让我们一起,再次创建更强大,更好的新美国!

让我们一起,再次创建更强大,更好的新美国!

感谢美国人民,政府,国家给与世界的负责任的慷慨付出…

再建一个美国新时代的时刻…

美国各州州名及首府 中文州名 英文州名 缩写 中文首府名 英文首府名 帮助美利坚合众国创建中国式苏州园林城市可行性合伙方案(合伙出资承诺:预算资金需要:1亿元以上;用于场地租赁费,材料费,人工费,设计费,运费等;功能:休闲,散布,谈情说爱,晒太阳,观赏,游览,聚会等;合伙伙伴押金:500万元)

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亚拉巴马州 Alabama AL 蒙哥马利 Montgomery
阿拉斯加州 Alaska AK 朱诺 Juneau
亚利桑那州 Arizona AZ 菲尼克斯 Phoenix
阿肯色州 Arkansas AR 小石城 Little rock
加利福尼亚州 California CA 萨克拉门托 Sacramento
科罗拉多州 Colorado CO 丹佛 Denver
康涅狄格州 Connecticut CT 哈特福德 Hartford
特拉华州 Delaware DE 多佛 Dover 帮助美利坚合众国创建中国式苏州园林城市可行性合伙方案(合伙出资承诺:预算资金需要:1亿元以上;用于场地租赁费,材料费,人工费,设计费,运费等;功能:休闲,散布,谈情说爱,晒太阳,观赏,游览,聚会等;合伙伙伴押金:500万元)

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佛罗里达州 Florida FL 塔拉哈西 Tallahassee
佐治亚州 Georgia GA 亚特兰大 Atlanta
夏威夷州 Hawaii HI 火奴鲁鲁 Honolulu
爱达荷州 Idaho ID 博伊西 Boise
伊利诺伊州 Illinois IL 斯普林菲尔德 Springfield
印第安纳州 Indiana IN 印第安纳波利斯 Indianapolis
艾奥瓦州 Iowa IA 得梅因 Des Moines 帮助美利坚合众国创建中国式苏州园林城市可行性合伙方案(合伙出资承诺:预算资金需要:1亿元以上;用于场地租赁费,材料费,人工费,设计费,运费等;功能:休闲,散布,谈情说爱,晒太阳,观赏,游览,聚会等;合伙伙伴押金:500万元)

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堪萨斯州 Kansas KS 托皮卡 Topeka
肯塔基州 Kentucky KY 法兰克福 Frankfort
路易斯安那州 Louisiana LA 巴吞鲁日 Baton Rouge
缅因州 Maine ME 奥古斯塔 Augusta
马里兰州 Maryland MD 安纳波利斯 Annapolis
马萨诸塞州 Massachusetts MA 波士顿 Boston
密歇根州 Michigan MI 兰辛 Lansing
明尼苏达州 Minnesota MN 圣保罗 St。 Paul
密西西比州 Mississippi MS 杰克逊 Jackson
密苏里州 Missouri MO 杰斐逊城 Jefferson City 帮助美利坚合众国创建中国式苏州园林城市可行性合伙方案(合伙出资承诺:预算资金需要:1亿元以上;用于场地租赁费,材料费,人工费,设计费,运费等;功能:休闲,散布,谈情说爱,晒太阳,观赏,游览,聚会等;合伙伙伴押金:500万元)

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蒙大拿州 Montana MT 海伦娜 Helena
内布拉斯加州 Nebraska NE 林肯 Lincoln
内华达州 Nevada NV 卡森城 Carson City
新罕布什尔州 New Hampshire NH 康科德 Concord
新泽西州 New Jersey NJ 特伦顿 Trenton
新墨西哥州 New Mexico NM 圣菲 Santa Fe
纽约州 New York NY 奥尔巴尼 Albany
北卡罗来纳州 North Carolina NC 纳罗利 Raleigh 帮助美利坚合众国创建中国式苏州园林城市可行性合伙方案(合伙出资承诺:预算资金需要:1亿元以上;用于场地租赁费,材料费,人工费,设计费,运费等;功能:休闲,散布,谈情说爱,晒太阳,观赏,游览,聚会等;合伙伙伴押金:500万元)

