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菲律宾矿产资源情况-菲律宾矿产资源情况,矿业新闻、市场分析、矿产品价格行情、建设项目信息、矿业交易,期刊、会议论文以及培训教程、矿业文献。
菲律宾得天独厚的地理环境和地质条件,使其以相对较小的国土面积,拥有丰富的天然矿产资源,在世界矿产资源储量中,占有重要的地位。根据菲律宾国家地质矿业局的数据,以单位面积矿产储量计算,菲律宾金矿储量,居世界第三位、铜矿储量居世界第四位、镍矿储量居世界第五位、铬矿储量居世界第六位。目前,已探明储量的矿藏中,有13种金属矿和29种非金属矿。
菲律宾矿业,在经历了八十年代以前的辉煌发展时期后,近些年来,发展比较缓慢。矿业在国民经济中,发挥的作用与其丰富的矿藏量相比相去甚远。近十年来,菲律宾矿业,年度新增产值占菲律宾GDP的比重在1.01%~1.58%,矿产品出口额,占菲律宾出口总额的比重,在1.47%~6.38%,矿业直接就业人口,占菲律宾就业总人口的比重,在0.3%~0.6%,由矿业产生的乘数效应约为4~10。菲律宾矿产品,绝大部分用于出口,特别是金属矿产品全部用于出口。主要出口国是日本,其余出口地区和国家,包括亚洲、北美、欧洲和中国,矿业是菲律宾经济发展的稳定外汇来源。
近年来,菲律宾政府根据国家经济发展的需要,大力倡导矿业改革,提出培育发展繁荣,有竞争力的现代矿业体系的矿业复兴计划,希望通过复兴菲律宾矿业,吸引更多矿业投资、创造就业机会、增加政府财政收入,减少贫困、促进经济增长。中国是矿产资源相对缺乏的国家,菲律宾丰富的矿产资源和与中国邻近的优异地理位置,是中国在海外开发矿产资源的理想地区。中国菲律宾合作开发菲律宾矿产资源,将为两国带来双赢的结局。
菲律宾矿产资源
菲律宾拥有许多世界级的高品质矿藏,矿产资源储量巨大、分布广泛。根据1996年菲律宾国家矿业局公布的报告数据,菲律宾金属矿储量为71亿公吨,非金属矿储量为510亿公吨。菲律宾北部吕宋的Benguet省、Zambales省、Marinduque省;中部维萨亚的Samar地区、NegrosOccidental省;西部的Palawan地区和南部棉兰老岛的SurigaodelNorte省、Davao省、DavaoOriental省、ZamboangadelNorte省都是重要的矿产区。
1.1菲律宾矿产资源分类
菲律宾矿产资源主要分为贵金属矿、铁合金矿、贱金属矿、肥料矿、工业矿、宝石和装饰石矿等六类。根据经济发展的需要和受开采条件等因素的限制,目前只有选择地开采了金属矿中的金、铬、镍、铜矿和非金属矿中的磷酸盐矿、海鸟粪、粘土、白云石、长石、石灰石、大理石、珍珠岩、硅石、石料、砂、盐、闪长岩、蛇纹岩等。
菲律宾的主要金属矿产品是直接出售的原矿石(ORES)和经粉碎、洗矿、干燥、分级等加工处理的精矿产品(Concent Rate)。非金属矿产品则按照市场上不同技术指标的要求,进行加工处理。
1.2金属矿产资源
1.2.1铜矿资源
在菲律宾金属矿产中,铜矿储量为48亿t,占金属矿总储量的67.5%。菲律宾铜矿以斑岩铜矿为主,全国各地均有分布。主要的铜矿产区在北吕宋山区的Zambales、Benguet、NuevaViscaya和南部SurigaodelNorte、Davao、Davao Oriental。地质勘探工作显示,菲律宾仍存在大量的铜矿床和铜矿远景点。近期,澳大利亚西部矿业公司宣布在South Cotabato发现了世界级的铜—金矿,估计铜储量1044.2万t,金储量227~369t,总价值至少100~200亿美元;Climax-Arimco矿业公司的可行性研究报告则显示,在NuevaVizcaya的Dinkidi铜矿项目,铜矿石储量超过1700万t。
1.2.2金矿资源
菲律宾金矿以复合矿和冲击矿形式存在,主要矿区在Baguio,Paracale,Masbate,Surigao和Masara。地质专家研究认为,根据菲律宾的地质特点,最大和最富有的金矿床很可能蕴藏于菲律宾接近自然力的错位地区,近期的金矿勘探作业已向浅层储藏区发展。澳大利亚一探矿公司在Rapu-Rapu岛发现储量超过600万t的金-铜-银矿,矿石含金3g/t,银37g/t;铜含量1.46%,锌含量2.33%。
1.2.3镍矿资源
菲律宾镍矿总储量约为10.9亿t,占金属矿总储量的15.5%。其中,已探明储量10.2亿t,占镍矿总储量的93.72%,平均品位0.23%~2.47%;可期储量5630万t,占5.17%,平均品位0.36%~1.24%;可能储量为1210万t,平均品位0.23%~2.27%(注:总储量为探明储量、可期储量和可能储量之和)。菲律宾镍矿多为高镍含量的铁矾土,大部分处在浅土层,易于开采且成本低。镍矿集中分布在Davao Oriental和Palawan,储量分别为4.757亿t(占总储量43.69%)和4.071亿t(占总储量37.38%)。其它有较大规模镍矿藏的省还有Surigaodel Norte和Zambales。挪威Mindex ASA探矿公司在Mindoro的勘探,发现总储量为22500万t(干重)的镍矿,其镍金属含量1%,钴金属含量0.1%(钴通常与镍伴生,是生产镍的重要副产品。)
1.2.4铬铁矿资源
铬铁矿主要存在于Zambales省和SurigaodelNorte省的Dinagat岛。铬铁矿的规模大小不等,较大规模的铬铁矿储量在几百万t。Zambales省Coto铬铁矿据信是世界上已知储量最大的难融铬矿。
此外,菲律宾的铝土资源也非常丰富。铝土矿的资源主要集中在东维萨亚的SAMAR地区,估计地质储量为2.42亿t,平均Al2O3含量为40.80%,总价值约210亿美元。
1.3非金属矿产资源
非金属矿产是菲律宾建筑、农业和电力的重要来源。石灰石是菲律宾储量最大的非金属矿物,在菲律宾各地均有发现,储量为290亿公吨,占非金属矿储量的57%;大理石储量为85亿公吨,占非金属矿储量的16.7%;菲律宾煤炭资源储量不高且质量较差,主要蕴藏于Surigao和ZamboangadelNorte省;磷矿主要位于Lligan;硅矿藏于ZamboangadelNorte省;在Davao附近发现有世界上最大的镁矿。
2菲律宾矿业发展
2.1菲律宾矿业发展概况
菲律宾矿业的发展受国内政治经济环境、采矿技术手段、国际市场价格,以及环境保护等因素的影响而呈现较大的起伏波动。
在80年代以前,菲律宾采取经济开放政策,积极吸引外资,经济发展取得了一定的成效,1982年,被世界银行列为中等收入国家。在这一期间,菲律宾矿业得到了较快的发展,特别是金属矿的开采呈现繁荣的景象。菲律宾曾是世界上五大黄金生产国之一,铜、铬和镍的生产也位列世界前十位之内。由于菲律宾没有冶炼厂,金属矿产品全部用于出口。在1970~1981年间,矿产品出口,对菲律宾出口的贡献最大,占到菲律宾年度出口总额的15%~25%。其高峰是1974年,矿产品出口占菲律宾总出口的25%。
80年代中期,至90年代初期,菲律宾矿业生产规模,达到鼎盛。这期间,矿业新增产值,占菲律宾GDP的比重,维持在1.5%~2.08%之间,矿业新增产值的最高记录,是1986年的123亿比索,占GDP的2.08%;矿业从业人员,平均在14.7万人,1988年,矿业从业人员,曾达到15.7万人的最高值;矿产量的最高峰,是1992年,达到基准矿产量(以1978年矿产量为1)的3.14倍,国际市场价格的下跌和国内需求的增加,矿产品出口仅占菲律宾总出口的6.5%左右。
90年代中期以来,由于政治上的不稳定,国际市场金属矿产品价格波动和开采技术落后、资金短缺及环境保护方面,出现的问题,菲律宾相继关闭了几个主要的金属矿,使金属矿产量直线下跌。特别是,金属铜的产量,由1981年的30.2万t,下降到2001年的2万t。由于非金属矿在此期间出现较高的增长,特别是1996年,到1999年间,非金属矿产值,超过金属矿产值,成为矿业部门的主角,使菲律宾矿业,整体维持在一个相对稳定的较低水平。这期间,矿业新增产值,在每年100亿比索左右,2001年,占GDP的比重仅为1.01%,矿业从业人员,平均在10万人,1999年,矿业从业人员达到20年来的最低点,为8.9万人;矿产量约为基准矿产量的1.5倍,矿产品出口,约占菲律宾总出口的2%左右。
阿罗约总统执政以来,对矿业开发寄予厚望,提出了矿业复兴计划,积极鼓励外资参与菲律宾矿业的开发,使菲律宾矿业出现复苏的迹象。2002年,菲律宾矿业总产值为330亿比索;新增产值153亿比索,约占菲律宾GDP的1.46%;矿产品出口额5.19亿美元,占出口总额的1.47%;实现国家总税收20.6亿比索;直接从业人员10.1万人,占菲律宾就业总人口的0.3%。
目前,菲律宾正在运行的采矿项目,包括2个大型矿(Padcal铜矿和Victoria金矿)、5个中型矿(RioTuba镍矿、Cagdianao镍矿、Taganito镍矿、SurigaoKrominco铬矿、Masinloc铬矿)、18个水泥厂和采石厂、1个中等规模的大理石厂、约2500个小型矿和采石厂(小型矿主要是金、铬矿,采石厂主要是大理石、石灰石、建筑集料等)。
2.2金属矿业的发展
在90年代中期以前,金属矿业一直在菲律宾矿业中居主导地位,但产量和产值却在逐年下滑,到1995年金属矿业产值只占矿业总产值的54.43%。1996年至1999年间,金属矿业产值落后于非金属矿产值,最高时达到九个百分点。2000年起,金属矿业产值重新超过非金属矿,呈现恢复发展势态。在已开采的金属矿中,铜矿和铬矿的产量总体表现为下滑趋势,金矿和镍矿的产量则在波动中不断增长。
2.2.1.铜矿业的发展
菲律宾铜矿的开采,始于14世纪。二次世界大战后,大规模开采斑岩铜矿的新技术,为菲律宾铜工业的发展,提供了一个新的发展机会。1980年,是菲律宾铜工业发展的高峰时期,当年,产铜精矿100万t,是世界第五大铜矿生产国。同时,地质勘探工作也取得辉煌的进展,至少发现了48个铜床和大量的远景点。从1982年起,铜产量缓慢下降,到1990年,铜产量为1981年的60%。由于开采技术及地质上出现的一些问题,以及国际市场价格持续下跌,和1996年前后,菲律宾两家铜矿公司,因违反政府环境保护法而被查封,其他几个铜矿项目,相继关闭或停产等多方面因素的影响,铜产量急剧下滑,到2000年,铜产量,仅为1981年的6.6%。虽然,分别于1999年,和2000年,开工的两个铜矿项目,减缓了铜矿业的下降速度,仍不足以扭转自1996年以来的急速下滑趋势,2003年上半年,菲律宾精铜矿产量,仅为4.1万t
2.2.2.铬铁矿业的发展
铬铁矿生产因国际市场需求变化而表现得大起大伏,十分不稳定。1979年菲律宾年产铬矿石43.9万t,到1988年下降到17.1万t,经过1989~1991年的短暂反弹后,1993年再次跌入低谷,当年产量仅6.5万t。1993年至1996年间,因日本钢铁业的需求增加,铬矿产量又以平均每年22%的速度增长,然而,1997年由于维萨亚和棉兰老地区部分小型铬铁矿的规模缩减,而使产量下降16.7%,1998年产量进一步下降了58%。2000年4月菲律宾唯一有能力生产难融铬的Benguet公司恢复Masinloc铬铁矿的生产,才使菲律宾铬铁矿业的发展有了喘息个机会,2001年产量达到2.8万t。
2.2.3.金矿业的发展
菲律宾金矿业的发展比较稳定,平均年产30多吨。由于投资者对金的兴趣不减,使金矿业持续增长。尽管近几年在国际市场上黄金价格下跌对金产量造成一定影响,但新开工的四个金矿项目和小型矿产量的增加,仍使金产量显著地增长,由1991年的25.95t增长到2001年的33.84t。2003年上半年产量达到16.82t。
2.2.4.镍矿业的发展
镍矿属于露天开采,受气候条件影响较大。在90年代初期,由于受不利自然因素影响,镍矿生产出现小幅下滑后,镍产量一直增长较快。特别是近年来,厄尔尼诺现象使菲律宾旱季延长,为镍矿开采者提供了较长的作业时间,使镍产量出现了空前的增长,从1993年的7952t飞跃到1998年的20685t,6年内增长近1.6倍。2003年上半年镍矿石产量达到539858t(干重),创造产值8.19亿比索。
2.3非金属矿业的发展
非金属矿业是菲律宾地方采矿业最活跃的部分,主要包括建筑砂、石、水泥和煤的开采。自80年代初以来,除个别年份外,非金属矿业的产量和产值保持了持续稳定的增长。1995年以来,由于菲律宾国内建筑业的蓬勃发展,对砂、石和水泥等建筑材料的需求急剧增加,使得这三种矿产品的产量大幅度提高,2002年菲律宾水泥的产量达到13.4万t,非金属矿部门的整体产值也随之经历了几年的高增长,曾经占矿业产值的54%~59%。2000年以后,由于非金属矿业部门发展迟缓,非金属矿产值占矿业总产值的比例下降到2002年的36.7%。
煤是菲律宾重要的能源矿产,随着菲律宾经济的发展,对煤的需求量日益增加。自2000年以来,菲对煤的年需求量都在800万t以上,2002年达到850万t。而菲煤的产量始终在每年130万t左右,最高生产年份2002年的产量也只有166.5万t,对煤的需求缺口由大量进口来解决,2002年菲律宾煤进口达593万t。

