新华社文:在科学发展实践中实现上海新跨越–来自浦江两岸报告( 2012年4月1日 )

新华社文:在科学发展实践中实现上海新跨越–来自浦江两岸报告( 2012年4月1日 )

上海在变。
  这个开埠160多年、以引领潮流著称的城市,几经变迁。

  在改革发展的新时代,又一轮有如脱胎换骨般的巨变,引人注目——

  继4年前告别延续16年的两位数增长后,去年,上海GDP增速仅8.2%,在全国排名倒数第二——上海变“慢”了。

  “上海制造”的“老大”地位正被“上海服务”所取代,第三产业就业逾50%,增加值占经济总量近60%,贡献的地方财政收入超70%——上海变“轻”了。

  每平方公里工业土地上,2005年产出49亿元;2011年,同样的土地,抠出60多亿元。经济质量和效益不断攀升——上海变“活”了。

  速度、结构、效益之变,源于上海正在开启的“创新驱动、转型发展”新篇,折射出上海努力寻求发展新优势、提升全球竞争力的雄心壮志。

  “科学发展决定着上海在全国的地位和作用,决定着上海人民的生活安康,决定着上海的未来。我们应该用破釜沉舟、义无反顾的决心和勇气顽强推进。”中共中央政治局委员、上海市委书记俞正声说。

  在世情国情和自身发展阶段的交汇点上,

  上海——选择转型

  尽管还是初春,位于长江口的横沙岛已是泥融飞燕,沙暖翔鸥。这个通江达海的河口冲积岛,被联合国官员誉为罕见的城市发展空间。若是上马大进大出的重化工业,条件极为优越,经济体量可以迅速做大。但,至今它仍是一片处女地。

  面积不过6000多平方公里、人口密度已达3631人/平方公里的上海,难道不缺地?

  2011年,上海信贷增速比全国低5.4个百分点。即便是国家投入4万亿元应对危机的2009年,上海的信贷规模也没有明显增大,增速更是低于全国10个点以上。

  万商云集、通联内外的上海,难道不缺钱?

  土地与资金,是投资驱动型经济最不可或缺的要素。对此“利器”,上海为何守而不用,主动调低经济增速?

  不知近水花先发,疑是经冬雪未消。

  历30余年快速发展,经济总量以1.9万亿元居世界大城市第11位的上海,在率先发展中,也最先遇到资源环境瓶颈、体制机制障碍、社会矛盾凸显等一系列难题。

  土地越来越稀缺。上海建设用地占比已高达42%,而世界主要城市一般30%。再铺摊子,城市难以宜居,也难以为继。

  投入产出效益逐年下降。每新增1亿元投资所增加的GDP,从“十五”的4.3亿元下降到“十一五”的3.2亿元。随着大规模城市基建告一段落,上海大建设、大投入的年代,一去不复返。

  环境承载极限日益逼近。这两年,即使投资几近零增长,年投资额仍达5000余亿元,高强度投资加剧环境压力。而要完成单产能耗五年下降15%的目标,不调结构,已无它途。

  上海的经济发展到了一个转折点。“约束条件越来越突出。”在上海市政府发展研究中心主任周振华看来,这是上海在新起点上呈现的阶段性特征。

  自身发展的内在矛盾日趋凸显,金融危机后外部经济环境愈加复杂多变。多重挑战下,上海该选择怎样的发展路径?

  “绝不能以牺牲环境和资源为代价求得快速发展,绝不能以积累社会矛盾为代价求得快速发展,绝不能以增加历史欠账为代价求得快速发展!”——面对深刻变化的世情国情,审视自身的发展阶段,上海凝聚起清醒的科学发展共识。

  这份共识,源于对中央决策和国家战略的积极践行——

  从中国国情和上海实际出发,党中央、国务院高瞻远瞩地指出,上海要率先转变发展方式,率先提高自主创新能力,率先推进改革开放,率先构建社会主义和谐社会,当好推动科学发展、促进社会和谐的排头兵。

  这份共识,源于对自身发展阶段的深刻认识——

  上海市委副秘书长、研究室主任王战清楚地记得,在上海市第九次党代会上,市委明确提出,上海发展到现阶段,必须更加注重提高发展质量,更加注重优化发展途径,更加注重丰富发展内涵,更加注重增强发展动力。要痛下决心,推进经济结构战略性调整,形成以“服务经济为主”的结构。

  这份共识,指引出一条更加清晰的发展路径——

  2010年,世博会还在举办之时,一场关于发展路径的谋划同步推进。在世博闭幕后第八天,上海市委九届十三次全会召开,“创新驱动、转型发展”的思路确立:不受旧有路径束缚,在深化结构中促转型;不为任何风险所惧,在改革创新中促转型;不为任何干扰所惑,在扩大开放中促转型;着力促进人的全面发展,在改善民生中促转型。

  “创新驱动、转型发展的道路,充满各种风险挑战,是上海必须面对的又一个历史性考验。”上海市委副书记、市长韩正说,“上海必须做先行者。”

  想率先、敢率先、能率先,坚定、清醒、敢于作为。瞄准转型目标的上海,毅然出发。

中国上海普陀区棚户区(现在早已不叫贫民窟)居民-中兴村(岚皋西路)居民王爷爷恭贺

  在取与舍、转与变的创新实践中,

  上海——加快转型

  “从2011年起,上海已进入全面转型的新阶段。”周振华判断,“一些可喜的迹象已经显现。”

  这是彰显质量效益和结构优化导向的转型——

  在上海的时尚地标新天地周边,有一幢叫“企业天地”的办公楼宇,建筑空间不过7万多平方米,每年创造的税收高达22亿元。如此高含金量的产出,靠什么?