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北达科他州 North Dakota ND 俾斯麦 Bismarck
俄亥俄州 Ohio OH 哥伦布 Columbus
俄克拉何马州 Oklahoma OK 俄克拉何马城 Oklahoma City
俄勒冈州 Oregon OR 塞勒姆 Salem
宾夕法尼亚州 Pennsylvania PA 哈里斯堡 Harrisburg
罗得岛州 Rhode Island RL 普罗维登斯 Providence
南卡罗来纳州 South Carolina SC 哥伦比亚 Columbia
南达科他州 South Dakota SD 皮尔 Pierre
田纳西州 Tennessee TN 纳什维尔 Nashville 帮助美利坚合众国创建中国式苏州园林城市可行性合伙方案(合伙出资承诺:预算资金需要:1亿元以上;用于场地租赁费,材料费,人工费,设计费,运费等;功能:休闲,散布,谈情说爱,晒太阳,观赏,游览,聚会等;合伙伙伴押金:500万元)

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德克萨斯州 Texas TX 奥斯汀 Austin
犹他州 Utah UT 盐湖城 Salt Lake City
佛蒙特州 Vermont VT 蒙彼利埃 Montpelier
弗吉尼亚州 Virginia VA 里士满 Richmond
华盛顿州 Washington WA 奥林匹亚 Olympia
西弗吉尼亚州 West Virginia WV 查尔斯顿 Charleston
威斯康星州 Wisconsin WI 麦迪逊 Madison
怀俄明州 Wyoming WY 夏延 Cheyenne 帮助美利坚合众国创建中国式苏州园林城市可行性合伙方案(合伙出资承诺:预算资金需要:1亿元以上;用于场地租赁费,材料费,人工费,设计费,运费等;功能:休闲,散布,谈情说爱,晒太阳,观赏,游览,聚会等;合伙伙伴押金:500万元)

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联邦领地-波多黎各自由联邦、北马里亚纳。   海外领地   有人居住:美属萨摩亚、关岛、中途岛、约翰斯顿岛、美属维尔京群岛;   无人居住:贝克岛、豪兰岛、贾维斯岛、金曼礁、纳弗沙岛、帕尔米尔岛、威克岛(现仅有美国导弹试验基地)
城市-全美国有大约77%的人口居住于城市地区,其中,有半数以上集中于37座主要的大城市。这些城市形塑了美国的文化、传统和经济。在2004年,全美国共有251个超过十万人的都市,以及9个超过百万人的大都市,包括了许多重要的全球城市,例如,纽约市、洛杉矶和芝加哥。若将市中心外的都会区域算进去的话,美国有50个超过了百万人的大都会。美国是每年世界最佳居住城市评选中,国内城市上榜最多的国家。  
2010年,美国都会区人口排名 都会区排名 中心城市 市名 都会区人口 地区 帮助美利坚合众国创建中国式苏州园林城市可行性合伙方案(合伙出资承诺:预算资金需要:1亿元以上;用于场地租赁费,材料费,人工费,设计费,运费等;功能:休闲,散布,谈情说爱,晒太阳,观赏,游览,聚会等;合伙伙伴押金:500万元)

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纽约市 New York City ; 洛杉矶 Los Angeles; 芝加哥 Chicago;达拉斯 Dallas ;费城 Philadelphia ;休斯敦 Houston;华盛顿 Washington,D。C。;迈阿密 Miami ;亚特兰大 Atlanta;波士顿 Boston 帮助美利坚合众国创建中国式苏州园林城市可行性合伙方案(合伙出资承诺:预算资金需要:1亿元以上;用于场地租赁费,材料费,人工费,设计费,运费等;功能:休闲,散布,谈情说爱,晒太阳,观赏,游览,聚会等;合伙伙伴押金:500万元)

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苏州园林是指中国苏州城内的园林建筑,以私家园林为主,起始于春秋时期的吴国建都姑苏时(公元前514年),形成于五代,成熟于宋代,兴旺于明代,鼎盛于清代。到清末苏州已有各色园林一百七十多处,现保存完整的有六十多处,对外开放的园林有十九处。占地面积不大,但以意境见长,以独具匠心的艺术手法在有限的空间内点缀安排,移步换景,变化无穷。1997年,苏州古典园林作为中国园林的代表被列入《世界遗产名录》。是中华园林文化的翘楚和骄傲。