菲律宾的矿产资源

菲律宾拥有丰富的矿产资源,主要分为贵金属矿、铁合金矿、贱金属矿、肥料矿、工业矿、宝石和装饰石矿等六类。 是世界重要的铜、金、铬、镍、钴生产国和出口国,铁、煤、油气、硅砂等矿产资源也很丰富。目前,已探明储量的矿藏中,就有金、铜、镍、铝、铬、钴、银、铅、锌等13种金属矿和磷酸盐矿、粘土、白云石、长石等29种非金属矿。

1996年,菲律宾国家矿业局公布的报告数据,菲律宾金属矿储量为71亿吨,非金属矿储量为785亿吨。其中铜占金属矿产储量的大部分,比例为70%、其次是镍,占16%;在非金属矿产中,石灰石和大理石几乎占储量的85%。菲律宾北部吕宋的Benguet 省、Zambales 省、Marinduque省;中部维萨亚的Samar地区、 Negros Occidental省;西部的Palawan地区和南部棉兰老岛的Surigao del Norte省、Davao 省、Davao Oriental省、Zamboanga del Norte省都是重要的矿产区。

菲律宾国家地质矿业局的数据,以单位面积矿产储量计算,菲律宾金矿储量居世界第三位、铜矿储量居世界第四位、镍矿储量居世界第五位、铬矿储量居世界第六位。

经济发展的需要和受开采条件等因素的限制,目前,只有选择地开采了金属矿中的金、铬、镍、铜矿和非金属矿中的磷酸盐矿、海鸟粪、粘土、白云石、长石、石灰石、大理石、珍珠岩、硅石、石料、砂、盐、闪长岩、蛇纹岩等。是东南亚最大的产铜国家和世界第三大产金基地。

(一)金属矿产资源

1、铜矿资源

  在菲律宾金属矿产中,铜矿储量为48亿吨,占金属矿总储量的67.5%。据资料报道,该国每平方公里含铜134吨,列世界第四位。2002年菲环境和自然资源部的矿产和地球科学局评估菲有铜53亿吨。

菲律宾铜矿以斑岩铜矿为主,全国各地均有分布。主要的铜矿产区,在北吕宋山区的Zambales 、Benguet 、Nueva Viscaya和南部Surigao del Norte、Davao 、Davao Oriental。地质勘探工作显示,菲律宾仍存在大量的铜矿床和铜矿远景点。如在南部棉兰老岛的Tampakan地区大型铜金矿预计含有1875万 t铜和 454 t黄金。近期,澳大利亚西部矿业公司宣布在South Cotabato发现了世界级的铜—金矿,估计铜储量1044.2万吨,金储量227-369吨,总价值至少100-200 亿美元;Climax-Arimco矿业公司的可行性研究报告则显示,在Nueva Vizcaya的Dinkidi铜矿项目,铜矿石储量超过1700万吨;南非英美公司(Anglo American)与菲律宾的菲莱克斯矿业公司(Philex Mining)成立合资公司,计划开发的南部北殊里肴省的博永安铜矿(Boyongan),地质学家估计的矿石储量约为2.19亿吨。

其中,宿务省的铜矿主要集中在托莱多镇。托莱多镇(Toledo)铜矿曾经是东南亚最大的铜矿。1994年以前,Atlas统一矿业发展集团在这里开采,已开采铜矿石8.63亿吨,提炼精铜6.34吨,铜含量为0.41%。该矿山曾经是东南亚最大的铜矿,1994年因台风及金属价格下滑而关闭。该矿山由三个主矿区组成,分别为Lutopan矿, Biga矿和Carmen矿, 探明剩余铜矿石为8.74亿吨。目前,该公司已凑集1亿美元资金准备重新开采,预计每年能够生产17.5万吨铜精矿,其中,包括大约6万吨的铜。其它探明有铜矿的地区有:Sinsin和Sudlon, Biga和Kanapnapan, Pansol,Maypay, Matugan,这些地区的铜矿含量从0.15%至1.32%不等。

80年代,东尼格罗省的Basay地区Maglinao村曾有开采铜矿,铜含量0.14%-0.56%,目前已停止采矿。该省的Bayawan地区的Magting村和Tayawan村都显示有铜矿,取矿样分析铜含量0.14%-0.28%。San Jose 地区的Siapo村,探明有506公顷的矿区,铜含量12.18%-36.40%。

表1 ,菲律宾主要铜矿资源量

矿床或矿山

矿石量(亿t)

平均品位(%)

金属量(万t)

坦珀坎

22.0

0.75

1280

吉瑙安

5.0

0.37

185

金金

3.15

0.44

139

Hinobaan

180.6

Kinhking

1875

Maricalum
200

Tampakan

6.59

Cu0.81

Dinkidi

1700吨

Toledo

8.81

359

Boyongan

2.19

South Cotabato

1044.2

2、铬铁矿资源

菲律宾有9条含铬的蛇绿岩带,铬铁矿资源丰富。据菲律宾官方资料1982年铬铁矿总储量3020万吨。铬铁矿主要存在于吕宋岛三描礼士省和北苏里高省的Dinagat岛。铬铁矿床的规模大小不等,较大规模的铬铁矿储量在几百万吨。以岩浆型矿床为主,在萨马岛有铬铁矿砂矿床。

(1)三描礼士省铬铁矿资源

已知三描礼士山脉有62个铬铁矿产地,有地质资料的仅21个。各块段的典型矿床有Acoje(阿科杰)、Kinamaligan、Gahalao、Silaguin 、Coto(科托,位于三描礼士省马辛洛克地区)等铬铁矿床,而以Acoje铬铁矿床最著名。

Acoje(阿科杰)矿床,位于三描礼士山中北部圣克鲁斯南东东约16公里处,储量约348万吨,正在开采。是最大的冶金级铬矿石生产地。据信是世界上已知储量最大的难融铬矿。矿体平行于围岩侵入,沿走向长8公里,跨越Acoje、Dawn、Aurora3个矿区,厚度达10m,受断层挤压局部达40m。围岩均为纯橄榄岩、方辉橄榄岩,铬铁矿石类型有块状、条绦状、浸染状,由富到贫,逐渐过度。矿石品位:Cr2o347-49%、Al2O314.1%、MgO6.8%、SiO21.2%,铬铁比2.7,属于冶金级。

(2)迪纳伽特(Dinagat)岛铬铁矿资源

迪纳伽特岛是菲律宾国主要的铬铁矿资源相对富集地区之一,19世纪30年代。首次发现有铬铁矿存在,联合国自然资源贷款基金于1989—1990年选择了菲律宾西部的巴拉望岛和东部的迪纳伽特岛2个地区针对铬铁矿开展矿产勘查,并重点对迪纳伽特岛主要铬铁矿区进行评价。在迪纳伽特岛发现发铬铁矿为主,也发现有2处金矿点和2处镍矿体。

迪纳伽特以侵入岩为主,少量沉积岩。侵入岩最主要有斜方辉橄岩和纯橄岩,部分辉长岩、玄武岩;沉积岩仅有少量礁灰岩和第四纪冲洪积。断裂构造发育,北东向断裂早于北西向断裂,后期北东向断裂进一步活化,切割北西向断裂。岛屿中北部已发现多处铬铁矿,有北部的Acojc–Mount Kanbilio–Krominco的7处矿床,中部Velqre的7处矿床,矿点星罗棋布,据初步统计不少于50处,但泰山模均较小。

铬铁矿区一般主要出露斜方辉石橄榄岩,断裂构造发育,主要有北北东向、北西向二组。铬铁矿体产于纯橄岩与斜方辉石橄榄岩的接触带上,矿体呈脉状,走向北西,倾向南西,倾角50–60度,受构造影响变化较大,形态复杂,常有分支复合现象。由多条矿脉组成矿带,长200m–500m,宽几十米至一百多米。单矿体长一般30m–200m,宽最小几十厘米,最大达十几米。矿脉常被小断裂错断。矿体与围岩界线清楚。

矿石块状、条带状、浸染状构造,由铬铁矿、铬尖晶石、橄榄石、辉石等组成,粒度2mm–5mm。Cr2O3含量26–53%,一般35–45%,Cr/Fe一般在3左右。

矿体地表,常有残坡积铬铁矿石分布,范围较原生矿体大,是原生矿的找矿标志之一。矿床类型属于岩浆晚期矿床。

(3)萨马岛铬铁矿砂矿床

萨马岛有铬铁矿砂矿床,1976-1981年勘探,包括Mcarthar、Porlos、Salcedo等3个铬铁砂矿床。其中Mcarthar矿床含矿面积50平方公里,在履盖于蛇纹石化橄榄岩和橄榄岩体之上的残积红土中,厚度1-6米,矿体呈层状,含矿体积3540万立方米,平均含矿率为59.3公斤/立方米。铬铁砂矿石成分:Cr2o347.88%、Al2O312.05%、MgO6.09%、SiO21.37%,铬铁比1.3-2.1。分布于喀斯特凹地中,由于流矿槽效应,含矿率多达140.72公斤/立方米。

3、镍矿资源

据美国地质勘探局(USGS)的调查统计,菲律宾镍矿总储量约为15.86亿吨(总储量为探明的储量、可期储量和可能储量之和),占金属矿总储量的15.5%。其中,已探明储量10.2亿吨,占镍矿总储量的93.72%,平均品质范围在0.23%-2.47%;可期储量5630万吨,占5.17%,品质范围在0.36%-1.24%;可能储量为1210万吨,品质范围在0.23%-2.27%。

菲律宾原生镍矿很少,镍矿几乎全部为次生矿床,其中99%为红土镍矿,多为高镍含量的铁矾土,大部分处在浅土层,易于开采且成本低。红土镍矿,集中分布在Davao Oriental和Palawan,储量分别为4.757亿吨(占总储量43.69%)和4.071亿吨(占总储量37.38%)。其它有较大规模镍矿藏的省还有Surigao del Norte和Zambales。另,NiHAO矿产资源国际公司为旗下三描礼士(Zambales)省Botolan矿区初期勘探显示矿石镍品位为1.4%、1.6%和1.8%。

菲律宾主要红土镍矿床,如下:

(1)Nonoc镍矿

Nonoc镍矿是20世纪60年代世界上最大的镍矿之一。据2000年6月的可研报告,镍资源推断储量1.3亿吨。

(2)Mindoro镍矿

位于马尼拉200公里的Mindoro岛,挪威Mindex ASA探矿公司在Mindoro的勘探,发现总储量为22500万吨(干重)的镍矿,其镍金属含量1%,钴金属含量0.1%。(钴通常与镍伴生,是生产镍的重要副产品)。

(3)Caga镍矿

可采储量1274万吨,镍品位1.58%,钴品位0.11%。

(4)Taganito镍矿

储量1150万吨,镍品位2.38%。

(5)Rio Tuba镍矿

矿石储量150万吨,镍品位2.3%。

(6)Hinatuan镍矿

储量25万吨,镍品位1.4%。

(7)Adlay镍矿

可采储量582万吨,镍品位1.61%,钴品位0.09%。

4、钴矿资源

  菲律宾钴主要分布于红土型镍矿床中,通常与镍伴生,是生产镍的重要副产品。据美国地质调查局统计,2002年菲律宾钴金属量储量基础40万吨。挪威Mindex ASA探矿公司在民都洛岛(Mindoro)的勘探,发现资源量巨大的镍-钴矿,其钴金属含量0.1%。Caga镍矿钴品位0.11%。Adlay镍矿钴品位0.09%。

5、铝土矿资源

铝土矿主要集中在菲律滨群岛中部东维萨亚的萨马岛地区。估计地质储量为2.42亿吨,平均Al2O3含量为40.80%,总价值约210亿美元。上世纪70年代这里的地质勘探工作非常活跃,曾有外国公司已经制定开发计划,后因当时的马科斯政府宣布菲律宾政府要开发该地区铝土矿资源而没有实现,停滞至今。

其中潜力最大的矿区为西萨马省的BARI矿区、AMPI矿区,矿床类型为红土型三水铝土矿,未见原生铝土矿,矿床赋存于岩溶洼地中,矿石呈松散土状,矿石矿物主要为三水铝石和一水软铝石,AI2O3平均45%。

6、金矿、银矿资源

位于西太平洋构造一岩浆活动带的印尼一菲律宾地区,产有为数众多的低 硫化型浅成低温热液金矿床。

菲律宾金矿主要矿区在Baguio, Paracale, Masbate, Surigao 和Masara。金矿石储量1.36亿吨。2002年菲环境和自然资源部的矿产和地球科学局评估菲有金矿石储量达9.7亿吨。地质专家研究认为,根据菲律宾的地质特点,最大和最富有的金矿床很可能蕴藏于菲律宾接近自然力的错位地区,近期的金矿勘探作业已向浅层储藏区发展。澳大利亚一探矿公司在Rapu-Rapu岛发现储量超过600万吨的金—铜—银矿,每吨矿石含金3克,银37克;铜含量1.46%,锌含量2.33%。(银通常与金、铜伴生,是生产金、铜的副产品)。全菲61%金矿蕴藏量在中维萨亚地区,东尼格罗省也是重要的矿产区。

宿务省的金矿,主要在托莱多镇铜矿区,1994年以前,在开采铜矿的同时,已开采并提炼黄金42950盎司,平均每吨矿石含金为0.23克。Atlas公司估计该矿还能采得黄金461256盎司。此外,托莱多镇的Sigpit地区也有一些小规模的矿区,含金量比较高,每吨矿石含金可以达到9.85克。康索拉雄市(Consolacion)的Garing地区也发现有金矿。东尼格罗省的Ayungon地区的矿石经取样分析,发现每吨矿石含金量可达到4-5克,Amlan河峡谷矿石含金量3克。Siaton地区都金矿的可能。保和省也有小规模金矿开采,在Tuba-tuba, Kauswagan,Bonakan, Sto. Nino, Cangmundo, San Vicente,Cantabugnay这些地区都有金矿,取矿样分析,含金量为4.1克。