  “靠的是对索尼中国、普华永道等高端服务企业的吸引。”谈起现代服务业的集聚,黄浦区区长周伟如数家珍。在黄浦,税收过亿元的楼宇有45幢,税收过亿元的企业有62家。

  传统产业的蜕变更显出转型活力。纺织,曾是上海的母亲工业,而今变身科技与时尚结合的现代产业。“80%以上的收入来自设计营销等现代服务业,制造业中80%以上是高技术含量的产业用纺织品。”上海纺织集团董事长席时平说,“传统纺织概念早已被创新。”

  效益体现在经济增速放缓之时。2011年,上海以占全国0.07%的土地、1.7%的固定资产投资,贡献了全国逾7%的财政收入;地方财政收入增长20%,失业率没上升,城乡居民家庭收入扣除物价因素后高于经济增幅。

  这是彰显环境保护和宜居导向的转型——

  “说是‘大上海’,其实在国内四大直辖市中面积最小。含崇明岛在内,连北京的一半都不到。”上海市社科院常务副院长左学金指出。

  正是看到了这种窘迫性,上海在环保方面实行“刚性指标、铁的纪律”。“十一五”期间,全市化学需氧量和二氧化硫排放量分别削减27.7%和30.2%,双双居全国前列。2011年,国家对污染物减排指标增至四项,上海自我加压,再增加控制总磷和挥发性有机物两项指标。

  “今年,上海启动第五轮环保三年行动计划,将PM2.5防治列入重要议事日程。”上海市环保局局长张全说,通过加大产业布局和结构调整力度,上海正由“末端治理”转向“源头控制”,来实现环境改善。

  这是彰显民生优先导向的转型——

  今年4月1日起,上海市城乡居民低保标准分别调整为每人每月570元和430元。这是1993年上海建立低保制度以来,调整金额最多的一次。

  同日起,上海的最低工资标准也从1280元调整为1450元。“从扣除社保后的净收入角度讲,这个水平全国最高。”上海市人社局局长周海洋说。

  目前,上海的廉租房已基本实现“应保尽保”,经济适用房连续3次放宽准入标准,已覆盖家庭人均收入5000元以下的范围;公租房试点项目也已启动,还有800万平方米的旧区改造加紧推进。

  这是彰显市场化国际化导向的转型——

  围绕国际金融和航运中心建设,上海的城市功能逐步升级。金融中心建设要素齐聚。2011年,上海金融市场交易总额逾400万亿元,现代金融市场体系日臻完善。航运中心建设 “软硬兼施”。不仅集装箱吞吐量再创3174万标箱的世界纪录,软环境体系也不断健全:包括期货保税交割、保税船舶登记等一系列与国际接轨的制度措施,已在洋山保税港区启动。

  今天,大量的“上海制造”在走着调整、转型之路。它们有一个共同的名字:“两头在沪”企业——制造在外地,研发和销售两头在上海。也催生出一个统计上还没有的2.5产业:介于二产和三产之间,融合制造和服务的产业。

  一系列转型手笔背后,是取与舍、转与变的创新实践。

  从三类制造业的取舍中,可以一窥上海坚持转型的取向。

  能够产生效益,但受资源、环境约束大的项目,如钢铁、石化,增量坚决不做。

  暂时没有效益,但前景很好的项目,坚持去做。像正在建设中的大飞机项目,最快也要到2016年才能投放市场。围绕这个项目,中国商飞的总部、研发中心和总装中心相继落户浦东,以成为世界级民航产业基地为目标,战略布局日渐清晰。

  对GDP和税收拉动效应不大,但体现上海地位、影响力和引领作用,贯彻国家战略的项目,一定要做。集成电路一直是中国IT产业的软肋,上海加紧突破。目前,中芯国际的45纳米级芯片实现量产,更具挑战的“芯片母机”也在崛起。中微半导体设备公司已推出用于生产22纳米级芯片的下一代刻蚀机。这个领域,以往专属于极少数的跨国公司。

  创新,需要重点领域和关键环节的制度突破。今年1月1日起,上海交通运输业和部分现代服务业开展营改增试点,这一重大税制改革,正为现代服务经济注入强劲动力。

  创新,更在于政府创造有利于创新的环境。“政府就是要营造开放、宽容的创新创业环境。”上海市委常委、浦东新区区委书记徐麟说。

  在浦东,为小微企业设立的公共服务平台就有41个。在上海张江国家自主创新示范区,针对企业骨干研发和管理人才的股权激励试点已启动,政府为此提供5亿元的专项资金。园区“张江人才”评选,不看学历、资历,只论人才价值和创新成就。

  “如果中国能诞生乔布斯式的人物,张江是最可能的地方之一。”上海张江高科技园区管委会常务副主任丁磊自信地说。

  在从“经济中心”向“全球城市”的跨越中,

  上海——再攀新高度

  上海,已为转型之路确定了清晰的目标。

  这是4年后的上海图景——到2015年,城市创新活力大幅提升,服务功能全面增强,信息化水平迈入国际前列,城市文化更加繁荣、更具魅力……

  这是8年后上海的高度——按照中央部署,到2020年,上海基本建成与我国经济实力以及人民币国际地位相适应的国际金融中心,具有全球航运资源配置能力的国际航运中心。

  “将来上海对国家的贡献,不在于创造多少GDP,而是能否具备全球资源的配置能力。换言之,上海应该从‘经济中心’转型为‘全球城市’。”上海市委常委、副市长屠光绍这样解读。

