2011年版《 世界城市展望》:未来40年,城市化势头强劲 ,2012年4月05日

2011年版《 世界城市展望》:未来40年,城市化势头强劲 ,2012年4月05日

目前,全世界70亿人口中,有一半生活在城市里,到2050年的未来四十年里,世界人口多达23亿的增长量,将全部被城市吸收,这一快速的城市化进程,在非洲和亚洲,显得尤为突出,给城市居住、环境、基础设施等各方面,带来了新挑战。

这是联合国经济和社会事务部,4月5日发布的2011年版《 世界城市展望》的主要结论。
  

  联合国经社事务部,每两年对《 世界城市化展望》报告进行更新。该部助理秘书长-孙达拉姆(Jomo Kwame Sundaram),5日在纽约总部召开记者会,发布了2011年版的《 世界城市化展望》。
  
  孙达拉姆说:“城市地区,将在2011年至2050年的40年间,吸收全部的全球人口增长量。在此期间,全球人口将增长23亿;城市居民将增加26亿,城市在吸收全部新增人口之外,还将吸收一些农村人口,因此,农村人口将减少2亿8800万。城市地区,在2050年容纳的人口,相当于1950年的全球总人口。”
  
  未来四十年,城市人口在各区域的增长幅度,不尽相同,非洲和亚洲,将占全球城市人口总增量的86%。增长最多的国家,依次是印度(4亿9700万)、中国(3亿4100万)、尼日利亚(2亿)、美国(1亿300万)和印度尼西亚(9200万)。
  
  非洲的城市人口,在未来40年,将增长三倍,从2011年的4亿1400万,增加到12亿。亚洲的城市人口,将从19亿,增加到33亿。相比之下,欧洲城市人口的增加将很少,仅有5200万,北美将增加1亿1000万,拉丁美洲和加勒比地区,增加1亿7800万。
  
  城市人口的迅猛增长,为许多人带来了改善教育和获得公共服务的机会,因为,人口的集中,使得提供这些服务的成本相对较低。与此同时,城市的就业、居住、能源和基础设施,也面临更大挑战,减轻城市贫困、控制贫民窟的扩大,以及应对城市环境恶化的压力也更大。
  
  生活在拥有100万到500万人口的大城市的人口,从1970年占全球总人口的18%,增加到了2011年的22%。尤其值得注意的是-特大城市的增多。1990年,全球有3900万人口,生活在拥有千万以上人口的特大城市,相当于当时全球人口的3%。在2011年,有3亿5900万人,生活在特大城市,占全球人口的9.9%。到2025年,集中在特大城市的人口,将达6亿3000万,相当于全球人口的13.6%。
  
  2011年版《 世界城市化展望》首次列出了拥有750万以上人口城市的地理坐标,使得研究人员能够将这些人口密集区,与各种环境因素进行综合考量,包括,是否靠近海岸、地震断裂带或特定的气候区域等。
  
  展望报告显示,欧洲和非洲的大城市面临的自然灾害风险最少,这两个大洲,分别只有26%和37%的百万人口以上城市,处在面临至少一种主要灾害风险的地带;在拉丁美洲和加勒比地区、北美,特别是亚洲,许多城市面临着较大的灾害风险。
  
  孙达拉姆表示:“全球60%拥有百万人口的大城市,也就是有450个大城市,位于至少有一种重大自然灾害风险的地区,如,地震和洪水,这些城市拥有约8亿9000万人口。这构成了很大挑战,也是为什么-在今年六月,联合国里约热内卢可持续发展大会召开前夕,有关可持续城市的讨论显得如此重要。毕竟,城市面临着移民、全球化、经济发展、社会不平等、环境污染和气候变化的多重压力。里约大会必须探讨-如何在地球这个拥挤程度不断增加的星球上,减少贫困、促进社会公平并确保环境得到保护。”

2011 edition of the World Urban Prospects: the next 40 years, the strong momentum of urbanization, April 5, 2012

At present, seven billion people around the world, half live in cities, to the next four decades, in 2050, the world’s population growth of up to 2.3 billion, will be the city absorbed this rapid urbanization process, in Africa and Asia, is particularly prominent, to the urban living environment, infrastructure and other aspects, has brought new challenges.

This is the United Nations Economic and Social Affairs, April 5, 2011 edition of the World Urban Prospects, “the main conclusions.

United Nations Economic and Social Affairs, “World Urbanization Prospects report every two years to be updated. The Assistant Secretary-General – Sundaram (Jomo Kwame Sundaram,), 5 Headquarters in New York held a press conference and released the 2011 edition of “World Urbanization Prospects.

Sundaram said: “urban areas, 2011-2050 40 years to absorb all of the global population growth during this period, the global population will grow by 2.3 billion; urban residents will increase by 2.6 billion, the city in the absorption All of the additional population will also absorb some of the rural population, rural population will be reduced by 200 million to 88 million. urban areas, to accommodate the population in 2050, equivalent to the total global population in 1950.

In the next four decades, the growth rate of urban population in the regions are not the same, Africa and Asia, the total increment of the global urban population will account for 86%. Growth in most countries, followed by India (400 million 97 million), China (300 million 41 million), Nigeria (200 million), United States (100 million 300 million) and Indonesia (92 million).

Of the urban population in Africa, in the next 40 years will triple from 400 million to 14 million in 2011 to 1.2 billion. Asia’s urban population from 1.9 billion to 33 billion. In contrast, the European urban population increase will rarely, only 52 million, North America will increase by 100 million to 10 million Latin American and Caribbean region, an increase of 100 million to 78 million.

The rapid growth of urban population, many people the opportunity to improve education and access to public services, because the concentration of the population, making the cost of providing these services is relatively low. At the same time, the city’s employment, housing, energy and infrastructure, but also face greater challenges to alleviate urban poverty, to control the expansion of slums, and respond to the pressure of urban environmental degradation is greater.

Living in big cities with a population of 100 million to 500 million population in 1970 accounted for 18% of the total global population increased by 22% in 2011. Of particular note is the – the increase of the mega-cities. In 1990, the global population of 39 million living in the mega-cities with more than 10 million population, equivalent to 3% of the global population at that time. In 2011, 5900 300 million people, live in large cities, accounting for 9.9% of the world’s population. By 2025, the population concentrated in the mega-cities will reach 600 million to 30 million, equivalent to 13.6 percent of the world’s population.

2011 version of “World Urbanization Prospects lists with more than 7.5 million population of the city’s geographical coordinates for the first time, allowed the researchers to these densely populated areas with a variety of environmental factors into consideration, including whether or not to close to the coast, the earthquake rupture with specific climatic zones.

Outlook report shows that the natural disaster risks faced by the major cities of Europe and Africa, at least two continents, were only 26% and 37% of the millions of people above the city, in the face at least one of the main disaster risk zone; in Latin America and the Caribbean, North America, especially in Asia, many cities face a greater risk of disaster.

Sundaram said: “60% of the world with millions of people in big cities, is the 450 metropolitan areas, located in at least a major natural disaster risk areas, such as earthquakes and floods, the city has about 800 million 90 million population, which constitutes a great challenge, is why – in June this year, the eve of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro held discussions on sustainable cities seem so important after all, the city is facing immigration, globalization, economic development, social multiple pressures of inequality, environmental pollution and climate change. Rio Conference must be explored – how the Earth congestion increasing on the planet, reduce poverty, promote social equity and to ensure that the environment be protected. ”

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