2007年,全球第四大铜生产商斯特拉塔铜业公司宣布,坦帕坎(Tampakan)铜金项目,根据新的数据,已探明有6.59亿吨矿石储量,实测资源、推定资源、推测资源总计达22 亿吨(每吨矿石含金量0.32 克),共含有1,520 万盎司黄金。

另,Toledo铜矿金储量为500万盎司。

银矿一般和铜矿伴生,是生产金、铜的副产品。Atlas的托莱多矿区,每吨矿石含银2.05克,约还能提炼175万盎司。其它有银矿的地区还有Maypay, Matugan, Mabini-Panoypanoy。Matugan的银矿含量较高,每吨矿石含银达到0.2-6.02盎司。

矿床地质特征上,如,菲律宾吕宋岛北部碧瑶矿区的Acupan—Antamocu金矿床,矿脉既出现于渐新世 一上新世的侵入岩体内,又出现于同期的火山岩及火山沉积岩系中。矿床受断裂构造和火山机构控制。主要矿化类型为石英脉矿化。成因为浅成低温热液金矿床,并形成于下伏斑岩铜矿的顶部。

7、铁矿资源

在必可地区铁矿蕴藏量达1.4亿吨。在东尼格罗省的Tagpo,Sab-Ahan和Lonoy,Bais市有铁矿储量8.9万吨。在吕宋岛中东部北甘马仁省(camarines norte)有Domaco铁矿床,铁矿资源量1000万吨。另在宿务省Talamban有交代型铁矿矿床。

在宿务省铁矿主要在Talamban贮量交代矿床,集中沿着石灰质层位火山沉积形成,矿石色泽光亮,大量的赤铁矿、磁铁矿、其次褐铁矿和黄铁矿,脉石是由孔雀石、石青、方解石、石榴石、绿泥石、绿帘石、石英和铁镁矿物组成。

Domaco铁矿床,位于吕宋岛中东部北甘马仁省(camarines norte)巴格尼班市(jose panganniban)西南部。预获详查区内铁矿资源量1000万吨。

铁矿层主要赋存在变安山质火山角砾岩与砂、页岩接触带的矿化夕卡岩带中,接近于或出露于地表,与地形坡度相一致,地表遭受了热带雨淋强烈的风化剥蚀作用,表现在地表铁矿石局部为球状风化特征或成粉未状、颗粒状,或磁性减弱特征,矿化品位不均,中间为强磁化的富铁矿石,TFe品位达50%以上,周围为弱磁化的贫铁矿石,TFe品位在30%左右,并普遍含有铜矿化,品位多在0.1%以上,局部有富集,最高达12%。

主要由ⅰ号和ⅱ号铁矿体组成。ⅰ号铁矿体长约390米,控制斜深200米,矿体顶部埋深从0-51米,初步估算铁矿资源量为2869.81千吨(332 333级),平均真厚度14.45米(平均垂直厚度15.74米), 平均品位36.15%,铜品位0.24%;贫铁矿体资源量173.21千吨(334级),平均品位22.89%,铜品位0.14%。合计铁矿资源量为3043.02千吨(332 333 334级)。

ⅱ号铁矿体长约450米,最大穿矿厚度72米,控制斜深500米,埋深从10米到50米不等。从37线部份钻孔的铜化验结果看,钻孔ddh24孔,铜平均品位为0.47%,穿矿厚度48.05米;ddh16孔铜平均品位0.44%,穿矿厚度21.00米;ddh3701孔两层铜矿体,第一层平均品位0.58%,穿矿厚度16.07米,第二层铜平均品位2.00%,厚10.88米,最高品位达4.37%,说明局部存在厚大的铜矿体。估算铁矿资源量超过一千万吨。

矿石主要为磁铁矿矿石。自然类型属于浸染状、致密块状弱磁性铁矿石;工业类型:根据(CaO MgO)/(SiO2 Al2O3)比值为0.27,确定为酸性矿石,且伴生有益元素及有害元素(S含量为2.70%)均超过了规定要求,需进行选矿后才能利用,故其工业类型为需选磁铁矿石。

铁矿床类型为接触交代-热液铁矿床。矿石主要为它形粒状结构,块状构造。

矿体下盘主要为磁黄铁矿化、黄铁矿化的夕卡岩及角岩、凝灰质大理岩、砂页岩。上盘为蚀变的安山角砾岩为主,局部见有蚀变的安山玢岩、安山岩,夹岩为黄铁矿化的夕卡岩。

矿区开采技术条件的水文地质和工程地质都属于简单程度类型。

8、锰矿资源

  锰矿主要在保和省,由火山岩石风化而成,出于石灰岩的表面。

在Anda半岛的东南部的Tabanan,Guindulman,Bo.Tayud,Anda地区和北部的Pangpang地区都曾有锰矿的商业开采,还有储量较小的地区如Jagna, Duero和Buenavista, Carmen等,Guindulman和Anda地区New Frontier Mine公司已探明储量有含锰20%的锰矿石12万吨。其他如锡基霍尔省的Larena,Maria地区有Zambales Base Metal公司所属含锰28%的锰矿储量11.9万吨,在Larena,Maria,Enrique Villanueva地区New Frontier Mines公司所属含锰33.61%的锰矿11.7万吨。另据报道,在吕宋岛的杜克帕斯地区也有锰矿(270万吨富锰矿)。

(二)非金属矿产资源

  非金属矿产是菲律宾建筑、农业和电力的重要来源。石灰石是菲律宾储量最大的非金属矿物,在菲律宾各地均有发现,储量为290亿公吨,占非金属矿储量的57% ;大理石储量为85亿公吨,占非金属矿储量的16.7% ;菲律宾煤炭资源储量不高且质量较差,主要蕴藏于Surigao 和Zamboanga del Norte省;磷矿主要位于Lligan;硅矿藏于Zamboanga del Norte 省;在Davao 附近发现有世界上最大的镁矿。

1、黏土

宿务省的Guinsay, Danao市; Kotkot,compostela; Cogon, Lataban和Tayud Liloan;pooc, Talisay; Lipata, Minglanilla, Valladolid, Carcar等市有763万吨储量,在Calong-calong, Bato Toledo; Mangoto, Pandacan, Pinamungajan有2.1万立方米,在Langub, Mangiao, Asturias有21万吨。在保和省的Jagna, Valencia, Alburquereque Calape, Tubigon, Talibon有红黏土2万吨。东尼格罗省的三个沿海Sibulan, Zamboanguita, Manjuyod地区有93万立方米,平均厚度在0.4-0.5米,其他在Manjuyod的Canlabe, Compayo经Sycip Plantation勘探至少有46.5万立方米,呈芥色,在Guihulngan西北的Barangay山脉Sandayao, Imelda, Talpao地区62.75公顷有106万立方米红黏土储量,在Ayungon地区的Banban, Tibiawan和Poblacion有白和红黏土约65.6公顷108万立方米,黏土厚度在0.8-3.58米。

2、石灰石、石膏

在保和省有50%的岛屿有不同地质年代的石灰石储藏,是该省重要的非金属矿产资源,在Garcia-Hernandez地区有工业用石灰石储量约1.8亿吨(Phil. Sinter Corp.所属)。东尼格罗省的Guihulngan和La Libertad城镇约1935公顷有水泥原料用石灰石94.73万吨,化学分析含0.32%-55.32%氧化硅,0.57%-8.97%的三氧化二铁,0.12%-21.18%的三氧化二铝,6.41%-53.38%的氧化钙以及0.28%-17.16%的氧化镁。在Barangay Dalaopan和Tayasan有77%-89%硫酸钙含量的石膏储量50万吨。在宿务省石灰石主要储藏在Naga和San Fernando地区,石膏储藏在Aloagate和Languyon河流域。在锡基霍尔省的Brrio Simaculong和Lazi也有石灰石储藏,在Bgy, Helen, Larena有钙质砾屑灰岩和灰屑岩。

3、硅土和硅砂

在保和省的Catigbian,Buenavista硅土储量3647万吨,在Ubay, Talibon, Bien Unido Jetafe, Buenavista硅砂691万吨。在宿务的Pinamungajan地区的Mangoto和Bonbon硅砂259万吨。

4、大理石和石材

在宿务省Alegria, Naga, Toledo和Tuburan有大理石储量1.95亿吨, Gaway-gaway, Bo Uling, Naga地区有石材105亿立方米,由Teresa大理石公司开采,Uling大理石多为粉红色。Mactan石业公司也将carcar石灰石利用为石材,作为室内外装饰。在宿务有大大小小21个石艺加工厂。

(三)其它资源

地热资源丰富,预计有20.9亿桶原油标准能源。

菲律宾到目前共发现了19个油气田,其中巴拉望和苏海禄的原油储量约为50×108桶。菲律宾最重要的产油气区位于南沙海域的Camago–Malampaya 气田和吕宋岛西南部的马兰帕雅气田

菲律宾的成矿环境

地处西太平洋岛弧链,地质构造复杂。该区是地球岩石圈中最复杂的构造活动区之一,由于受到邻近的西太平洋壳体、印度和澳大利亚壳体自中生代以来的相互作用以及新生代亚洲陆缘扩张的影响,自晚白垩世以来持续发生了强烈大规模的构造一岩浆活动,成为与岛弧火山作用有关的热液活动的主要场所。

这一特殊的地质环境决定了菲律宾矿产资源丰富,找矿潜力巨大,且金属矿床类型多属与基性—超基性岩有关的岩浆型铬、镍矿床,和与中酸性火山岩次火山岩有关的斑岩型和块状硫化物矿床,浅成低温热液金矿床及风化沉积的红土型镍、铝矿等。

区域控矿构造为近南北向的菲律宾大断裂。矿区控矿构造主要为断裂构造和火山机构。

金矿床主要产于与消减作用有关的岩浆活动带,与成分上从流纹岩、英安岩到安山岩的钙碱性一高钾钙碱性火山、次火山岩岩性有关,火山机构、断裂构造及与热液活动有关的裂隙系统是成矿流体活动及发生沉淀的有利场所,它们控制了矿床的就位空间。

与斑岩有关的矿床则主要为块状硫化物铜金矿,其为顶部往往为浅成低温热液金矿床。沿近南北向的构造一岩浆带分布。

红土型铝土矿成矿要素则为富铝中基性岩及岩溶洼地。风化破碎的高铝中基性岩搬运至附近的岩溶洼地,热带海洋季风气候的湿热环境植被发育,微生物滋生,微生物腐蚀岩石产生有机酸一弱酸不断淋滤洼地堆积物,使硅质活化迁移而铁铝富集形成红土型三水铝土矿。

(一)主要金属矿床类型

菲律宾主要矿床有与基性—超基性岩有关的岩浆型铬、镍矿床,和与中酸性火山岩次火山岩有关的斑岩型和块状硫化物矿床,浅成低温热液金矿床及风化沉积的红土型镍、铝矿等。

1、与基性—超基性岩有关的岩浆型铬矿床

菲律宾有9条含铬的蛇绿岩带,铬铁矿区一般主要出露斜方辉石橄榄岩。铬铁矿体产于纯橄岩与斜方辉石橄榄岩的接触带上,矿体平行于围岩侵入,矿体呈脉状,受构造影响变化较大,形态复杂,常有分支复合现象。由多条矿脉组成矿带,长200m–500m,宽几十米至一百多米。单矿体长一般30m–200m,宽最小几十厘米,最大达十几米。矿脉常被小断裂错断。围岩为纯橄榄岩、方辉橄榄岩,矿体与围岩界线清楚。

矿石块状、条带状、浸染状构造,由铬铁矿、铬尖晶石、橄榄石、辉石等组成,粒度2mm–5mm。Cr2O3含量26–53%,一般35–45%,Cr/Fe一般在3左右。

矿体地表常有残坡积铬铁矿石分布,范围较原生矿体大,是原生矿的找矿标志之一。矿床类型属于岩浆晚期矿床。

2、斑岩型铜(金)矿床

菲律宾斑岩型铜(金)矿床位于环太平洋火山岩带的近南北中央科迪勒拉造山带分布。铜一金矿化与钙碱性侵入岩体有关。成矿作用与石英闪长斑岩等侵人关系密切,成矿时代多为晚上新世。

3、浅成低温热液型金矿床

研究表明,自新生代以来东南亚地区强烈的构造一岩浆活动是发生浅成低温热液金矿化的最有利的大地构造环境,钙碱性一高钾钙碱性火山、次火山活动是形成浅低温热液金矿床最有利的地质构造背景。

矿床自然金和碲化物共生,可能均来自岩浆,但也可能有部分来自容矿围岩或地壳深部基底(l996,Cooke)。下伏基底可能为金的成矿作用提供了部分成矿物质,但最主要的还是为形成该区的成矿元素组合提供了物质基础。金的最主要来源来自深部上地幔和下地壳岩石圈,而浅部的围岩岩性及其物理化学性质、局部构造发育程度等最终决定浅成低温热液金矿床的就位 。

区域控矿构造为近南北向的菲律宾大断裂。矿床受断裂构造和火山机构控制。矿脉既出现于渐新世一上新世的侵入岩体内,又出现于同期的火山岩及火山沉积岩系中。主要矿化类型为石英脉矿化。成因为浅成低温热液金矿床,多形成于下伏斑岩铜矿的顶部。

