato, buhangin, asin, diorite, sepentain bato.
    Ang pangunahing metal na mineral sa Pilipinas ay ang direktang pagbebenta ng hilaw na mineral (ORES) at paggiling, paglalaba, pagpapatayo, grading at pagproseso ng tumutok produkto (tumutok). Di-metal na mineral produkto alinsunod sa mga kinakailangan ng ibang mga teknikal na mga tagapagpabatid sa merkado para sa reprocessing.
    (B) ng metal na mga mapagkukunan ng mineral
    1 tanso mapagkukunan sa Pilipinas, metal ores, tanso mga reserbang ng 4.8 bilyong tons, accounting para sa 67.5% ng kabuuang mga reserbang ng mga ores metal. Pilipinas porpiri tanso tanso deposito ay ipinamamahagi sa buong bansa. Major tanso-paggawa ng mga lugar sa mga bundok ng Northern Luzon, Zambales, Benguet, Nueva, Viscaya at timog Surigao del Norte, Davao, Davao Oriental,. Geological paggalugad ng trabaho, sa Pilipinas, may mga pa rin ang isang malaking bilang ng mga deposito sa tanso at tanso malayo attractions. Kamakailan, ang Australian Western Pagmimina Corporation inihayag ng mundo-class na tanso - ginto na matatagpuan sa Timog Cotabato, tinatayang tanso reserbang ng 10,442 milyong tons, 227-369 tons ng reserbang ginto, ang kabuuang halaga ng hindi bababa sa 100-200 bilyong dolyar US; Climax-Arimco pagmimina ay magagawa Ang ulat ng pag-aaral ay nagpapakita na ang tanso proyekto sa Nueva, Vizcaya, ang reserbang ng Dinkidi tanso ng mineral ng higit sa 17 milyong tons.
    Gold mapagkukunan, sa Pilipinas, ginto, composite ng mineral at bato sa form umiiral, ang mga pangunahing lugar ng pagmimina sa Baguio, Paracale, Masbate, Surigao, at Masara. Geological mga eksperto ay naniniwala na ang geological tampok ng Pilipinas, ang pinakamalaking at richest gintong deposito ay malamang na mga reserbang paglinsad rehiyon malapit sa natural na mga pwersa sa Pilipinas, ang kamakailang mga operasyon sa paggalugad ng ginto ay ang pagbuo ng mababaw na lugar ng imbakan. Australian prospecting kumpanya sa Rapu-Rapu reserbang Island ng higit sa 600 tons ng ginto - tanso - silver, 3 gramo bawat tonelada ng mineral ginto, pilak, 37 gramo; tanso nilalaman ng 1.46%, 2.33% ng ang nilalaman sink (karaniwang pilak at ginto , tanso at na kaugnay sa pamamagitan ng-produkto ng produksyon ng ginto, tanso.)
    3 nikel mineral mapagkukunan Philippine nikel reserbang mineral ng tungkol sa 1,09 bilyong tons, accounting para sa 15.5% ng kabuuang reserbang ng ores metal na kung saan ay may napatunayan reserbang ng 1,02 bilyong tons, accounting para sa 93.72% ng kabuuang reserbang ng nikel ng mineral, ang average na kalidad sa ang saklaw ng 0.23% - 2.47%; Maaari inaasahan reserbang ng 56,300,000 tons, accounting para sa 5.17% kalidad sa hanay 0.36% -1.24%; maaaring mangyari reserbang ng 12.1 milyong tons, ang kalidad ng ang hanay ng 0.23% -2.27% (Tandaan: Ang kabuuang reserbang ng napatunayang reserbang, mga reserbang at maaaring mangyari reserbang at). Philippine mineral bauxite nikel kadalasang mataas na nikel nilalaman, ang karamihan sa mababaw lupa, madaling pagmimina at mababang gastos. Nikel ng mineral ay puro sa Davao Oriental, at Palawan, ang mga reserbang ay 475,700,000 tons (43.69%) ng kabuuang reserbang at 407,100,000 tons (37.38%) ng kabuuang reserbang. Iba pang mga nikel sa malalaking scale deposito ng lalawigan ng Surigao del Norte, at Zambales ng Norway Mindex Asa prospecting kumpanya sa paggalugad ng Mindoro, ang kabuuang mga reserbang ng 225 milyong tons (dry timbang) ng nikel ng mineral, nikelado metal nilalaman ng 1% kobalt metal nilalaman ng 0.1% (kobalt ay karaniwang kaugnay sa nikel, isang mahalagang byproduct ng produksyon ng nikel.)
    4 chromite chromite mapagkukunan umiiral sa lalawigan ng Zambales at sa lalawigan ng Surigao del Norte, Dinagat Island. Chromite laki mula sa malakihan na taglay ng chromite sa mga milyon-milyong ng mga tons. Zambales lalawigan Coto chromite Ito ay pinaniniwalaan na ang pinakamalaking sa mundo kilalang mga reserbang ng chrome ng mineral mahirap pinansiyal.
    Sa karagdagan, ang mga ang bauxite mapagkukunan sa Pilipinas ay napaka-mayaman. Bauxite resources ay pangunahing puro sa rehiyon Samar sa Silangang Visayas, tinatantya mga mga geological reserbang ng 242 milyong tons, ang isang average ng 40.80% Al2O3 nilalaman, ang kabuuang halaga ng humigit-kumulang sa $ 21 bilyong.
    (C) di-metal na mineral mapagkukunan
    Di-metal na mineral ay isang mahalagang pinagkukunan ng Pilipinas, pagbuo, agrikultura at koryente. Ay ang Pilipinas pinakamalaking reserbang ng mga non-metal mineral, apog na ay natagpuan sa Pilipinas sa paligid ng ang reserbang ng 29 bilyong tonelada, accounting para sa 57% ng mga non-metal reserbang mineral; marmol reserbang ng 8.5 bilyong tonelada, accounting para sa 16.7 porsyento ng mga non-metal reserbang mineral; Philippine karbon reserbang ay mataas na at ng mahinang kalidad, pangunahing matatagpuan sa Surigao at Zamboanga del Norte lalawigan; pospeyt matatagpuan Lligan; sa silikon deposito sa Zamboanga del Norte lalawigan; natagpuan sa Davao malapit sa pinakamalaking ng magnesiyo ang mundo mina.

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