中文名: 苏州园林
外文名: Suzhou Gardens
园林性质: 以私家园林为主
园林名录: 沧浪亭、狮子林、拙政园、留园等
园林简介
苏州气候
园林文化
世遗殊荣园林典范
遗产登录过程
遗产登录评价
园林名录留园
艺圃
耦园
拙政园
沧浪亭
狮子林
网师园
退思园
环秀山庄
造园手法
生活环境
旅游建议精品线路
旅游贴士
园林简介
苏州气候
园林文化
世遗殊荣 园林典范
遗产登录过程
遗产登录评价
园林名录 留园
艺圃
耦园
拙政园
沧浪亭
狮子林
网师园
退思园
环秀山庄
造园手法
园林简介
  苏州园林(Suzhou Gardens)在一定的地域运用工程技术和艺术手段
苏州园林景观(20张),通过改造地形(或进一步筑山、叠石、理水)、种植树木花草、营造建筑和布置园路等途径创作而成的美的自然环境和游憩境域,就称为园林。   苏州是中国著名的国家级历史文化名城,有“人间天堂,园林之城”的美誉。这里素来以山水秀丽,园林典雅而闻名天下,有“江南园林甲天下,苏州园林甲江南”的美称。苏州古典园林“不出城郭而获山水之怡,身居闹市而有灵泉之致”。1985年,苏州园林即被评为中国十大美景之一,成为与杭州西湖、济南趵突泉齐名的著名景观。   作为举世瞩目的历史文化名城,苏州沉淀了二千五百余年吴文化底韵。约在公元前十一世纪,当地部族自号“勾吴”,苏州称“吴”。公元前514年吴王阖闾建都于此,其规模位置迄今未变,为世界少有。   既有湖光山色、烟波浩淼的气势,又有江南水乡小桥流水的诗韵——素有“江南鱼米之乡”之称的苏州富饶美丽,是中国首批公布的24个历史文化名城之一。苏州自古以来就是江南的经济文化中心,城市格局保持完整,山明水秀,自然景观独具特色,是著名的旅游胜地。闻名遐迩的苏州园林采用缩景的手法,给人以小中见大的艺术效果,为苏州赢得“园林之城”的美誉。   作为苏州古典园林典型例证的拙政园、留园、网师园和环秀山庄,产生于苏州私家园林发展的鼎盛时期,苏州园林的自然美以其意境深远、构筑精致、艺术高雅、文化内涵丰富而成为苏州众多古典园林的典范和代表。苏州以园林见长,让人感叹园艺的巧夺天工与自然精致。以拙政园,留园,网师园,环秀山庄为代表的古典园林于1997年12月被列入“世界文化与自然遗产名录”( 2000年增补沧浪亭)。   狮子林,耦园,艺圃,退思园为世界文化遗产。其中沧浪亭、狮子林、拙政园和留园分别代表着宋(公元960~1276年)、元(公元1271~1368年)、明(公元1368~1644年)
苏州园林环境(19张)、清(公元1644~1911年)四个朝代的艺术风格,被称为苏州“四大名园”。   苏州主要园林列表:   私家园林:沧浪亭、狮子林、拙政园、留园、网师园、艺圃、环秀山庄、耦园   佛教园林:报恩寺(北寺塔)、西园、寒山寺、双塔、瑞光塔   王家园林:虎丘(吴王阖闾墓)、灵岩山(吴王行宫)
编辑本段苏州气候
  苏州地处温带,四季分明,气候温和,雨量充沛。属北亚热带湿润季风气候,年均降水量1100毫米,年均温15.5℃,1月均温2.5℃。7月均温28℃。   全市地势低平,平原占总面积的55%,水网密布,土地肥沃,物产丰富,雨量充沛,平野稻香,碧波鱼跃,农副物产十分丰富,人们传诵的“近炊香稻识红莲”、“桃花流水鳜鱼肥”、“夜市买菱藉,春船载绮罗”的诗句,就是历代诗人对苏州物产富足的赞美和讴歌。 苏州园林