沸腾作用可能是这些矿床中导致金沉淀的主要机制。

4、 风化沉积的红土型镍、铝矿床

(1)红土型镍矿

菲律宾原生镍矿很少,镍矿几乎全部为次生矿床,其中99%为红土镍矿,多为高镍含量的铁矾土,大部分处在浅土层。

(2)红土型铝土矿

矿床类型为红土型三水铝土矿,矿床赋存的大地构造位置为环太平洋火山构造活动带的岛弧位置,富铝中基性火山岩发育,岩溶地貌发育。岩溶洼地为基性火山物质受淋滤成矿提供了成矿环境。这些洼地的标高在200m–450m。 岩溶洼地四周为峰林,成为相对封闭空间。在洼地外的坡地、台地上未发现铝土矿。

矿床为含铝砂土层。灰岩为铝土矿的直接围岩,矿体常赋存在灰岩形成的洼地和溶洞中。矿体堆积于洼地中,小洼地一般为单一矿体,矿体形态受洼地的影响,大洼地因受岩凸等因素的影响,矿体延续性差,一个大洼地就不只一个矿体,矿体有的呈透镜体、囊状 。矿体均平伏产于基底溶岩上,其形态规模受洼地大小、形态、顶底板控制,多呈不规则状。

矿体均有表土层覆盖,其厚度为0.2O~O.40m, 为表土层,底板为Daram 组基岩。基底起伏大。

矿石颜色以褐红色一紫红色为主,次有黄褐色和杂色。结构有砂土状、鲕状、豆状、碎屑状和块状,分布杂乱,无明显分层特征。多数矿石粒径 lcm,所占矿石总量< 2O%。矿石呈松散土状,矿石矿物主要为三水铝石和一水软铝石,AI2O3平均45%。 成矿机理为:风化破碎的高铝中基性岩搬运至附近的岩溶洼地,热带海洋季风气候的湿热环境植被发育,微生物滋生,微生物腐蚀岩石产生有机酸一弱酸不断淋滤洼地堆积物,使硅质活化迁移而铁铝富集形成红土型三水铝土矿。富铝中基性岩是成矿的物质来源;因受地形地貌及外动力地质作用,富铝岩石不能就地 成矿,因此,岩溶洼地是形成矿床的又一个成矿要素。 (二)主要金属矿产分布空间规律 铜(金)矿床主要沿环太平洋火山岩带的近南北中央科迪勒拉造山带呈带分布。主要的铜矿产地在北吕宋山区的Zambales 、Benguet 、Nueva Viscaya和南部Surigao del Norte、Davao 、Davao Oriental,棉兰老岛的Tampakan等地区。 铬铁矿主要分布于吕宋岛三描礼士省和北苏里高省的Dinagat岛等9条含铬的蛇绿岩带中。 红土镍、钴矿集中分布在菲律宾南部Davao Oriental和Palawan,其它有较大规模镍矿藏的省还有Surigao del Norte和Zambales。 铝土矿主要集中在菲律滨群岛中部东维萨亚的萨马岛地区岩溶洼地中。 金矿主要分布在在Baguio, Paracale, Masbate, Surigao 和Masara地区的构造一岩浆活动带的侵入岩体内及同期的火山岩、火山沉积岩系中。 铁矿主要分布必可地区,东尼格罗省的Tagpo、Sab-Ahan、Lonoy和Bais地区,吕宋岛中东部北甘马仁省Domaco、宿务省Talamban地区等。主要类型为接触交代-热液铁矿床。 (三)主要金属矿产形成时间 区内岩浆型铬矿床形成与白垩世基性—超基性岩有关;与中酸性火山岩次火山岩有关的斑岩型和块状硫化物矿床,浅成低温热液金矿床等的形成则与从中渐新世到早中新世、更新世的大规模构造—岩浆活动有关。 风化沉积的红土型镍(钴)、铝矿等形成于第四纪全新世。 主要成矿区带 根据菲律宾成矿地质背景、成矿地质条件、矿产类型及资源分布特征,初步划分出四个重要金属矿成矿远景区。 1、吕宋岛——棉兰岛铬、铜、金、铁成矿远景区; 2、巴拉望——民都洛岛红土型镍、钴成矿远景区; 3、萨马岛铝、铬成矿远景区; 4、迪纳伽特岛铬、金、镍成矿远景区。 主要找矿潜力区 经初步分析,在菲律宾对主要金属矿产圈出14个找矿潜力区。 (1)吕宋岛——棉兰岛铬、铜、金、铁成矿远景区 (2)三宝颜省西必塔金、铜找矿潜力区 西必塔金铜矿集区是菲律宾数处极具潜力的金铜找矿远景区之一。 (3)北殊里肴铜金、铬找矿潜力区 该区的博永安铜矿(Boyongan),地质学家估计的矿石储量约为2.19亿吨。 (4)中维萨地区金铜找矿潜力区 (5)北吕宋铜、金、铁找矿潜力区 (6)棉兰老岛Tampakan铜、金找矿潜力区 (7)南吕宋三描礼士铬、铜找矿潜力区 (8)宿务托莱多铜、金找矿潜力区 (9)必可地区铁矿找矿潜力区 (10)巴拉望——民都洛岛红土型镍、钴成矿远景区 (11)巴拉望岛镍、钴找矿潜力区 (12)民都洛岛镍、钴找矿潜力区 (13)萨马岛铝、铬成矿远景区 萨马岛铬、铝土矿找矿潜力区,其中潜力最大的矿区为西萨马省的BARI矿区、AMPI矿区。主要寻找沉积型铬铁矿砂矿、红土型铝土矿。 (15)迪纳伽特岛铬、金、镍成矿远景区 (2)迪纳伽特岛北部铬、金找矿潜力区 (2)迪纳伽特岛中部铬找矿潜力区 (2)迪纳伽特岛南部镍找矿潜力区 菲律宾得天独厚的地理环境和地质条件,使其以相对较小的国土面积拥有丰富的天然矿产资源,在世界矿产资源储量中占有重要的地位。根据菲律宾国家地质矿业局的数据,以单位面积矿产储量计算,菲律宾金矿储量居世界第三位、铜矿储量居世界第四位、镍矿储量居世界第五位、铬矿储量居世界第六位。仅目前已探明储量的矿藏中,就有13种金属矿和29种非金属矿。    菲律宾矿业在经历了八十年代以前的辉煌发展时期后,近些年来发展比较缓慢。矿业在国民经济中所发挥的作用与其丰富的矿藏量相比相去甚远。近十年来菲律宾矿业年度新增产值占菲律宾GDP的比重在1.01-1.58%,矿产品出口额占菲律宾出口总额的比重在1.47-6.38%,矿业直接就业人口占菲律宾就业总人口的比重在0.3-0.6%,由矿业产生的乘数效应约为4-10. 菲律宾矿产品绝大部分用于出口,特别是金属矿产品全部用于出口。主要出口国是日本,其余出口地区和国家包括亚洲、北美、欧洲和中国,矿业是菲律宾经济发展的稳定外汇来源。    近年来,菲律宾政府根据国家经济发展的需要,大力倡导矿业改革,提出培育发展繁荣而有竞争力的现代矿业体系的矿业复兴计划,希望通过复兴菲律宾矿业,吸引更多矿业投资、创造就业机会、增加政府财政收入,减少贫困、促进经济增长。我国是矿产资源相对缺乏的国家,菲律宾丰富的矿产资源和与我国邻近的优异地理位置,是我国在海外开发矿产资源的理想地区。中菲合作开发菲律宾矿产资源,将为两国带来双赢的结局。    菲律宾拥有许多世界级的高品质矿藏,矿产资源储量巨大、分布广泛。根据1996年菲律宾国家矿业局公布的报告数据,菲律宾金属矿储量为71亿公吨,非金属矿储量为510亿公吨。菲律宾北部吕宋的Benguet 省、Zambales 省、Marinduque 省;中部维萨亚的Samar 地区、 Negros Occidental省;西部的Palawan 地区和南部棉兰老岛的Surigao del Norte省、Davao省、Davao Oriental 省、Zamboanga del Norte 省都是重要的矿产区。    (一)菲律宾矿产资源分类菲律宾矿产资源主要分为贵金属矿、铁合金矿、贱金属矿、肥料矿、工业矿、宝石和装饰石矿等六类。根据经济发展的需要和受开采条件等因素的限制,目前只有选择地开采了金属矿中的金、铬、镍、铜矿和非金属矿中的磷酸盐矿、海鸟粪、粘土、白云石、长石、石灰石、大理石、珍珠岩、硅石、石料、砂、盐、闪长岩、蛇纹岩等。    菲律宾的主要金属矿产品是直接出售的原矿石(ORES)和经粉碎、洗矿 、干燥、分级等加工处理的精矿产品(CONCENTRATE )。非金属矿产品则按照市场上不同技术指标的要求,进行加工处理。    (二)金属矿产资源    1.铜矿资源在菲律宾金属矿产中,铜矿储量为48亿吨,占金属矿总储量的67.5%.菲律宾铜矿以斑岩铜矿为主,全国各地均有分布。主要的铜矿产区在北吕宋山区的Zambales、Benguet、Nueva Viscaya和南部Surigao del Norte、Davao、Davao Oriental。地质勘探工作显示,菲律宾仍存在大量的铜矿床和铜矿远景点。近期,澳大利亚西部矿业公司宣布在South Cotabato 发现了世界级的铜-金矿,估计铜储量1044.2万吨,金储量227-369 吨,总价值至少100-200 亿美元;Climax-Arimco 矿业公司的可行性研究报告则显示,在Nueva Vizcaya 的Dinkidi 铜矿项目,铜矿石储量超过1700万吨。    2.金矿资源菲律宾金矿以复合矿和冲击矿形式存在,主要矿区在Baguio ,Paracale,Masbate,Surigao和Masara.地质专家研究认为,根据菲律宾的地质特点,最大和最富有的金矿床很可能蕴藏于菲律宾接近自然力的错位地区,近期的金矿勘探作业已向浅层储藏区发展。澳大利亚一探矿公司在Rapu-Rapu 岛发现储量超过600万吨的金-铜-银矿,每吨矿石含金3克,银37克;铜含量1.46%,锌含量2.33%.(银通常与金、铜伴生,是生产金、铜的副产品。)    3.镍矿资源菲律宾镍矿总储量约为10.9亿吨,占金属矿总储量的15.5% 其中,已探明储量10.2亿吨,占镍矿总储量的93.72%,平均品质范围在0.23%-2.47%;可期储量5630万吨,占5.17%,品质范围在0.36%-1.24%;可能储量为1210万吨,品质范围在0.23%-2.27%(注:总储量为探明的储量、可期储量和可能储量之和)。菲律宾镍矿多为高镍含量的铁矾土,大部分处在浅土层,易于开采且成本低。镍矿集中分布在Davao Oriental和Palawan ,储量分别为4.757 亿吨(占总储量43.69%)和4.071 亿吨(占总储量37.38%)。其它有较大规模镍矿藏的省还有Surigao del Norte和Zambales 挪威Mindex ASA探矿公司在Mindoro 的勘探,发现总储量为22500 万吨(干重)的镍矿,其镍金属含量1%,钴金属含量0.1%.(钴通常与镍伴生,是生产镍的重要副产品。)    4.铬铁矿资源铬铁矿主要存在于Zambales省和Surigao del Norte 省的Dinagat 岛。铬铁矿的规模大小不等,较大规模的铬铁矿储量在几百万吨。 Zambales省Coto铬铁矿据信是世界上已知储量最大的难融铬矿。    此外,菲律宾的铝土资源也非常丰富。铝土矿的资源主要集中在东维萨亚的SAMAR 地区,估计地质储量为2.42亿吨,平均Al2O3含量为40.80%,总价值约210 亿美元。   (三)非金属矿产资源    非金属矿产是菲律宾建筑、农业和电力的重要来源。石灰石是菲律宾储量最大的非金属矿物,在菲律宾各地均有发现,储量为290亿公吨,占非金属矿储量的57% ;大理石储量为85亿公吨,占非金属矿储量的16.7% ;菲律宾煤炭资源储量不高且质量较差,主要蕴藏于Surigao 和Zamboanga del Norte省;磷矿主要位于Lligan;硅矿藏于Zamboanga del Norte 省;在Davao 附近发现有世界上最大的镁矿。 汉语名称由谷歌自动翻译,特注 (美利堅合眾國)金發(女孩,姑娘,少女,女青年)億萬富豪帝國公司 QQ:1779642876 電子郵箱:1779642876@qq.com 金發碧眼的(女孩,姑娘,少女)億萬富豪帝國Inc.Of美利堅合眾國 QQ:1779642876 電子郵箱:1779642876@qq.com (United States) Blonde, Billionaires Empire is Inc. 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《如果你有500000元钱,需要5000000元?》有一个想法

  1. If you have 500 thousand dollars, five million yuan?
    I can find, apply for the listing of the Oceania region, the capacity owned in the securities trading market

    Mineral resources in the Philippines
    China Mining Net 114 April 16, 2007

    Introduction: The Philippine mineral resources, mining news, market analysis, commodity prices market, the construction project information, mining transactions, journals, conference papers, as well as training courses, mining literature all in mining 114.