  全球城市,大国梦想。根据哥伦比亚大学教授萨森的定义,“全球城市”就是在经济、文化、政治等方面具有全球影响力的城市。

  迈向“全球城市”,上海有责任。

  如果把一国经济比作一艘远洋轮的话,“全球城市”就如强劲的引擎。中国经济这艘巨轮,“吃水量”已是全球第二。上海作为重要发动机,也必须输出与“中国吨位”相匹配、“全球巡航”所需要的“功率”。

  迈向“全球城市”,上海有潜力。

  “上海已具备作为‘全球城市’崛起的潜在基础条件。”上海市金融办主任方星海说。比如,去年上海新认定跨国公司地区总部和研发中心90家,累计达到927家,在金融、航运、贸易等方面形成巨大的经济流量。而上海所处的长三角地区,已是世界第六大城市群,成为我国参与经济全球化的重要平台。

  迈向全球城市,上海有底气。

  从浦东开发开放,到建设国际金融、航运中心,再到建设长三角“世界城市群”,中央确定的一系列战略是上海转型发展的根本保障。“中央支持很‘给力’,上海转型有信心。”上海市政府副秘书长、发改委主任周波说。

  但转型之路绝非坦途。环顾世界,伦敦、纽约等全球城市,漫长的转型期无不伴随阵痛:工厂流失,失业增加,甚至一度出现财政危机。

  与真正的全球城市相比,尚有差距。以最关键的人才为例,目前上海金融人才总量约23万,其中有国际化经历的仅占0.2%,而新加坡为20%。

  土地是上海最稀缺的资源,如何在转型中提高产出率,仍有很大空间。“差距就是潜力。”上海市委常委、常务副市长杨雄分析说,从建设用地产出率看,上海虽在中国大陆领先,但仅为纽约的1/29、香港的1/14;产出率最高的漕河泾开发区为200亿元/平方公里,还不到台湾新竹的一半。

  上海的转型发展,只是开了个头。“我们的创新远远不够。”——上海的决策者有着清醒的认识和坚定的决心:推进转型发展不是在公园里散步、在沙滩上晒太阳。要痛下决心,把创新驱动真正落到实处,坚定不移地推动科学发展。

  “如果上海转型成功,将改变整个东亚的格局。”2006年,新加坡内阁资政李光耀造访上海时,留下如此论断。

  滔滔黄浦江,见证着上海之变:开埠前,这里渔船罗列;开埠后,列强战船云集;新中国成立后,穿梭于斯的是大小货船;今天,国际豪华邮轮正来往游弋……

  江水无言,却分明记载了中国从积贫积弱到繁荣昌盛的沧桑巨变,也必将见证上海在科学发展的征途上不断跨越的新辉煌。

中国上海棚户区(不是贫民窟)居民-普陀区西合德里(武宁区域,东新支路区域)居民刘外婆恭喜

Xinhua News Agency text: In the practice of scientific development to achieve a new leap – from the Huangpu River report (April 2012)

Shanghai is changing.
The Opening of 160 years, said the city to lead the trend, several changes.

In the new era of reform and development, but also a like reborn changes, compelling –

Following four years ago, bid farewell to the last 16 years of double-digit growth last year, Shanghai’s GDP growth rate of only 8.2%, ranked second in the country – Shanghai variable “slow”.

“Shanghai”, “boss” status is being replaced by the “Shanghai service, the tertiary industry employment of more than 50%, the added value of a share of nearly 60% of the total contribution to the local revenue of over 70% – Shanghai variable” light “a.

Per square kilometer industrial land, the 2005 annual output of 4.9 billion yuan; 2011, the same sites, plucked out of more than 60 billion. Economic quality and efficiency of the rising – Shanghai variable “live”.

Change of speed, structure, effectiveness, from Shanghai are open “innovation-driven, restructuring and development, a reflection of the Shanghai efforts seek to develop new strengths, and the ambition to enhance the global competitiveness.

“Scientific development of Shanghai in the country’s status and role, the decision of life and well-being of the people of Shanghai, and decided the future of Shanghai decided we should use the most drastic, determination and courage indomitable duty-bound to push forward.” Member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, secretary of the Shanghai Municipal Party Committee Yu said.

Conditions of living situation and their stages of development on the intersection of

Shanghai – to select the transition

Or early spring, Hengsha Island in the Yangtze Delta has been the financial swallows mud, sand warm Xiang gull. Dahai estuary alluvial island, United Nations officials hailed as a rare urban space. If launched by large heavy and chemical industries, the extremely favorable conditions, the economic volume can rapidly expand. But, it still is a virgin land.

Area of ​​more than 6000 square kilometers, population density has reached 3631 people / sq km in Shanghai, do not lack land?

2011 credit growth by 5.4 percentage points lower than the national. Even if the state has invested 4 trillion yuan response to the crisis in 2009, Shanghai, the size of credit did not significantly increase the growth rate is less than 10 points above the country.

Million of merchants, Communications inside and outside of Shanghai, do not short of money?

Land and capital, is the most indispensable element of the investment-driven economy. This “weapon”, Shanghai, why keep without having to take the initiative to reduce economic growth?

I do not know nearly spray starter, suspected by the winter snow still lingers.