主要种植水稻、麦子、油菜,出产   棉花、蚕桑、林果,特产有碧螺春茶叶、长江刀鱼、太湖银鱼、阳澄湖大闸蟹等。苏州是闻名遐迩的“鱼米之乡”、“丝绸之府”,素有“人间天堂”之美誉。 地形 苏州市隶属于两个省一级的自然地理区:沿江三角洲平原地区和太湖平原地区,分属于4个二级自然区:沿江平原沙洲区、苏锡平原区、太湖及湖滨丘陵区、阳澄淀泖低地区。地貌特征以平缓平原为上,全市的地势低平,自西向东缓慢倾斜,平原的海拔高度3~4米,阳澄湖和吴江一带仅2米左右。
园林文化
  苏州古典园林的历史可上溯至公元前6世纪春秋时吴王的园囿,私家园林最早见于记载的是东晋(4世纪)的辟疆园,历代造园兴盛,名园日多。明清时期,苏州成为中国最繁华的地区,私家园林遍布古城内外。16~18世纪全盛时期,苏州有园林200余处,现在保存尚好的有数十处,并因此使苏州素有”人间天堂”的美誉。   作为苏州古典园林典型例证的拙政园、留园、网师园和环秀山庄,产生于苏州私家园林发展的鼎盛时期,以其意境深远、构筑精致、艺术高雅、文化内涵丰富而成为苏州众多古典园林的典范和代表。   写意的山水艺术思想   中国的造园艺术与中国的文学和绘画艺术具有深远的历史渊源,特别受到唐宋文人写意山水画的影响,是文人写意山水模拟的典范。中国园林在其发展过程中,形成了包括皇家园林和私家园林在内的两大系列,前者集中在北京一带,后者则以苏州为代表。由于政治、经济、文化地位和自然、地理条件的差异,两者在规模、布局、体量、风格、色彩等方面有明显差别,皇家园林以宏大、严整、堂皇、浓丽称胜,而苏州园林则以小巧、自由、精致、淡雅、写意见长。由于后者更注意文化和艺术的和谐统一,因而发展到晚期的皇家园林,在意境、创作思想、建筑技巧、人文内容上,也大量地汲取了私家花园的“写意”手法。   完美的居住条件与生活环境   苏州古典园林宅园合一,可赏,可游,可居,这种建筑形态的形成,是在人口密集和缺乏自然风光的城市中,人类依恋自然,追求与自然和谐相处,美化和完善自身居住环境的一种创造。拙政园、留园、网师园、环秀山庄这四座古典园林,建筑类型齐全,保存完整,系统而全面地展示了苏州古典园林建筑的布局、结构、造型、风格、色彩以及装修、家具、陈设等各个方面内容,是明清时期(14~20世纪初)江南民间建筑的代表作品,反映了这一时期中国江南地区高度的居住文明,曾影响到整个江南城市的建筑格调,带动民间建筑的设计、构思、布局、审美以及施工技术向其靠拢,体现了当时城市建设科学技术水平和艺术成就。   丰富的社会文化内涵   苏州园林的重要特色之一,在于它不仅是历史文化的产物,同时也是 苏州园林
中国传统思想文化的载体。表现在园林厅堂的命名、匾额、楹联、书条石、雕刻、装饰,以及花木寓意、叠石寄情等,不仅是点缀园林的精美艺术品,同时储存了大量的历史、文化、思想和科学信息,其物质内容和精神内容都极其深广。其中有反映和传播儒、释、道等各家哲学观念、思想流派的;有宣扬人生哲理,陶冶高尚情操的;还有借助古典诗词文学,对园景进行点缀、生发、渲染,使人于栖息游赏中,化景物为情思,产生意境美,获得精神满足。而园中汇集保存完好的中国历代书法名家手迹,又是珍贵的艺术品,具有极高的文物价值。另外,苏州古典园林作为宅园合一的第宅园林,其建筑规制又反映了中国古代江南民间起居休亲的生活方式和礼仪习俗,是了解和研究古代中国江南民俗的实物资料。[1]   苏州古典园林,一向被称为“文人园林”。白居易在《草堂记》中说:“覆篑土为台,聚拳石为山,环斗水为池”,这是文人园林的范式。苏州园林充分体现了“自然美”的主旨,在设计构筑中,采用因地制宜,借景、对景、分景、隔景等种种手法来组织空间,造成园林中曲折多变、小中见大、虚实相间的景观艺术效果。通过叠山理水,栽植花木,配置园林建筑,形成充满诗情画意的文人写意山水园林,在都市内创造出人与自然和谐相处的“城市山林”。   苏州园林吸收了江南园林建筑艺术的精华,是中国优秀的文化遗产