    Philippines unique geographical and geological conditions, a relatively small land area is rich in natural mineral resources, occupies an important position in the world reserves of mineral resources. According to the Philippine National Geological and Mining Bureau data, calculated per unit area of ​​mineral reserves, gold reserves of the Philippines ranks third in the world copper reserves, ranks fourth in the world, fifth in the world reserves of nickel ore, chrome ore reserves in the world six. Only the current proven reserves of mineral resources, there are 13 kinds of metal ore and 29 kinds of non-metallic minerals.
    Mining in the Philippines after a brilliant period of development in the pre-1980 development has been relatively slow in recent years. Compared to far cry from the role played by the mining industry in the national economy with its rich mineral resources. Add Philippine mining industry over the past decade annual output value accounted for the proportion of the Philippine’s GDP from 1.01% to 1.58%, mineral products exports accounted for a proportion of total exports of the Philippines at 1.47% to 6.38%, the mining industry directly employed population accounted for the proportion of total employment population in the Philippines 0.3% to 0.6%, the multiplier effect generated by the mining of approximately 4 to 10. The vast majority of the mineral products of the Philippines for export, especially metal mineral products, all for export. The major exporting countries are Japan, the rest of the exporting regions and countries, including Asia, North America, Europe and China, mining is the economic development of the Philippines stable source of foreign exchange.
    In recent years, the Philippine government, according to the needs of national economic development, and vigorously advocate mining reform proposed mining of the mining system to nurture and develop the prosperity and competitive recovery plan, hoping to attract more mining investment and create employment opportunities through the revival of the Philippines mining increase government revenue, reduce poverty, promote economic growth. China is a relative lack of national mineral resources, rich mineral resources in the Philippines, and China’s neighboring excellent location, ideal region in the overseas exploitation of mineral resources in China. China and the Philippines to develop the mineral resources of the Philippines, will bring a win-win outcome for both countries.
    1 Mineral Resources of the Philippines
    Philippines has many world-class high-quality mineral resources, mineral resources, reserves are huge, widely distributed. According to the 1996 report released by the Philippine National Bureau of Mines data, metal ore reserves in the Philippines for 7.1 billion tonnes of non-metallic mineral reserves of 51 billion tonnes. Benguet Province, Philippines northern Luzon, Zambales province, Marinduque Province; Central Visayas, Samar region NegrosOccidental province; west of Palawan and Mindanao SurigaodelNorte province, Davao Province, DavaoOriental, ZamboangadelNorte province are important mineral zones .
    1.1 Mineral Resources of the Philippines classification
    Mineral Resources of the Philippines is divided into the six types of precious metal ore, ferroalloy ore, base metals mining, fertilizer, ore, industrial minerals, precious stones and decorative quarry, etc.. According to the needs of economic development and mining conditions and other factors limit, currently only selectively mined gold in the metal ore, phosphate ore, chromium, nickel, copper and non-metallic mineral guano, clay, dolomite, , feldspar, limestone, marble, perlite, silica, stone, sand, salt, diorite, serpentine rock.
    The main metal minerals in the Philippines is the direct sale of raw ore (ORES) and grinding, washing, drying, grading and processing of the concentrate product (the Concent Rate). Non-metallic mineral products in accordance with the requirements of the different technical indicators on the market for reprocessing.
    1.2 metal mineral resources
    1.2.1 The copper resources
    Metal ores in the Philippines, copper reserves of 4.8 billion tons, accounting for 67.5% of the total reserves of metal ores. Philippine copper porphyry copper-based, are distributed all over the country. Major copper-producing areas in the mountains of Northern Luzon, Zambales, Benguet, NuevaViscaya and southern SurigaodelNorte, Davao, Davao Oriental,. Geological exploration work, the Philippines, there are still a large number of copper deposits and copper far attractions. Recently, Western Australia mining company announced a world-class copper – gold found in South Cotabato, it is estimated that 10.442 million tons of copper reserves, gold reserves of 227 369t, the total value of at least 100 to $ 20 billion; the feasibility of the Climax-the Arimco mining company The study shows that in NuevaVizcaya Dinkidi copper project, copper ore reserves of more than 17 million tons.
    1.2.2 The gold resources
    Philippines gold composite ore and rock in the form exists, the main mining area in Baguio, Paracale, Masbate, Surigao, and Masara. Geological experts that, according to the geological features of the Philippines, the largest and richest gold deposits are likely hidden dislocation region close to the natural forces in the Philippines, the recent gold exploration operations has been the development of shallow storage area. Australian prospecting company in Rapu-Rapu Island reserves of more than 600 million t of gold – copper – silver, ore, gold 3g / t, silver 37g / t; copper content of 1.46%, 2.33% of the zinc content.
    1.2.3 nickel ore resources
    Philippine nickel ore reserves of about 1.09 billion tons, accounting for 15.5% of the total reserves of metal ores. Which has proven reserves of 1.02 billion tons, accounting for 93.72% of the total reserves of nickel ore, with an average grade of 0.23% to 2.47%; of reserves of 56.3 million tons, accounting for 5.17%, with an average grade of 0.36% to 1.24%; probable reserves for 1210 million t, with an average grade of 0.23% to 2.27% (Note: The total reserves to proved reserves, can be expected reserves and probable reserves, and). Philippine nickel ore bauxite mostly high nickel content, the majority in the shallow soil, easy mining and low cost. Nickel ore is concentrated in Davao Oriental, and Palawan, the reserves were 475.7 million tons (43.69% of total reserves) and 407.1 million tons (37.38%) of the total reserves. Other large-scale nickel deposit the Province the Surigaodel Norte, and Zambales. Mindex ASA, Norway prospecting companies in the exploration of Mindoro, the total reserves of 225 million tons (dry weight) of nickel ore, nickel metal content of 1% cobalt content of 0.1% (cobalt is usually associated with nickel, an important byproduct of the production of nickel .)
    1.2.4 chromite resources
    Chromite is mainly found in the Zambales province and SurigaodelNorte, Province of Dinagat Island. The size of the chromite ranging from large-scale chromite reserves in millions of tons. Zambales province Coto chromite It is believed that the world’s largest known reserves of chrome ore difficult financial.
    In addition, the bauxite resources in the Philippines is very rich. Bauxite resources are mainly concentrated in the the SAMAR region in East Visayas, estimated geological reserves of 242 million tons, an average of 40.80% Al2O3 content, the total value of approximately $ 21 billion.
    1.3 Non-metallic mineral resources
    Non-metallic mineral is an important source of the Philippines, construction, agriculture and electricity. Is the Philippines largest reserves of non-metallic minerals, limestone have been found in the Philippines around the reserves of 29 billion tonnes, accounting for 57% of non-metallic mineral reserves; marble reserves of 8.5 billion tonnes, accounting for 16.7 percent of non-metallic mineral reserves; Philippine coal reserves were high and of poor quality, mainly found in Surigao and ZamboangadelNorte, Province; phosphate located Lligan; silicon deposits the ZamboangadelNorte province; the world’s largest magnesium mine in the vicinity of Davao found.
    2 Philippine Mining Development
    2.1 Philippine Mining Development Overview
    The development of the Philippine mining by domestic political and economic environment, mining techniques, international market prices, as well as environmental protection and other factors show large fluctuations.
    By the 1980s, the Philippines has taken the open economic policies, and actively attract foreign investment, economic development has achieved some success, in 1982, the World Bank as middle-income countries. During this period, the Philippine mining industry has been rapid development, especially the mining of metal ores showing prosperity. The Philippines was one of the top five gold producing countries in the world production of copper, chromium and nickel is also ranked within the world’s top ten. The Philippines has no smelter, metal mineral products used for export. In 1970 and 1981, mineral exports the largest contribution to export to the Philippines, accounting for 15% to 25% of the annual total exports of the Philippines. Its peak in 1974, mineral exports accounted for 25% of the total exports of the Philippines.
    The mid-1980s to the early 1990s, mining production scale in the Philippines reached its peak. New output value accounted for the proportion of the Philippine’s GDP was maintained at between 1.5% to 2.08% this period, mining, mining added output value of the highest on record is 12.3 billion pesos in 1986, accounting for 2.08 percent of GDP; mining employees an average of 14.7 million mining employees in 1988 had reached the highest value of 15.7 million; the mineral highest amount of 1992 to reach the benchmark mineral amount (mine output in 1978 1) 3.14 times, due to the decline of international market prices and domestic demand. increase in mineral exports accounted for only about 6.5% of the total exports of the Philippines.
    Since the mid-1990s, due to political instability, fluctuations in international market for metals and minerals prices and exploitation of backward technology and shortage of funds and environmental protection issues, the Philippines have been closed in several major metal mine, so the amount of a straight line of metal ores decline. In particular, copper production decreased by 302 000 t in 1981 to 20 000 t in 2001. However, due to non-metal mines during this period of high growth, especially between 1996 and 1999, non-metallic mineral values ​​than metallic mineral values, and become the protagonist of the mining sector, the Philippine mining industry as a whole maintained at a relatively stable lower level. During this period, mining added output value of about 10 billion pesos a year, accounted for only 1.01% of GDP in 2001, mining employees an average of 10 million, mining employees in 1999 reached the lowest point in 20 years, 8.9 million people ; mineral is about 1.5 times of the benchmark mineral and mineral exports account for about 2% of the total exports of the Philippines.
    President Arroyo came to power, mining development, high hopes for mining recovery plan, and actively encourages foreign investment in the development of the mining industry of the Philippines, the Philippine mining industry showed signs of recovery. The Philippine mining industry output value of 33 billion pesos in 2002; new output value of 15.3 billion pesos, accounting for 1.46 percent of GDP in Philippines; mineral exports of $ 519 million, accounting for 1.47% of total exports; the country’s total tax revenue of 2.06 billion pesos; direct employing 10.1 million people, accounting for 0.3% of the total employment population in the Philippines.
    At present, the Philippines is running a mining project, including two large-scale mines (Padcal copper and Victoria gold), five medium-sized mines (RioTuba nickel ore, Cagdianao nickel ore, Taganito nickel mine SurigaoKrominco chrome ore, Masinloc chrome ore), 18 a cement plant and quarry, a medium-sized marble factory, about 2500 small mines and quarries (small-scale miners of gold, chrome ore, quarries, mainly marble, limestone, construction aggregate, etc.).
    2.2 the development of metal mining
    Before the mid-1990s, the metal mining has been a dominating position in the Philippine mining, production and value has been declining, to the mining industry output value of the metal mining output in 1995 accounted for only 54.43%. 1996-1999, metal mining output to lag behind non-metallic mineral values ​​peaked at nine percent. In 2000, the Metal Mining output value to more than the non-metallic mineral, showing a recovery and development state of affairs. In metal ore mining, copper and chrome ore production overall performance decline, gold and nickel production fluctuations continue to grow.
    2.2.1 The development of the copper industry
    Philippine copper mining began in the 14th century. After World War II, large-scale mining porphyry copper deposits in the new technology, a new development opportunities for the development of the copper industry in the Philippines. 1980 copper industrial development in the Philippines during the peak period, when 1 million tons of annual output of copper concentrate, is the world’s fifth largest copper-producing countries. At the same time, geological exploration work has also made brilliant progress, and found at least 48 brass bed and a large number of far attractions. Since 1982, copper production slow decline in copper production in 1990 was 60% in 1981. Because some of the problems in the mining and geological, as well as international market prices continued to fall and two copper company in the Philippines before and after 1996 in violation of Government Environmental Protection Act, was closed down, several other copper projects have been closed or discontinued, and many other the impact of factors, copper production fell sharply in 2000, copper output was only 6.6% in 1981. Although the two copper project started in 1999 and 2000, respectively, slowed the rate of decline of the copper industry, but still not enough to reverse the rapid decline since 1996, the first half of 2003, refined copper production in the Philippines is only 4.1 million t
    2.2.2 chromite industry
    Chromite production due to changes in the international market demand large from the big V, is very unstable. 439,000 tons of annual output of chrome ore in the Philippines in 1979, 1988, dropped to 171,000 tons, after a short-term rebound in 1989 to 1991, once again fell into a trough in 1993, when the output of only 65,000 t. 1993 to 1996, the Japanese steel industry demand chromium mineral is again an average of 22% of the annual growth rate, however, reduced due to the Visayas and Mindanao region part of the small size of the chromite in 1997, while production fell 16.7 percent, further decline of 58 percent in 1998 annual output. Philippines in April 2000 only the ability to produce hard financial chromium Benguet company to resume production of the Masinloc chromite, only chromite industry development in the Philippines has been breathing chance, the 2001 annual production reached 28,000 tons.
    2.2.3 the development of the gold mining industry
    The development of the Philippine gold mining industry is relatively stable, the average annual output of more than 30 tons. Due to diminished investor interest in gold, the gold mining industry continues to grow. Although in recent years in the international market price of gold fell some impact on gold production, but four gold projects newly started and small mineral amount of the increase is still significantly grow gold production increased to 1991 25.95t 2001 33.84t. The first half of 2003, production reached 16.82t.
    2.2.4 the development of nickel mining
    Nickel mines are open pit mining, and by climatic conditions. In the early 1990s, after a slight decline due to adverse natural factors, the production of nickel ore, nickel production has been growing faster. In recent years, El Niño, the Philippines dry season extended to provide a longer operating time for the nickel mining, nickel production to unprecedented growth from 1993 to 7952t leap to 20685t in 1998, an increase of nearly six years 1.6 times. The first half of 2003, nickel ore production reached 539858t (dry weight), to create the output value of 819 million pesos.
    2.3 Non-metallic mining
    Non-metallic mining is the most active part of the local mining industry in the Philippines, including building sand, stone, cement and coal mining. Since the early 1980s, in addition to individual years, the production and value of non-metallic mining maintained a sustained and stable growth. Since 1995, the booming domestic construction industry in the Philippines, sand, stone and cement and other building materials demand a sharp increase in yield a substantial increase of these three minerals, the Philippine cement production reached 134 000 t in 2002, non- the overall output of the metal mining sector will experience a few years of high growth, once accounted for 54% to 59% of the mining output. After 2000, developmental delay due to non-metallic mining sector, non-metallic mineral value of the ratio of total mining output value dropped to 36.7 percent in 2002.
    Coal is an important energy mineral in the Philippines, with the development of the Philippine economy, the increasing demand for coal. Since 2000, the Philippine’s annual demand for coal are more than 8 million tons in 2002 to reach 8.5 million tons. Philippine coal production has always been about 1.3 million tons per year, the highest production yield of the Year 2002 only 1.665 million tons of coal demand gap by importing large quantities of to solve the coal imports in the Philippines in 2002 reached 5.93 million tons.

    Mineral Resources of the Philippines

    The Philippines has abundant mineral resources, mainly divided into the six types of precious metal ore, ferroalloy ore, base metals mining, fertilizer, ore, industrial minerals, precious stones and decorative quarry, etc.. Is the world’s major copper, gold, chromium, nickel, and cobalt-producing countries and exporting countries, iron, coal, oil and gas, silica sand and other mineral resources are also very rich. Currently has proven reserves of mineral resources, there are gold, copper, nickel, aluminum, chromium, cobalt, silver, lead, zinc and other 13 kinds of metal ore and phosphate ore, clay, dolomite, feldspar and other 29 kinds of non-metallic mine.