Calendar 30 years rapid development, the total economic output of 1.9 trillion yuan home cities of the world 11, take the lead in developing the first to encounter the bottleneck of resources and the environment, structural and institutional obstacles, social conflicts highlighted a series of problem.

Land is increasingly scarce. Shanghai construction land accounted for up to 42%, generally 30% of the world’s major cities. Setting up shops, the city is difficult to livable, unsustainable.

Input and output efficiency is declining. Increase in new investment of 100 million yuan of GDP, decreased from “15” to 430 million yuan to the “Eleventh Five-Year” 320 million yuan. Come to an end with the large-scale urban infrastructure projects, the Shanghai building, a large investment in years, a thing of the past.

The limits of environmental carrying looming. The past two years, even if the investment is almost zero growth, the annual amount of investment is still $ 5,000 billion, investment in high-intensity exacerbate the pressure on the environment. In order to complete the target yield of energy consumption for five years decreased by 15%, do not adjust the structure, no longer it way.

Shanghai’s economic development has reached a turning point. Constraints become increasingly prominent in the Shanghai Municipal Government Development Research Center of Zhou Zhenhua opinion, this is the stage characteristics of Shanghai presents a new starting point.

Their own development of the internal contradictions become increasingly prominent, the external economic environment is increasingly complex and volatile financial crisis. Multiple challenges, Shanghai, the development path?

At the expense of the environment and resources “must not be obtained the cost of rapid development, must not seek the rapid development of the cost of the accumulation of social contradictions, seek rapid development must not increase the historical debts at the expense” – the face of profound changes the world situation the national conditions, to examine their own stage of development, Shanghai and gather together a clear scientific consensus for development.

The consensus from actively practice the central decision-making and national strategies –

Reality from the national conditions of China and Shanghai, the State Council noted with great foresight, Shanghai should take the lead in changing patterns of development, the first to enhance the independent innovation capability, and take the lead in promoting reform and opening to take the lead in building a socialist harmonious society, the better to promote scientific development, promote social harmony in recent years.

The consensus, from a profound understanding of their own stage of development –

Shanghai Municipal Party Committee deputy secretary general of the Research Office war clearly remember the Ninth Party Congress in Shanghai, the municipal clearly, Shanghai developed to this stage, we must pay more attention to improving the quality of development, more attention to optimize the development path, and more focus on the connotation of development, more attention to strengthening the driving force for development. To make a determined effort to push forward strategic economic restructuring, the formation of a “service economy-based” structure.

This consensus, pointing out a clear development path –

In 2010, the World Expo is still held by a plan on the path of development is to proceed with. Eighth day after the closure of the Expo, the Shanghai Municipal Committee of the Ninth 13 plenary session, “innovation-driven restructuring and development,” the idea to establish: that is not the old path bound, promoting transformation in the higher-level structure; fear no risks, promoting transformation in the reform and innovation; not confused by any interference in the opening wider to promote restructuring; efforts to promote comprehensive development, improving people’s livelihood and promote transformation.

Innovation-driven restructuring and development of roads, full of a variety of risks and challenges, Shanghai must face a historic challenge. “Shanghai Municipal Committee, Mayor Han Zheng said,” must do pioneer. ”

Want to take the lead, the courage to take the lead, we can take the lead firm, sober, dare as. In Shanghai aimed at the transformation goals, decided to start.

Shanty towns of China Shanghai Putuo District (now not long been called the residents of the slums) – ZTE Village (Langao West Road) residents Grandpa Wang congratulated the

Innovative practice to take and care, transfer and change

Shanghai – to speed up the transformation

Since 2011, Shanghai has entered a new stage of comprehensive restructuring. “Zhou Zhenhua judgment,” has begun to show some encouraging signs. ”

This is to highlight the quality and efficiency and structure to optimize the transformation of oriented –

Fashion landmark in Shanghai Xintiandi surrounding, there is one called the “corporate world” office buildings, a building space of more than 70,000 square meters, annual tax to create up to 2.2 billion yuan. The output of such a high gold content, rely on?

“It is the attraction of Sony, PricewaterhouseCoopers and other high-end service enterprises.” Talk about the gathering of the modern service industry, Huangpu District, Mayor Zhou familiar. Tax amounting to billions of buildings in Huangpu, 45 billion business tax over 62.

The transformation of traditional industries, showing the transformation of energy. Textiles, was the mother of industry in Shanghai, now turned the combination of technology and fashion of modern industry. More than 80 percent of the revenue from the design and marketing of modern service industry, high-tech industry for more than 80 percent of manufacturing textiles. “Chairman of the board seats of the Shanghai Textile Group, said” traditional textile concept has long been innovative. ”

The benefit is reflected in the economic slowdown. 2011 accounted for 0.07 percent of the country’s land, 1.7% of the fixed assets investment, contribution to the country more than 7% of revenue; local fiscal revenue growth of 20%, the unemployment rate did not rise, urban and rural household income less price higher than the economic growth factors.

This is the highlight environmental protection and livable-oriented transformation –

“‘Shanghai’, in fact, the smallest in the country’s four municipalities including Chongming Island, including half not to.” Executive vice president of Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences, Zuo Xuejin said.

It is to see this distress, the environmental aspects of the implementation of quotas, the iron discipline. “Eleventh Five-Year” period, the city’s chemical oxygen demand and sulfur dioxide emissions were reduced by 27.7% and 30.2%, both highest in the country. In 2011, national pollutant emission reduction targets to four, Shanghai self-pressurized, and then increase the control of total phosphorus and two indicators of volatile organic compounds.