苏州园林建筑(16张),理所当然被联合国列为人类与自然文化遗产。苏州园林善于把有限空间巧妙地组成变幻多端的景致,结构上以小巧玲珑取胜。网师园、狮子林、拙政园、留园统称“苏州四大名园”,素有“江南园林甲天下,苏州园林甲江南”之誉。苏州园林代表了中国私家园林的风格和艺术水平,是不可多得的旅游圣地。   苏州园林是时间的艺术、历史的艺术。园林中大量的匾额、楹联、书画、雕刻、碑石、家具陈设、各式摆件等等,无一不是点缀园林的精美艺术品,无不蕴含着中国古代哲理观念、文化意识和审美情趣。   “雨惊诗梦来蕉叶”,这是对苏州园林生动的写照;“风载书声出藕花”,这是对园林意境最好的描摩。一面面古典之窗,一道道岁月之门,引领着我们走进“苏州园林”。
世遗殊荣
园林典范
拙政园
  (英文名称:The Classical Gardens of Suzhou)   世界遗产委员会这样评价苏州古典园林:没有哪些园林比历史名城苏州的园林更能体现出中国古典园林设计的理想品质 ,咫尺之内再造乾坤。苏州园林被公认是实现这一设计思想的典范。这些建造于11~19世纪的园林,以其精雕细琢的设计,折射出中国文化中取法自然而又超越自然的深邃意境。苏州园林中的拙政园、留园、网师园和环秀山庄,于1997年根据文化遗产遴选标准C(Ⅰ)(Ⅱ)(Ⅲ)(Ⅳ)(Ⅴ)列入《世界遗产名录》,2000年沧浪亭、狮子林、艺圃、耦园、退思园作为苏州古典园林的扩展项目被批准列入《世界遗产名录》。
遗产登录过程
  1997年,拙政园、留园、网师园和环秀山庄作为苏州古典园林的代表被列为世界文化遗产。   2000年,沧浪亭、狮子林、耦园、艺圃和退思园作为苏州古典园林的扩展项目也被列为世界文化遗产。
遗产登录评价
  因为满足世界文化遗产下列评定标准而登录: 苏州园林
  (1)代表一种独特的艺术成就,一种创造性的天才杰作;   (2)能在一定时期内或世界某一文化区域内,对建筑艺术、纪念物艺术、城镇规划或景观设计方面的发展产生过大影响;   (3)能为一种已消逝的文明或文化传统提供一种独特的至少是特殊的见证;   (4) 人类历史发展中某—建筑风格的杰出范例;   (5)可作为传统的人类居住地或使用地的杰出范例,代表一种(或几种)文化,尤其在不可逆转之变化的影响下变得易于损坏。
园林名录
留园
  留园为中国四大名园之一。留园坐落在苏州市阊门外,始建于
明代。清代时称“寒碧山庄”,俗称“刘园”,后改为“留园”。留园占地约50亩,中部以山水为主,是全园的精华所在。主要建筑有涵碧山房、明瑟楼、远翠阁曲溪楼、清风池馆等处。留园内建筑的数量在苏州诸园中居冠, 其在空间上的突出处理,充分体现了古代造园家的高超技艺和卓越智慧。以建筑空间处理得当而居苏州园林之冠。留园全园分为四个部分,在一个园林中能领略到山水、田园、山林、庭园四种不同景色:中部以水景见长,是全园的精华所在;东部以曲院回廊的建筑取胜,园的东部有著名的佳晴喜雨快雪之厅、林泉耆硕之馆、还我读书处、冠云台、冠云楼等十数处斋、轩,院内池后立有三座石峰,居中者为名石冠云峰,两旁为瑞云,岫云两峰;北部具农村风光,并有新辟盆景园;西区则是全园最高处,有野趣,以假山为奇,土石相间,堆砌自然。池南涵碧山房与明瑟楼为留园的主要观景建筑。留园内的建筑景观还有表现淡泊处世之坦然的“小桃源(小蓬莱)”以及远翠阁、曲溪楼、清风池馆等。