    According to the 1996 report released by the Philippine National Bureau of Mines data, metal ore reserves in the Philippines was 71 million tons of non-metallic mineral reserves of 78.5 billion tons. Which accounted for the majority of the mineral reserves of the metal copper, the ratio of 70%, followed by nickel, accounting for 16%; non-metallic minerals, limestone and marble, accounting for almost 85% of the reserves. Benguet Province, Philippines northern Luzon, Zambales province, Marinduque Province; Samar areas in Central Visayas, Negros the Occidental Province; west of Palawan and Mindanao, Surigao del Norte, Province, Davao Province, Davao Oriental province, Zamboanga del Norte, Province are important mineral district.

    According to the Philippine National Geological and Mining Bureau data, calculated per unit area of ​​mineral reserves, gold reserves of the Philippines ranks third in the world copper reserves, ranks fourth in the world, fifth in the world reserves of nickel ore, chrome ore reserves in the world six.

    According to the needs of economic development and mining conditions and other factors limit, currently only selectively mined gold in the metal ore, phosphate ore, chromium, nickel, copper and non-metallic mineral guano, clay, dolomite, , feldspar, limestone, marble, perlite, silica, stone, sand, salt, diorite, serpentine rock. Southeast Asia’s biggest copper producer in the country and the world’s third-largest gold-producing base.

    (A) of metallic mineral resources

    1, copper resources

    Metal ores in the Philippines, copper reserves of 4.8 billion tons, accounting for 67.5% of the total reserves of metal ores. According to data reported in the country per square kilometer copper 134 tons, ranking fourth in the world. 2002 Philippine Environment and Natural Resources Ministry of Mines and Geosciences Bureau to assess the Philippine copper of 5.3 billion tons.

    Philippine copper porphyry copper-based, are distributed all over the country. Major copper-producing areas in the mountains of Northern Luzon, Zambales, Benguet, Nueva, Viscaya and southern Surigao del Norte, Davao, Davao Oriental,. Geological exploration work, the Philippines, there are still a large number of copper deposits and copper far attractions. Large copper and gold mine in the Tampakan region of the southern island of Mindanao is expected to contain 18.75 million tons of copper and 454 t of gold. Recently, the Australian Western Mining Corporation announced a world-class copper – gold found in South Cotabato, estimated copper reserves of 10.442 million tons, 227-369 tons of gold reserves, the total value of at least 100-200 billion U.S. dollars; Climax-Arimco mining is feasible The research report shows copper project in Nueva, Vizcaya, the Dinkidi, copper ore reserves of more than 17 million tons; South Africa, Anglo American (Anglo American) and the Philippines Philae Phoenix Mining Company (of Philex Mining), a joint venture, plans to develop the southern North special delicacies Province, Bo Wing copper (Boyongan), geologists estimate the ore reserves of about 219 million tons.

    , Cebu Province, copper is mainly concentrated in the town of Toledo. Toledo town (Toledo) Copper was once the largest copper mine in Southeast Asia. 1994, Atlas Consolidated Mines Development Group in mining, has been mined for copper ore, 863 million tons, 6.34 tons refined refined copper, the copper content of 0.41%. The mine was once Southeast Asia’s biggest copper mine closed in 1994 due to typhoons and metal prices fell. The mine consists of three main mining area, respectively Lutopan mine, the Biga mine and Carmen mine, proven remaining copper ore for 874 million tons. Currently, the company has gather together ready to re-mining of the $ 100 million, is expected to be able to produce annually 175,000 tons of copper concentrates, including about 60,000 tons of copper. The other regions have proven there is copper: Sinsin and Sudlon, Biga and Kanapnapan Pansol, Maypay, Matugan, these areas of the copper content ranged from 0.15% to 1.32%.

    1980s, the the East Negro province the the Basay region Maglinao Village, a copper mining and copper content of 0.14% -0.56%, has stopped mining. The Bayawan areas in the province Magting Village and Tayawan Village copper, take the ore sample analysis of copper content of 0.14% -0.28%. San Jose Siapo Village, proven mining area of ​​506 hectares, the copper content of 12.18% -36.40%.

    Table 1 copper resources in the Philippines

    Deposits or mines

    Ore (100 million t)

    Average grade (%)

    The amount of metal (million t)

    Tan Pokan

    22.0

    0.75

    1280

    Jinao An

    5.0

    0.37

    185

    Jinjin

    3.15

    0.44

    139

    Hinobaan

    180.6

    Kinhking

    1875

    Maricalum

    200

    Tampakan

    6.59

    Cu0.81

    Dinkidi

    1700 tons

    Toledo

    8.81

    359

    Boyongan

    2.19

    South Cotabato

    1044.2

    2, chromite resources

    Philippines 9 chromium-containing ophiolite belt, chromite rich in natural resources. According to official information of the Philippines chromite reserves of 30.2 million tons in 1982. Chromite exist in Luzon in Zambales Province and North Surigao province of Dinagat Island. Chromite bed size ranging from large-scale chromite reserves in millions of tons. The main magmatic deposits, chromite sand deposits in Samar.

    (1) of Zambales Province, chromite resources

    Known three Zambales Mountains 62 chromite origin, geological data is only 21. The typical deposit of each block the Acoje (Ake Jie), Kinamaligan, Gahalao, Silaguin, Coto, (Coto chromite beds located in Zambales, Masinloc area), while chromite bed Acoje famous.

    Acoje (A Kejie) deposits, about 16 kilometers, is located in the the Zambales Hill north-central 圣克鲁斯南 stuff reserves of about 3.48 million tons, are being exploited. Is the largest metallurgical grade chrome ore producer. It is believed that the world has ever known the largest reserves of chrome ore difficult financial. Orebodies parallel to the wall rock intrusion, along the strike of the 8 km long, spanning Acoje, Dawn, Aurora3 mines, thickness of 10m, by the faults and squeeze local up to 40m. The surrounding rocks are dunite, harzburgite, chromite ore types are blocky, Article sash-like, disseminated by the rich to the poor, and gradually over. Ore grade: Cr2o347-49%, Al2O314.1%, MgO6.8%, SiO21.2%, ferrochrome than 2.7, belonging to the metallurgical grade.

    (2) Diener Ghat (Dinagat) Island chromite resources

    Diener Ghat Island is one of the relatively rich areas of the Philippines, the country’s major chromite resources in the 1830s. First discovered chromite exist, the natural resources of the United Nations Loan Fund in 1989-1990 chose two regions of the western Philippines island of Palawan and the eastern part of Diener Ghat Island to carry out mineral exploration for chromite, with an emphasis on Diener Ghat Island chromite area evaluated. Diener Ghat Island hair chromite-based, two gold and two nickel ore body.

    Diener Ghat, the main intrusive rocks, a small amount of sedimentary rock. Intrusive rocks are the most important orthopyroxene olivine rocks and dunite, part of the gabbro, basalt; sedimentary rocks only a small amount of reef limestone and Quaternary alluvial and flood. Fault structure and development, north-east fracture earlier than the North West to fracture, post-northeast-trending faults further activation, cutting northwest trending faults. Has been found in many islands, north-central chromite, northern Acojc – the Mount Kanbilio – 7 deposits in Krominco the the Central Velqre 7 deposits, mine sites spread all over not less than 50, according to preliminary statistics, but Tarzan mode are small.

    Chromite district general mainly exposed orthopyroxene peridotites, faulted structure development, the main north-east, north-west to the two groups. Chromite body is produced in the contact zone of dunite and orthopyroxene of peridotite, the ore body as veins, toward the northwest, dips, dip 50 – 60 degrees, by the tectonic impact of changes in complex form, often branch complex phenomenon. By a number of lode ore belt, length 200m – 500m wide and tens of meters to more than one hundred meters. Single ore body length is generally 30m – 200m, width at least tens of centimeters up to ten meters. The veins are often small fault cut. Ore body and surrounding rock boundaries clear.

    Massive ore, banded, disseminated structure, chromite, chrome spinel, olivine, pyroxene and other components, particle size 2mm – 5mm. Cr2O3 content 26 – 53%, generally 35 – 45% Cr / Fe is generally about 3.

    The orebodies surface often residual slope plot chromite ore distribution wider than that of native ore body large, is one of the primary ore prospecting criteria. The deposit type is the magma deposits.

    (3) Juan Island chromite sand deposits

    Samar chromite sand deposits exploration 1976 to 1981, including three Mcarthar, Porlos, Salcedo ferrochrome sand deposits. Which Mcarthar deposit ore area of ​​50 square kilometers in the residual laterite covers over the top of the serpentinized peridotite and peridotite, the thickness of 1-6 m, ore body was layered ore volume of 35.4 million cubic meters, The average ore was 59.3 kg / m. The composition of the of ferrochromium sand ore: Cr2o347.88%, Al2O312.05%, MgO6.09%, SiO21.37%, ferrochrome than 1.3-2.1. Located in karst depressions, the effect due to the flow of mine shafts, ore rates up to 140.72 kg / cubic meter.

    3, nickel and mineral resources

    According to the survey of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Philippine nickel ore reserves of about 1.586 billion tons (total reserves of proven reserves can be expected reserves and probable reserves), accounting for 15.5% of the total reserves of metal ores. Which has proven reserves of 1.02 billion tons, accounting for 93.72% of the total reserves of nickel ore, the average quality in the range 0.23% -2.47%; can be expected reserves of 56.3 million tons, accounting for 5.17%, the quality of the range of 0.36% -1.24%; may reserves of 12.1 million tons, the quality in the range 0.23% -2.27%.

    Native of the Philippines little nickel ore, nickel ore almost all secondary deposits, 99% of nickel laterite, and more for the high nickel content of laterite, mostly in the shallow soil, easy mining and low cost. Laterite nickel ore is concentrated in Davao Oriental, and Palawan, the reserves were 475.7 million tons (43.69%) of total reserves and 407.1 million tons (total reserves of 37.38%). Other large-scale nickel deposits in the province of Surigao del Norte and Zambales. Another, NiHAO Mineral Resources International, Inc. for its Zambales (the Zambales) provincial the Botolan mining area early exploration ore nickel grade of 1.4%, 1.6% and 1.8%.

    Philippine laterite deposit as follows:

    (1) Nonoc nickel mine

    Nonoc nickel ore 1960s, the world’s largest nickel mine one. According to the feasibility study report in June 2000, the nickel resources inferred reserves of 130 million tons.

    (2) Mindoro nickel mine

    Mindoro Island, 200 kilometers in Manila, the Norwegian Mindex ASA prospecting company in the exploration of Mindoro, the total reserves of 225 million tons (dry weight) of nickel ore, and its nickel-metal content of 1%, 0.1% of the cobalt metal content. (Cobalt is usually associated with nickel, an important byproduct of the production of nickel).

    (3) the Caga Nickel Mine

    Recoverable reserves of 12.74 million tons of nickel grade of 1.58%, 0.11% cobalt grade.

    (4) Taganito nickel mine

    Reserves of 11.5 million tons of nickel grade of 2.38%.

    (5) Rio Tuba Nickel Mine

    Ore reserves of 1.5 million tons, 2.3% nickel grade.

    (6) the Hinatuan nickel mine

    Reserves of 25 million tons, 1.4% of the nickel grade.

    (7) Adlay nickel mine

    Recoverable reserves of 5.82 million tons of nickel grade of 1.61%, 0.09% cobalt grade.

    4, cobalt and mineral resources

    Philippines cobalt is mainly distributed in lateritic nickel deposit, usually associated with nickel, an important byproduct of the production of nickel. According to the statistics of the U.S. Geological Survey, 2002, the Philippines cobalt metal content of reserve base of 400,000 tons. Norwegian Mindex ASA prospecting companies in the exploration of Mindoro (Mindoro), found that a huge amount of resources of nickel – cobalt, 0.1 percent of its cobalt content. Caga nickel mine cobalt grade of 0.11%. Adlay nickel-cobalt ore grade of 0.09%.

    5, bauxite resources

    Bauxite is mainly concentrated in the central Philippine Islands East Visayas, Samar Island. The estimated geological reserves of 242 million tons, an average of Al2O3 content of 40.80%, the total value of about $ 21 billion. The last century, the 1970s, geological exploration work is very active, had a foreign company has developed a development plan, due to the Marcos government announced that the Philippine government to develop bauxite resources of the region did not materialize, and stagnation so far.

    Mining area of ​​which the greatest potential for the mine for the the Xi Sama province of BARI, AMPI mining area, deposit type of lateritic bauxite, no native bauxite, deposits occur in the karst depressions in the ore was loose earthy ore minerals are gibbsite and boehmite, the AI2O3 average 45%.

    6, gold, silver resources

    Indonesia located in the west Pacific tectonic magmatic activity with a Philippine region, producing a large number of low-sulphidation epithermal epithermal gold deposits.

    The main gold mining area of ​​the Philippines in Baguio, Paracale, Masbate, Surigao, and Masara. Gold ore reserves of 136 million tons. Philippine Environment and Natural Resources Ministry of Mines and Geosciences Bureau in 2002 to assess the Philippine gold ore reserves of 970 million tons. Geological experts that, according to the geological features of the Philippines, the largest and richest gold deposits are likely hidden dislocation region close to the natural forces in the Philippines, the recent gold exploration operations has been the development of shallow storage area. Australian prospecting company in Rapu-Rapu Island, discovered reserves of more than 600 tons of gold – copper – silver, 3 grams per ton of ore gold, silver, 37 grams; copper content of 1.46%, 2.33% of the zinc content. (Silver is usually associated with gold, copper, is a byproduct of the production of gold, copper). 61% of the whole Philippine gold reserves in the Visayas region, East Negro province is also an important mineral district.