“This year, Shanghai started the fifth round of the environmental three-year action plan, prevention and control PM2.5 important agenda.” Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau, Zhang said, through the increase of industrial layout and restructuring efforts, Shanghai is end of the treatment “to” source control “to achieve environmental improvements.

This is to highlight people’s livelihood-oriented transformation of priority –

From April 1 this year, the Shanghai urban and rural minimum standard were adjusted to 570 yuan and 430 yuan per person per month. This is since the 1993 Shanghai to establish subsistence allowances system, adjust the amount of time.

The same day, Shanghai’s minimum wage adjusted to 1450 yuan from 1280 yuan. From the net income after the deduction of social security point of view, the highest in the country at this level. “Said the Shanghai Human Resources and Social Secretary for weeks marine.

At present, the low-rent housing in Shanghai has been the basic realization of the “cities” of affordable housing for three consecutive times to relax the access standards, and has covered the range of per capita household income of less than 5000 yuan; public rental pilot project has started, there are 8 million stepping up the square meters of urban transformation.

This is the highlight market-oriented transformation of the international orientation –

Around the international financial and shipping center, Shanghai’s urban functions escalation. Oligomerization of the construction elements of the financial center. In 2011, the financial market transactions totaling more than 400 trillion yuan, a modern financial market system is improving daily. Shipping Center “carrot and stick”. Not only the container throughput of a new world record of 31.74 million TEUs, the soft-environment system and continuously improve: including bonded delivery of futures, bonded vessel registration systems and measures with international standards, in the Yangshan Bonded Port Area to start.

Today, a large number of “Shanghai” walking the adjustment, transformation of the way. They have a common name: “two in Shanghai” Enterprise – Manufacturing in the field of research, development and sale of two in Shanghai. Also gave birth to a statistical 2.5 industry: between the secondary industry and tertiary industry, the integration of manufacturing and service industries.

A series of behind the transformation of mine is to take and care, transfer and change the practice of innovation.

From the choice of three types of manufacturing industries, a glimpse of Shanghai to adhere to the orientation of transition.

Can produce benefits, but subject to resource and environmental constraints of the project, such as steel, petrochemicals, incremental determined not to.

No benefits, but the prospect of a good project and stick to it. Under construction in the large aircraft project, the earliest to 2016 the market. Around this project, China Commercial Aircraft’s headquarters, R & D centers and assembly centers have settled in Pudong, to become a world-class aviation industry base has become increasingly clear, strategic layout.

Pulling effect on the GDP and the tax is not, but to embody Shanghai’s status, influence and lead role in implementing the national strategy of the project must be done. IC has been the soft underbelly of the IT industry in China, Shanghai is stepping up a breakthrough. At present, SMIC’s 45-nanometer chips mass production, more challenging “Chip machine tools are also emerging. Micro-Fabrication Equipment Inc. has introduced the next generation of etching machine used to produce 22-nanometer chips. This area, in the past exclusively a handful of multinational companies.

Innovation, we need a system breakthroughs in key areas and key links. From January 1 this year, the Shanghai transportation and some of the modern service industry to carry out a pilot business change increase, this major tax reform is to inject a strong driving force for the modern service economy.

Innovation, but also because the Government to create an environment conducive to innovation. “The Government is to create an open and tolerant of innovation and entrepreneurial environment.” Shanghai Municipal Committee, said Xu Lin, Party Secretary of Pudong New Area.

, There are 41 public service platform for small and micro enterprises to set up in Pudong. Equity incentive pilot for the enterprise backbone of R & D and management personnel in Shanghai Zhangjiang Hi-national independent innovation demonstration zone, has been started, the government provided 500 million yuan of special funds. Park “the Zhangjiang talent selection, do not look at the qualifications, experience and only on the value of talent and innovative achievements.

“If China is the birth of the character of Steve Jobs, Zhangjiang is one of the most likely place.” Ding Lei, Shanghai Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park Management Committee, deputy director of confidence.

From the “economic center” to “global cities” across the

Shanghai – and then pushed to the degree of

Shanghai, has identified a clear target for the transformation of the way.

This is Shanghai picture four years later – in 2015, the city’s innovation activity increased significantly, the service full-featured enhanced level of information technology into the international forefront of urban culture is more prosperous, more attractive …

This is eight years after the height of Shanghai – according to the central deployment, by 2020, Shanghai has basically built to adapt to China’s economic strength and the yuan international status as an international financial center, with an international shipping center of the global shipping resources allocation capability.

“In the future contribution to the country does not lie so how many of GDP, but whether they can have a global resource allocation in other words, Shanghai should transition from the ‘economic center’ for the ‘global city’.” Shanghai Municipal Committee, vice mayor Mr. Tu This interpretation.

Global city, big country dreams. According to Columbia University Professor Sassen’s definition, the “global city” in the economic, cultural, and political global influence of the city.

Towards a “global city, Shanghai has the responsibility.

If a country’s economy compared to the words of an ocean-going vessels, the “global city” as a powerful engine. China’s economic ship of “eat water” is the second in the world. Shanghai as an important engine must also be output with the “tonnage” to match the needs of “power” in the global cruise “.

Towards a “global city”, Shanghai has the potential.

Shanghai already has the potential rise of the basic conditions as a ‘global city’. “Shanghai Financial Director Fang Xinghai. For example, last year the new finds 90 multinational regional headquarters and R & D center, has reached 927 in finance, shipping, trade and other aspects of the formation of a huge economic flow. Shanghai where the Yangtze River Delta region, is the world’s sixth largest city group has become an important platform for China’s participation in economic globalization.

Towards a global city, Shanghai has emboldened.

From Pudong development and opening to the construction of the international financial and shipping center, and then the construction of the Yangtze River Delta, “the world’s urban agglomerations” determined by the central strategy is the fundamental guarantee of Shanghai’s transformation and development. Central support is very ‘to force’, Shanghai transformation have confidence. “Said Deputy Secretary-General of the Shanghai Municipal Government, Development and Reform Commission, the main Zhou Bo.

However, the transformation of the way not a smooth ride. Looking around the world, London, New York and other global cities, the long transition period invariably accompanied by labor pains: Factory loss, increased unemployment, and even once a financial crisis.

Compared with a truly global city, there are gaps. The most critical talent, for example, about 230,000 of the total financial personnel, including international experience and only 0.2%, Singapore 20%.

Land is a scarce resource, and how to improve the rate of output in the transition, there is still much space. “The gap is the potential.” Yang Xiong, Shanghai Municipal Committee, Deputy Mayor said that from the output rate of construction land, Shanghai in mainland China’s leading, but only in New York 1/29, 1/14; output The highest rate of Caohejing Development Zone is 20 billion yuan / square kilometers, less than half of Hsinchu, Taiwan.

The development of Shanghai’s transformation, but a start. “Our innovation is not enough.” – Shanghai policy makers have a clear understanding and firm determination: to promote the restructuring and development is not a walk in the park, sunbathing on the beach. To make a determined effort to drive innovation to truly implement unswervingly promote the scientific development.

“If Shanghai transition is successful, will change the pattern of East Asia as a whole.” In 2006, Singapore’s Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew to visit Shanghai, leaving such a judgment.

Surging Huangpu River to witness the change in Shanghai: Opening, where fishing boats set out; its inception, the powers warships gathered; After the founding of new China, the shuttle in Sri Lanka is the size of cargo ships; Today, the international luxury cruise is between cruising …

The river silent, but clearly documented in China will also witness the new glory of Shanghai in the journey of scientific development across from the poor and weak to the prosperity of the vicissitudes.

Residents of the shanty towns (not slums) – Putuo District Xi Delhi (wuning Regional Liu grandmother Congratulations, residents of East New slip area)

新華社文:在科學發展實踐中實現上海新跨越–來自浦江兩岸報告( 2012年4月1日 )

上海在變。
這個開埠160多年、以引領潮流著稱的城市,幾經變遷。

在改革發展的新時代,又一輪有如脫胎換骨般的巨變,引人注目——

繼4年前告別延續16年的兩位數增長後,去年,上海GDP增速僅8.2%,在全國排名倒數第二——上海變“慢”了。

“上海製造”的“老大”地位正被“上海服務”所取代,第三產業就業逾50%,增加值佔經濟總量近60%,貢獻的地方財政收入超70%——上海變“輕”了。

每平方公里工業土地上,2005年產出49億元;2011年,同樣的土地,摳出60多億元。經濟質量和效益不斷攀升——上海變“活”了。

速度、結構、效益之變,源於上海正在開啟的“創新驅動、轉型發展”新篇,折射出上海努力尋求發展新優勢、提升全球競爭力的雄心壯志。

“科學發展決定著上海在全國的地位和作用,決定著上海人民的生活安康,決定著上海的未來。我們應該用破釜沉舟、義無反顧的決心和勇氣頑強推進。”中共中央政治局委員、上海市委書記俞正聲說。

在世情國情和自身發展階段的交匯點上,

  上海——選擇轉型

儘管還是初春,位於長江口的橫沙島已是泥融飛燕,沙暖翔鷗。這個通江達海的河口沖積島,被聯合國官員譽為罕見的城市發展空間。若是上馬大進大出的重化工業,條件極為優越,經濟體量可以迅速做大。但,至今它仍是一片處女地。

面積不過6000多平方公里、人口密度已達3631人/平方公里的上海,難道不缺地?

2011年,上海信貸增速比全國低5.4個百分點。即便是國家投入4萬億元應對危機的2009年,上海的信貸規模也沒有明顯增大,增速更是低於全國10個點以上。

萬商雲集、通聯內外的上海,難道不缺錢?

土地與資金,是投資驅動型經濟最不可或缺的要素。對此“利器”,上海為何守而不用,主動調低經濟增速?

不知近水花先發,疑是經冬雪未消。

歷30餘年快速發展,經濟總量以1.9萬億元居世界大城市第11位的上海,在率先發展中,也最先遇到資源環境瓶頸、體制機制障礙、社會矛盾凸顯等一系列難題。

  土地越來越稀缺。上海建設用地佔比已高達42%,而世界主要城市一般30%。再鋪攤子,城市難以宜居,也難以為繼。

  投入產出效益逐年下降。每新增1億元投資所增加的GDP,從“十五”的4.3億元下降到“十一五”的3.2億元。隨著大規模城市基建告一段落,上海大建設、大投入的年代,一去不復返。

  環境承載極限日益逼近。這兩年,即使投資幾近零增長,年投資額仍達5000餘億元,高強度投資加劇環境壓力。而要完成單產能耗五年下降15%的目標,不調結構,已無它途。

上海的經濟發展到了一個轉折點。 “約束條件越來越突出。”在上海市政府發展研究中心主任周振華看來,這是上海在新起點上呈現的階段性特徵。

自身發展的內在矛盾日趨凸顯,金融危機後外部經濟環境愈加複雜多變。多重挑戰下,上海該選擇怎樣的發展路徑?