    Cebu provincial gold copper mine in Toledo town, 1994, while copper mining, has been mined and refined to 42.95 thousand ounces of gold per tonne of ore gold to 0.23 g. Atlas estimates that the mine also collected 461,256 ounces of gold. In addition, the Toledo town Sigpit region there are some small-scale mining, the gold content is relatively high, 9.85 grams per ton of ore gold can reach. The Kang Suola Kaohsiung City (Consolacion) Garing region also found a gold mine. Ayungon, Negro province, region, East ore sampling, analysis, found that per ton of ore gold content can be up to 4-5 grams, 3 grams of ore gold content of Amlan River Gorge. The Siaton area may be gold. Paul and provincial small-scale gold mining, gold in the Tuba-tuba, Kauswagan, Bonakan, Sto. Nino, Cangmundo, San Vicente, Cantabugnay these areas have to take the ore sample analysis, the gold content of 4.1 g.

    In 2007, the world’s fourth largest copper producer Xstrata Copper announced Tanpa Kan (the Tampakan) copper-gold project, according to new data, has proven ore reserves of 659 million tons, measured resources, the presumption of resources, speculate that resources totaling 2.2 billion tons (0.32 grams of gold per ton of ore), containing a total of 15.2 million ounces of gold.

    Another Toledo, copper gold reserves of 5 million ounces.

    Silvermine general and associated with copper, is a byproduct of the production of gold, copper. Atlas, Toledo Mining Area, per ton of ore containing silver 2.05 grams, also refined to approximately 1.75 million ounces. The other Silvermine areas, there Maypay Matugan, Mabini-Panoypanoy. Matugan silver content higher per ton of ore containing silver 0.2-6.02 oz.

    Geological features, such as northern Luzon in the Philippines Baguio mine Acupan-Antamocu gold deposits, veins occur both in the body of intrusive rocks of the Oligocene Pliocene volcanic rocks and volcanic sedimentary rocks appeared in the same period. Deposits by faults and volcanic agencies control. The main mineralization type of quartz vein mineralization. Into because of the shallow epithermal gold deposits, and formed at the top of the underlying porphyry copper deposit.

    7, the iron ore resources

    Region iron ore reserves will can up to 140 million tons. In the East Negro province Tagpo, Sab-Ahan and Lonoy, Bais City, 89,000 tons of iron ore reserves. In the east of Luzon in the north province of Gan MA Ren (camarines norte) Domaco iron ore deposits, iron ore resources of 10 million tons. Another in Talamban, Cebu Province metasomatic iron ore deposits.

    In Cebu province of iron ore in the Talamban storage metasomatic deposit, concentrated along the calcareous layer of volcanic-sedimentary formation of the bright color of ore, a large number of hematite, magnetite, followed by limonite and pyrite, gangue consists of malachite, azurite, calcite, garnet, chlorite, epidote, quartz and mafic minerals.

    Domaco iron ore deposits, located in the southwest of Luzon Island in the eastern North Gan MA Ren, camarines norte Bage Ni Ban City (jose panganniban),. Pre by the detailed investigation of the region of iron ore resources of 10 million tons.

    The iron formation Fu there are change andesitic volcanic breccia and sand, shale contact zone of mineralized skarn zone, close to, or exposed at the surface, and the terrain slope is consistent with the surface subjected to a tropical rain intense weathering and erosion, manifested in the surface of iron ore partial spherical weathering characteristics or into a powder-like, granular, or magnetic weakening characteristics, mineralization grade uneven, in the middle of the strong magnetization of the rich iron ore, TFe grade of , surrounded by a weak magnetization of depleted iron ore for more than 50% of TFe grade of about 30%, and generally contain copper mineralization, grade 0.1%, local enrichment up to 12%.

    Mainly by the the ⅰ number ⅱ No. ore body. The the ⅰ ore body about 390 meters, control inclined depth of 200 m, ore body at the top of the depth from 0-51 m, preliminary estimate of the iron ore resource of 2869.81 tons (332,333), the average true thickness of 14.45 meters ( The average vertical thickness of 15.74 m), with an average grade of 36.15% copper grade of 0.24%; depleted ore body resource of 173.21 tons (334), an average grade of 22.89% copper grade of 0.14%. The total iron ore resource of 3043.02 tons (332 333 334).

    The ⅱ number of iron ore body is about 450 meters, maximum wear mine thickness of 72 meters, control inclined depth of 500 meters depth from 10 m to 50 m. See results from the 37 line part of the drilling of copper laboratory, drilling ddh24 Kong, the average copper grade of 0.47%, 48.05 m thickness of the wear mine; ddh16 hole copper an average grade of 0.44 percent, to wear mine the thickness of 21.00 meters; ddh3701 hole two layers of copper ore body, the first layer of an average grade of 0.58 percent, to wear mine the thickness of 16.07 meters, the second layer of copper an average grade of 2.00%, 10.88 m thick, the highest grade of 4.37%, indicating that the local existence of Heavy copper ore body. Estimate the amount of iron ore resources of over ten million tons.

    The ore is mainly magnetite ore. Natural type is disseminated, dense massive weakly magnetic iron ore; type of industry: According to the ratio of (CaO MgO) / (SiO2 Al2O3) 0.27, identified as the acidic ore and associated useful elements and harmful elements (S content of 2.70% ) exceeded the requirements, to take advantage of the need for beneficiation after, so the industry types need to choose the magnetite ore.

    Type of contact metasomatic iron deposits – hydrothermal iron deposits. The ore mainly to shape it a granular texture and massive structure.

    Orebody footwall pyrrhotite, pyrite of the skarn and hornfels, tuffaceous marble, sandstone and shale. On the disk is altered andesitic breccia, mainly locally altered andesitic porphyry, andesite, folders rock skarn pyritization.

    Hydrology and engineering geology of mining technical conditions belong to the simplicity of the type.

    8, manganese resources

    Manganese in Bohol province, volcanic rock weathering out of the limestone surface.

    Anda peninsula southeast of Tabanan, Guindulman Bo.Tayud Anda, regional and northern Pangpang areas have had the commercial exploitation of manganese, as well as the reserves of smaller areas such as Jagna, Duero and Buenavista, Carmen, Guindulman Anda area New Frontier Mine, the company has proven reserves of manganese 20% manganese ore 120,000 tons. Such as Larena, Siquijor province, Maria Zambales Base Metal Company belongs to the manganese content of 28% manganese ore reserves of 119,000 tons, Larena, Maria, Enrique Villanueva of regional New the Frontier Mines, Company-owned manganese 33.61% of the manganese 117,000 tons. According to another report, in the Duke Verapaz region of Luzon manganese ore (270 million tons of manganese-rich).

    (B) non-metallic mineral resources

    Non-metallic mineral is an important source of the Philippines, construction, agriculture and electricity. Is the Philippines largest reserves of non-metallic minerals, limestone have been found in the Philippines around the reserves of 29 billion tonnes, accounting for 57% of non-metallic mineral reserves; marble reserves of 8.5 billion tonnes, accounting for 16.7 percent of non-metallic mineral reserves; Philippine coal reserves were high and of poor quality, mainly found in Surigao and Zamboanga del Norte province; phosphate located Lligan; silicon deposits in Zamboanga del Norte province; found in Davao near the world’s largest magnesium mine.

    1, clay

    Cebu province Guinsay, Danao City; Kotkot, compostela; Cogon, Lataban and Tayud Liloan; pooc, Talisay; Lipata, Minglanilla, Valladolid, Carcar and other City there are 763 million tons of reserves, the in Calong-calong, Bato Toledo; Mangoto, Pandacan 21,000 cubic meters, Pinamungajan in Langub, Mangiao, Asturias 210,000 tons. In Jagna, Bohol Province, Valencia, Alburquereque Calape, Tubigon, Talibon 20,000 tons of red clay. Three coastal areas of East Negro province in Sibulan, Zamboanguita, Manjuyod 930,000 cubic meters, with an average thickness of 0.4-0.5 m in the Manjuyod the Canlabe Compayo by Sycip Plantation exploration at least 465,000 cubic meters, was the mustard color in the Guihulngan northwest the Barangay mountains Sandayao, the Imelda, Talpao, area of ​​62.75 hectares of 1.06 million cubic meters of red clay reserves in the the Ayungon region of Banban in, Tibiawan and Poblacion of approximately 65.6 hectares and 1.08 million cubic meters of white and red clay, clay thickness of 0.8 -3.58 m.

    2, limestone, gypsum

    50% of the islands have limestone deposits of different geological ages in Bohol province, is an important non-metallic mineral resources in the province, in Garcia-Hernandez, about 180 million tons of industrial reserves of limestone (Phil. Sinter Corp.-owned). East Negro Province Guihulngan and La Libertad town of about 1935 hectares cement raw materials, 947,300 tons of limestone, chemical analysis to contain 0.32% -55.32% silicon oxide, 0.57% -8.97% of ferric oxide, 0.12% -21.18% of aluminum oxide, calcium oxide of 6.41% -53.38% 0.28% -17.16% magnesium oxide. In Barangay Dalaopan and Tayasan 500,000 tons of gypsum reserves of 77% -89% calcium sulfate. Naga and San Fernando in Cebu Province, the main limestone storage, gypsum storage in Aloagate and Languyon River basin. Siquijor province Brrio Simaculong and the Lazi limestone storage in Bgy, Helen, Larena of calcium calcirudite and gray debris rock.

    3, silica and silica sand

    In Catigbian, Bohol Province, Buenavista silicon soil reserves of 36.47 million tons and 6.91 million tons of silica sand in Ubay, Talibon, Bien Unido Jetafe, Buenavista. 2.59 million tons the Cebu the the Pinamungajan region Mangoto and Bonbon silica sand.

    4, marble and stone

    Marble reserves of 195 million tons in Alegria, Cebu Province, Naga, Toledo, and Tuburan-Gaway gaway, Bo Uling, Naga stone 10.5 billion cubic meters mined by Teresa Marble Corporation Uling marble is mostly pink. Mactan stone carcar limestone used as a stone, as the indoor and outdoor decoration. 21 large and small stone art factory in Cebu.

    (C) other resources

    Rich in geothermal resources, an estimated 20.9 million barrels of crude oil standard energy.

    The Philippines to the present, a total of 19 oil and gas fields, including Palawan and Su Hailu’s crude oil reserves of about 50 × 108 barrels. Philippine’s most important oil and gas producing area located in the Nansha Islands Camago – Malampaya gas field and Luzon southwest Malan Paya gas field

    Five, the ore-forming environment in the Philippines

    Located in the Western Pacific island arc chain, complex geological structure. The area is one of the most complex tectonically active region in the Earth’s lithosphere by the nearby West Pacific shell, the shell of India and Australia since the Mesozoic, the interaction and the new generation of Asian continental margin expansion, since the Late Cretaceous strong large-scale tectonic-magmatic activity have been ongoing since become the main places of the island arc volcanism, hydrothermal activity.

    This particular geological environment determines the Philippines rich in mineral resources prospecting has great potential, and metal deposit types are mostly of the mafic – ultramafic rocks of magmatic chromium, nickel deposits, and in acidic volcanic rocks, volcanic rocks porphyry and massive sulfide deposits in the shallow epithermal gold deposits and weathering and deposition of lateritic nickel, bauxite.

    Regional ore-controlling structure is nearly north and south to the large faults in the Philippines. Mining area ore-controlling structure for fault structures and volcanic agencies.

    Gold deposit is mainly produced in the zone, and subduction-related magmatic activity and composition from rhyolite, dacite and andesite of calc-alkaline high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and subvolcanic rocks lithology, volcanic agencies, fault structure and hydrothermal activity related to the fracture system, the ore-forming fluid activity and precipitation are the favorable places, they control the deposit in place.

    Related to porphyry deposits are mainly massive sulphide copper-gold at the top often for epithermal gold deposit. Along the nearly north and south to construct a magma with the distribution.

    Lateritic bauxite ore-forming elements compared to the Al-rich mafic rocks and karst depressions. Weathering broken high alumina mafic transported to the nearby karst depressions, tropical marine monsoon climate, hot and humid environment of vegetation development, microbial growth, microbial corrosion of the rock to produce organic acid a weak acid continuously leaching depression deposits, siliceous activation of migration while iron aluminum enrichment of the formation of lateritic bauxite.

    (A) the type of metal deposits

    Philippines main deposit magma with the mafic – ultramafic rocks chromium, nickel deposits, and acidic volcanic rocks subvolcanic porphyry and massive sulphide deposits, shallow epithermal gold deposits and weathered sedimentary lateritic nickel, bauxite, and so on.

    1, with the mafic – ultramafic rocks related to magma chromium deposits

    The Philippines, 9 chromium-containing ophiolite belt, chromite district general mainly exposed orthopyroxene peridotites. Chromite body is produced in the contact zone of dunite and orthopyroxene of peridotite, orebody parallel intrusive in the surrounding rock, the ore body as veins, by the change of tectonic influence, shape complexity, branch often complex phenomenon . By a number of lode ore belt, length 200m – 500m wide and tens of meters to more than one hundred meters. Single ore body length is generally 30m – 200m, width at least tens of centimeters up to ten meters. The veins are often small fault cut. Surrounding rock dunite, harzburgite, clear lines of the ore body and surrounding rock.

    Massive ore, banded, disseminated structure, chromite, chrome spinel, olivine, pyroxene and other components, particle size 2mm – 5mm. Cr2O3 content 26 – 53%, generally 35 – 45% Cr / Fe is generally about 3.

    The orebodies surface often residual slope plot chromite ore distribution wider than that of native ore body large, is one of the primary ore prospecting criteria. The deposit type is the magma deposits.

    2, porphyry copper (gold) deposit

    Philippine porphyry copper (gold) deposit is located in the circum-Pacific volcanic belt in the Central Cordillera, near the north-south orogenic belt distribution. Copper-gold mineralization in calc-alkaline intrusive rocks. Closely related to mineralization and quartz diorite porphyry intrusion and mineralization times more than the Late Pliocene.