“絕不能以犧牲環境和資源為代價求得快速發展,絕不能以積累社會矛盾為代價求得快速發展,絕不能以增加歷史欠賬為代價求得快速發展!”——面對深刻變化的世情國情,審視自身的發展階段,上海凝聚起清醒的科學發展共識。

這份共識,源於對中央決策和國家戰略的積極踐行——

從中國國情和上海實際出發,黨中央、國務院高瞻遠矚地指出,上海要率先轉變發展方式,率先提高自主創新能力,率先推進改革開放,率先構建社會主義和諧社會,當好推動科學發展、促進社會和諧的排頭兵。

這份共識,源於對自身發展階段的深刻認識——

上海市委副秘書長、研究室主任王戰清楚地記得,在上海市第九次黨代會上,市委明確提出,上海發展到現階段,必須更加註重提高發展質量,更加註重優化發展途徑,更加注重豐富發展內涵,更加註重增強發展動力。要痛下決心,推進經濟結構戰略性調整,形成以“服務經濟為主”的結構。

這份共識,指引出一條更加清晰的發展路徑——

2010年,世博會還在舉辦之時,一場關於發展路徑的謀劃同步推進。在世博閉幕後第八天,上海市委九屆十三次全會召開,“創新驅動、轉型發展”的思路確立:不受舊有路徑束縛,在深化結構中促轉型;不為任何風險所懼,在改革創新中促轉型;不為任何干擾所惑,在擴大開放中促轉型;著力促進人的全面發展,在改善民生中促轉型。

“創新驅動、轉型發展的道路,充滿各種風險挑戰,是上海必鬚麵對的又一個歷史性考驗。”上海市委副書記、市長韓正說,“上海必須做先行者。”

想率先、敢率先、能率先,堅定、清醒、敢於作為。瞄準轉型目標的上海,毅然出發。

中國上海普陀區棚戶區(現在早已不叫貧民窟)居民-中興村(嵐皋西路)居民王爺爺恭賀

在取與舍、轉與變的創新實踐中,

  上海——加快轉型

“從2011年起,上海已進入全面轉型的新階段。”周振華判斷,“一些可喜的跡像已經顯現。”

這是彰顯質量效益和結構優化導向的轉型——

在上海的時尚地標新天地周邊,有一幢叫“企業天地”的辦公樓宇,建築空間不過7萬多平方米,每年創造的稅收高達22億元。如此高含金量的產出,靠什麼?

“靠的是對索尼中國、普華永道等高端服務企業的吸引。”談起現代服務業的集聚,黃浦區區長周偉如數家珍。在黃浦,稅收過億元的樓宇有45幢,稅收過億元的企業有62家。

傳統產業的蛻變更顯出轉型活力。紡織,曾是上海的母親工業,而今變身科技與時尚結合的現代產業。 “80%以上的收入來自設計營銷等現代服務業,製造業中80%以上是高技術含量的產業用紡織品。”上海紡織集團董事長席時平說,“傳統紡織概念早已被創新。”

  效益體現在經濟增速放緩之時。 2011年,上海以佔全國0.07%的土地、1.7%的固定資產投資,貢獻了全國逾7%的財政收入;地方財政收入增長20%,失業率沒上升,城鄉居民家庭收入扣除物價因素後高於經濟增幅。

這是彰顯環境保護和宜居導向的轉型——

“說是’大上海’,其實在國內四大直轄市中面積最小。含崇明島在內,連北京的一半都不到。”上海市社科院常務副院長左學金指出。

正是看到了這種窘迫性,上海在環保方面實行“剛性指標、鐵的紀律”。 “十一五”期間,全市化學需氧量和二氧化硫排放量分別削減27.7%和30.2%,雙雙居全國前列。 2011年,國家對污染物減排指標增至四項,上海自我加壓,再增加控制總磷和揮發性有機物兩項指標。

“今年,上海啟動第五輪環保三年行動計劃,將PM2.5防治列入重要議事日程。”上海市環保局局長張全說,通過加大產業佈局和結構調整力度,上海正由“末端治理”轉向“源頭控制”,來實現環境改善。

這是彰顯民生優先導向的轉型——

今年4月1日起,上海市城鄉居民低保標準分別調整為每人每月570元和430元。這是1993年上海建立低保制度以來,調整金額最多的一次。

同日起,上海的最低工資標準也從1280元調整為1450元。 “從扣除社保後的淨收入角度講,這個水平全國最高。”上海市人社局局長周海洋說。

目前,上海的廉租房已基本實現“應保盡保”,經濟適用房連續3次放寬准入標準,已覆蓋家庭人均收入5000元以下的範圍;公租房試點項目也已啟動,還有800萬平方米的舊區改造加緊推進。

這是彰顯市場化國際化導向的轉型——

圍繞國際金融和航運中心建設,上海的城市功能逐步升級。金融中心建設要素齊聚。 2011年,上海金融市場交易總額逾400萬億元,現代金融市場體係日臻完善。航運中心建設 “軟硬兼施”。不僅集裝箱吞吐量再創3174萬標箱的世界紀錄,軟環境體係也不斷健全:包括期貨保稅交割、保稅船舶登記等一系列與國際接軌的製度措施,已在洋山保稅港區啟動。

今天,大量的“上海製造”在走著調整、轉型之路。它們有一個共同的名字:“兩頭在滬”企業——製造在外地,研發和銷售兩頭在上海。也催生出一個統計上還沒有的2.5產業:介於二產和三產之間,融合製造和服務的產業。

一系列轉型手筆背後,是取與舍、轉與變的創新實踐。

從三類製造業的取捨中,可以一窺上​​海堅持轉型的取向。

能夠產生效益,但受資源、環境約束大的項目,如鋼鐵、石化,增量堅決不做。

暫時沒有效益,但前景很好的項目,堅持去做。像正在建設中的大飛機項目,最快也要到2016年才能投放市場。圍繞這個項目,中國商飛的總部、研發中心和總裝中心相繼落戶浦東,以成為世界級民航產業基地為目標,戰略佈局日漸清晰。

對GDP和稅收拉動效應不大,但體現上海地位、影響力和引領作用,貫徹國家戰略的項目,一定要做。集成電路一直是中國IT產業的軟肋,上海加緊突破。目前,中芯國際的45納米級芯片實現量產,更具挑戰的“芯片母機”也在崛起。中微半導體設備公司已推出用於生產22納米級芯片的下一代刻蝕機。這個領域,以往專屬於極少數的跨國公司。

創新,需要重點領域和關鍵環節的製度突破。今年1月1日起,上海交通運輸業和部分現代服務業開展營改增試點,這一重大稅制改革,正為現代服務經濟注入強勁動力。

創新,更在於政府創造有利於創新的環境。 “政府就是要營造開放、寬容的創新創業環境。”上海市委常委、浦東新區區委書記徐麟說。

在浦東,為小微企業設立的公共服務平台就有41個。在上海張江國家自主創新示範區,針對企業骨幹研發和管理人才的股權激勵試點已啟動,政府為此提供5億元的專項資金。園區“張江人才”評選,不看學歷、資歷,只論人才價值和創新成就。

“如果中國能誕​​生喬布斯式的人物,張江是最可能的地方之一。”上海張江高科技園區管委會常務副主任丁磊自信地說。

在從“經濟中心”向“全球城市”的跨越中,

  上海——再攀新高度

上海,已為轉型之路確定了清晰的目標。

這是4年後的上海圖景——到2015年,城市創新活力大幅提升,服務功能全面增強,信息化水平邁入國際前列,城市文化更加繁榮、更具魅力……

這是8年後上海的高度——按照中央部署,到2020年,上海基本建成與我國經濟實力以及人民幣國際地位相適應的國際金融中心,具有全球航運資源配置能力的國際航運中心。

“將來上海對國家的貢獻,不在於創造多少GDP,而是能否具備全球資源的配置能力。換言之,上海應該從’經濟中心’轉型為’全球城市’。”上海市委常委、副市長屠光紹這樣解讀。

  全球城市,大國夢想。根據哥倫比亞大學教授薩森的定義,“全球城市”就是在經濟、文化、政治等方面具有全球影響力的城市。

邁向“全球城市”,上海有責任。

如果把一國經濟比作一艘遠洋輪的話,“全球城市”就如強勁的引擎。中國經濟這艘巨輪,“吃水量”已是全球第二。上海作為重要發動機,也必須輸出與“中國噸位”相匹配、“全球巡航”所需要的“功率”。

邁向“全球城市”,上海有潛力。

“上海已具備作為’全球城市’崛起的潛在基礎條件。”上海市金融辦主任方星海說。比如,去年上海新認定跨國公司地區總部和研發中心90家,累計達到927家,在金融、航運、貿易等方面形成巨大的經濟流量。而上海所處的長三角地區,已是世界第六大城市群,成為我國參與經濟全球化的重要平台。

  邁向全球城市,上海有底氣。

從浦東開發開放,到建設國際金融、航運中心,再到建設長三角“世界城市群”,中央確定的一系列戰略是上海轉型發展的根本保障。 “中央支持很’給力’,上海轉型有信心。”上海市政府副秘書長、發改委主任周波說。

  但轉型之路絕非坦途。環顧世界,倫敦、紐約等全球城市,漫長的轉型期無不伴隨陣痛:工廠流失,失業增加,甚至一度出現財政危機。

與真正的全球城市相比,尚有差距。以最關鍵的人才為例,目前上海金融人才總量約23萬,其中有國際化經歷的僅佔0.2%,而新加坡為20%。

土地是上海最稀缺的資源,如何在轉型中提高產出率,仍有很大空間。 “差距就是潛力。”上海市委常委、常務副市長楊雄分析說,從建設用地產出率看,上海雖在中國大陸領先,但僅為紐約的1/29、香港的1/14;產出率最高的漕河涇開發區為200億元/平方公里,還不到台灣新竹的一半。

上海的轉型發展,只是開了個頭。 “我們的創新遠遠不夠。”——上海的決策者有著清醒的認識和堅定的決心:推進轉型發展不是在公園裡散步、在沙灘上曬太陽。要痛下決心,把創新驅動真正落到實處,堅定不移地推動科學發展。

“如果上海轉型成功,將改變整個東亞的格局。”2006年,新加坡內閣資政李光耀造訪上海時,留下如此論斷。

滔滔黃浦江,見證著上海之變:開埠前,這裡漁船羅列;開埠後,列強戰船雲集;新中國成立後,穿梭於斯的是大小貨船;今天,國際豪華郵輪正來往游弋……

江水無言,卻分明記載了中國從積貧積弱到繁榮昌盛的滄桑巨變,也必將見證上海在科學發展的征途上不斷跨越的新輝煌。

中國上海棚戶區(不是貧民窟)居民-普陀區西合德里(武寧區域,東新支路區域)居民劉外婆恭喜