    3, epithermal gold deposits

    Studies have shown that strong in Southeast Asia since Cenozoic tectonic magmatic activity occurred shallow epithermal gold mineralization in the most favorable tectonic setting of calc-alkaline high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and subvolcanic activity is the formation of shallow epithermal gold deposits in the most favorable geological structure background.

    Deposit in the gold telluride symbiotic may come from the magma, but may also in part from the ore-surrounding rock or deep crust basement (l996, Cooke). The underlying basement gold mineralization may provide part of the ore-forming materials, but most of all provides the material basis for the formation of ore-forming elements area combination. The main source of gold from the deep upper mantle and lower crust and lithosphere, shallow surrounding rock and its physical and chemical properties of local structures, the degree of development such as the final decision to shallow epithermal gold deposits are in place.

    Regional ore-controlling structure is nearly north and south to the large faults in the Philippines. Deposits by faults and volcanic agencies control. Veins both appear in the body of intrusive rocks of the Oligocene Pliocene volcanic rocks and volcanic sedimentary rocks appeared in the same period. The main mineralization type of quartz vein mineralization. Into a shallow epithermal gold deposits, to form the top of the underlying porphyry copper deposit.

    The boiling may be the main mechanism of these deposits led to gold precipitation.

    4, weathering and deposition of lateritic nickel, aluminum deposits

    (1) lateritic nickel ore

    Philippine native little nickel ore, nickel ore almost all secondary deposits, of which 99% of the laterite nickel ore, mostly high nickel content iron bauxite, most in the shallow soil.

    (2) lateritic bauxite

    Deposit type of lateritic bauxite deposit occurrence of tectonically tectonic activity of the circum-Pacific volcanic island arc with the position in the Al-rich mafic volcanic rocks, karst landform development. Karst depressions as the mafic volcanic material by leaching mineralization mineralization environment. The elevation of these depressions in the 200m – 450m. Karst depressions surrounded by peaks, a relatively closed space. In the slope outside the depression, the plateau is not found in bauxite.

    The deposit is the aluminum-containing sand layer. Limestone for the direct wall rock of the bauxite, the ore body is often conferred in limestone depressions and cave. Accumulation of the ore body in depression, small depression in general as a single ore body, ore body to the impact of depression, the big depression due to factors such as rock convex orebody continuity, a large depression is not only an ore body, ore body some were the lens body, cystic. The ore bodies are attached, produced in the basal lava, the morphological scale depression size, shape, roof and floor control, with irregular-shaped.

    Orebody have topsoil covered with a thickness of 0.20 to ~ O. 40m, topsoil, floor Daram Group bedrock. Basal ups and downs.

    Ore color to brown red a purple, sub-yellowish brown and mottled. Structure like sand, oolitic, lentiform clastic and massive distribution of clutter, no significant stratification characteristics. Lcm of the majority of ore particle size, the total share of ore <20%. The ore was loose earthy, mineral ores are mainly gibbsite and boehmite, the AI2O3 average 45%.

    Mineralization mechanism is: weathered broken high alumina mafic transported to the nearby karst depressions, tropical marine monsoon climate, hot and humid environment, vegetation growth, microbial growth, microbial corrosion of rock to produce organic acid a weak acid continuously leaching depression deposits, so that the silicon mass mobilization and migration to the Fe-Al-enriched formation of lateritic bauxite. Al-rich mafic material source of the mineralization; due to the topography and exogenic geological, Al-rich rocks can not be in situ mineralization, karst depressions is the formation of deposits and ore-forming elements.

    (B) metal mineral distribution space law

    Cu (Au) deposits in the Central Cordillera, near the north-south orogenic belt along the circum-Pacific volcanic belt was with the distribution. Major copper producing area in the mountains of Northern Luzon, Zambales, Benguet, Nueva, Viscaya and southern Surigao del Norte, Davao Oriental, Davao, Mindanao, Tampakan and other areas.

    Chromite is mainly distributed in Luzon in Zambales Province and North Surigao province of Dinagat Island, 9 chromium-containing ophiolite belt.

    Laterite nickel and cobalt ore concentrated in the southern Philippines, Davao Oriental, and Palawan, and other large-scale nickel deposits in the province of Surigao del Norte and Zambales.

    Bauxite is mainly concentrated in the karst depressions in East Visayas, Philippine Islands Central Samar region.

    The gold is mainly distributed in the body of intrusive rocks in the Baguio, Paracale, Masbate, Surigao and Masara tectonic magmatic activity with the same period of volcanic and sedimentary rocks.

    Iron ore are mainly distributed in the region will can the East Negro province Tagpo, the Sab-Ahan, Lonoy and Bais, the eastern part of Luzon in the north province of Gan MA Ren Domaco, Cebu Province, Talamban area. The main types of contact metasomatic - hydrothermal iron deposits.

    (C) the formation time of the main metal ores

    Region magma chromium deposits in the formation of Cretaceous mafic - ultramafic rocks; acidic volcanic rocks subvolcanic porphyry and massive sulfide deposits, epithermal gold deposits, such as the formation of shallow from Oligocene to early Miocene to Pleistocene large-scale structure - related to magmatic activity.

    Weathered sedimentary lateritic nickel (cobalt), aluminum is formed in the Quaternary Holocene.

    (E) metallogenic belts

    According to the geological background of the Philippines, the geological conditions, mineral type, and resource distribution characteristics, initially divided into four important metallogenic prospective areas.

    Luzon - Medan Island chromium, copper, gold, iron ore-forming prospective areas;

    Palawan - Mindoro lateritic nickel and cobalt mineralization prospect area;

    Samar aluminum, chromium ore-forming vision area;

    4 Diener Ghat Island chrome, gold, nickel mineralization prospect area.

    (F) prospecting potential areas

    After preliminary analysis, the main metal minerals ring 14 prospecting potential areas in the Philippines.

    (1) Luzon - Medan Island, chromium, copper, gold, iron ore-forming vision area

    (2) Zamboanga province West will tower of gold, copper prospecting potential areas

    The West will tower of gold and copper pool is one of the great potential of the Philippines several gold and copper prospect area.

    (3) North special meat dish copper-gold, chromium prospecting potential area

    The district, Bo Wing copper (Boyongan), geologists estimated ore reserves of about 219 million tons.

    (4) Visa gold and copper prospecting potential area

    (5) North Luzon copper, gold, iron ore prospecting potential

    (6) Mindanao Tampakan copper, gold prospecting potential areas

    (7) South Luzon Zambales chromium, copper prospecting potential areas

    (8) Cebu Toledo copper, gold prospecting potential areas

    (9) must be of iron ore prospecting potential area

    (10) Palawan - Mindoro lateritic nickel and cobalt mineralization prospect area

    (11) Palawan nickel, cobalt prospecting potential areas

    (12) Mindoro nickel, cobalt, prospecting potential areas

    (13) Juan Island, aluminum, chromium metallogenic prospect area

    Samar chromium, bauxite prospecting potential area, where the greatest potential for the mine for the the Xi Sama province of BARI mining area, AMPI mining area. Mainly looking for sedimentary chromite sands, lateritic bauxite.

    (15) the Diener Ghat Island chromium, gold, nickel mineralization prospect area

    (2) Diener Ghat north of the island chrome, gold prospecting potential areas

    (2) Diener Ghat Island Central chrome prospecting potential areas

    (2) Diener Ghat southern island of nickel prospecting potential areas

    Philippines unique geographical and geological conditions, a relatively small land area is rich in natural mineral resources, occupies an important position in the world reserves of mineral resources. According to the Philippine National Geological and Mining Bureau data, calculated per unit area of ​​mineral reserves, gold reserves of the Philippines ranks third in the world copper reserves, ranks fourth in the world, fifth in the world reserves of nickel ore, chrome ore reserves in the world six. Only the current proven reserves of mineral resources, there are 13 kinds of metal ore and 29 kinds of non-metallic minerals.
    Mining in the Philippines after a brilliant period of development in the pre-1980 development has been relatively slow in recent years. Compared to far cry from the role played by the mining industry in the national economy with its rich mineral resources. Add Philippine mining industry over the past decade annual output accounting for the proportion of the Philippine's GDP in the 1.01-1.58%, mineral products exports accounted for 1.47-6.38% proportion of total exports of the Philippines mining industry directly employed population accounted for the proportion of total employment population in the Philippines in the 0.3- 0.6%, the multiplier effect generated by the mining of about 4-10, the vast majority of the mineral products of the Philippines for export, especially metal mineral products used for export. The major exporting countries are Japan, the rest of the exporting regions and countries, including Asia, North America, Europe and China, mining is the economic development of the Philippines stable source of foreign exchange.
    In recent years, the Philippine government, according to the needs of national economic development, and vigorously advocate mining reform proposed mining of the mining system to nurture and develop the prosperity and competitive recovery plan, hoping to attract more mining investment and create employment opportunities through the revival of the Philippines mining increase government revenue, reduce poverty, promote economic growth. China is a relative lack of national mineral resources, rich mineral resources in the Philippines, and China's neighboring excellent location, ideal region in the overseas exploitation of mineral resources in China. China and the Philippines to develop the mineral resources of the Philippines, will bring a win-win outcome for both countries.
    Philippines has many world-class high-quality mineral resources, mineral resources, reserves are huge, widely distributed. According to the 1996 report released by the Philippine National Bureau of Mines data, metal ore reserves in the Philippines for 7.1 billion tonnes of non-metallic mineral reserves of 51 billion tonnes. Benguet Province, Philippines northern Luzon, Zambales province, Marinduque Province; Samar areas in Central Visayas, Negros the Occidental Province; west of Palawan and Mindanao, Surigao del Norte, Province, Davao Province, Davao Oriental province, Zamboanga del Norte, Province are important mineral district.
    (A) of the Philippine mineral resources classified mineral resources of the Philippines is divided into the precious metal ore, ferroalloy ore, base metals mining, fertilizer, ore, industrial minerals, precious stones and decorative quarry and other six. According to the needs of economic development and mining conditions and other factors limit, currently only selectively mined gold in the metal ore, phosphate ore, chromium, nickel, copper and non-metallic mineral guano, clay, dolomite, , feldspar, limestone, marble, perlite, silica, stone, sand, salt, diorite, serpentine rock.
    The main metal minerals in the Philippines is the direct sale of raw ore (ORES) and grinding, washing, drying, grading and processing of the concentrate product (CONCENTRATE). Non-metallic mineral products in accordance with the requirements of the different technical indicators on the market for reprocessing.
    (B) of metallic mineral resources
    1 copper resources in the Philippines, metal ores, copper reserves of 4.8 billion tons, accounting for 67.5% of the total reserves of metal ores. Philippines copper porphyry copper deposits are distributed all over the country. Major copper-producing areas in the mountains of Northern Luzon, Zambales, Benguet, Nueva, Viscaya and southern Surigao del Norte, Davao, Davao Oriental,. Geological exploration work, the Philippines, there are still a large number of copper deposits and copper far attractions. Recently, the Australian Western Mining Corporation announced a world-class copper - gold found in South Cotabato, estimated copper reserves of 10.442 million tons, 227-369 tons of gold reserves, the total value of at least 100-200 billion U.S. dollars; Climax-Arimco mining is feasible The study report shows that the copper project in Nueva, Vizcaya, the Dinkidi copper ore reserves of more than 17 million tons.
    Gold resources, the Philippines, gold, composite ore and rock in the form exists, the main mining area in Baguio, Paracale, Masbate, Surigao, and Masara. Geological experts believe that the geological features of the Philippines, the largest and richest gold deposits are likely to reserves the dislocation region close to the natural forces in the Philippines, the recent gold exploration operations has been the development of shallow storage area. Australian prospecting company in Rapu-Rapu Island reserves of more than 600 tons of gold - copper - silver, 3 grams per ton of ore gold, silver, 37 grams; copper content of 1.46%, 2.33% of the zinc content (usually silver and gold , copper and associated by-product of the production of gold, copper.)
    3 nickel ore resources Philippine nickel ore reserves of about 1.09 billion tons, accounting for 15.5% of the total reserves of metal ores which has proven reserves of 1.02 billion tons, accounting for 93.72% of the total reserves of nickel ore, the average quality in the range 0.23% - 2.47%; can be expected reserves of 56.3 million tons, accounting for 5.17% quality in the range 0.36% -1.24%; probable reserves of 12.1 million tons, the quality of the range of 0.23% -2.27% (Note: The total reserves of proven reserves, of reserves and probable reserves and). Philippine nickel ore bauxite mostly high nickel content, the majority in the shallow soil, easy mining and low cost. Nickel ore is concentrated in Davao Oriental, and Palawan, the reserves were 475.7 million tons (43.69%) of total reserves and 407.1 million tons (37.38%) of the total reserves. Other large-scale nickel deposits of the province of Surigao del Norte, and Zambales Norway Mindex ASA prospecting companies in the exploration of Mindoro, the total reserves of 225 million tons (dry weight) of nickel ore, nickel metal content of 1% cobalt metal content of 0.1% (cobalt is usually associated with nickel, an important byproduct of the production of nickel.)
    4 chromite resources chromite exist in the Zambales province and the province of Surigao del Norte, Dinagat Island. Chromite size ranging from large-scale chromite reserves in millions of tons. Zambales province Coto chromite It is believed that the world's largest known reserves of chrome ore difficult financial.
    In addition, the bauxite resources in the Philippines is very rich. Bauxite resources are mainly concentrated in the the SAMAR region in East Visayas, estimated geological reserves of 242 million tons, an average of 40.80% Al2O3 content, the total value of approximately $ 21 billion.
    (C) non-metallic mineral resources
    Non-metallic mineral is an important source of the Philippines, construction, agriculture and electricity. Is the Philippines largest reserves of non-metallic minerals, limestone have been found in the Philippines around the reserves of 29 billion tonnes, accounting for 57% of non-metallic mineral reserves; marble reserves of

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