艺圃
  艺圃是一座建于明代的名园。最初为明代学宪袁祖庚所建,初名“醉颖堂” 苏州艺圃
,后归文征明的曾孙、明末礼部左侍郎兼东阁大学士(相当于副宰相)文震孟,改名“药圃”。明亡后,在清初为明崇祯进士姜埰(号敬亭)所有,改称“敬亭山房”,后其子姜实节更名“艺圃”。至道光年间为绸缎业七襄公所所在地。   艺圃为一颇具明代艺术特色的小型园林,全园布局简练开朗,风格自然质朴,无繁琐堆砌娇捏做作之感,其艺术价值远胜于晚清之园林作品。从山水布局,亭台开间到一石一木的细部处理无不透析出古朴典雅的风格特征,以凝练的手法,勾勒出造园的基本理念。艺圃始建于明,名药圃,清初改为艺圃。
耦园
  位于江苏省苏州市内小新港巷,因有东、西二园,故名。东园始建于清初 耦园
,原名涉园,后扩建而成目前局面。住宅大门在南,经门厅、轿厅,至大厅前西墙小门,即可进入西园。园中主厅为织帘老屋,南北各有庭院,都置假山。北院东北隅有藏书楼,与住宅相通,是书室与庭院结合较好的范例。自住宅大厅往东,经小院二重和小客厅,即达东园。东园面积较西园约大一倍,西北置石假山,东南为水池。北端主厅城曲草堂,为一重檐楼屋,下有主厅三间,上为重楼复道,与住宅毗连,为苏州园林的罕例。堂前的黄石假山堆叠手艺高超。分为东西两部:东部较大,有石级可登临池石壁,气势峭伟;西部较小,逐渐下降,两山间为“邃谷”,
拙政园
拙政园
  拙政园与北京颐和园、承德避暑山庄、苏州留园并称为我国四大古典名园,被誉为”中国园林之母”.现为全国重点文物保护单位。拙政园位于苏州娄门内,是苏州最大的一处园林,也是苏州园林的代表作。始建于明正德年间。拙政园分为东园、中园、西园三部分。东园山池相间,点缀有秫香馆、兰雪堂等建筑。西部水面迂回,布局紧凑,依山傍水建以亭阁,其主体建筑鸳鸯厅是当时园主人宴请宾客和听曲的场所,厅内陈设考究。园中“与谁同坐轩”乃为扇亭,扇面两侧实墙上开着两个扇形空窗,一个对着倒影楼,另一个对着“鸳鸯厅”,而后面面山的那一窗中又正好映着入山的笠亭,而笠亭的顶盖又恰好配成一个完整的扇子。 中园是拙政园的精华部分,其总体布局以水池为中心,亭台楼榭借依水而建,具有江南水乡的特色。主体建筑远香堂位于水池南岸,隔池与主景东西两山岛相望。山岛上各建一亭,西为雪香云蔚亭,东为待霜亭,四季景色因时而异。拙政园中园的布局以荷花池为中心,远香堂为主体建筑,池中两岛为其主景,其他建筑大都临水并面向远香堂,从建筑名称来看,大都与荷花有关。王献臣之所以要如此大力宣扬荷花,主要是为了表达他孤高不群的清高品格。[2]   西部原为“补园”,面积约12.5亩,其水面迂回,布局紧凑,依山傍水建以亭阁。因被大加改建,所以乾隆后形成的工巧、造作的艺术的风格占了上风,但水石部分同中部景区仍较接近,而起伏、曲折、凌波而过的水廊、溪涧则是苏州园林造园艺术的佳作。
沧浪亭
  沧浪亭位于苏州城南,是苏州最古老的一所园林,始建于北宋庆 沧浪亭
历年间(公元1041~1048年),南宋初年(公元12世纪初)曾为名将韩世忠的住宅。沧浪亭造园艺术与众不同,未进园门便设一池绿水绕于园外。园内以山石为主景,迎面一座土山,沧浪石亭便坐落其上。山下凿有水池,山水之间以一条曲折的复廊相连。假山东南部的明道堂是园林的主建筑,此外还有五百名贤祠、看山楼、翠玲珑馆、仰止亭和御碑亭等建筑与之衬映。   全园布局,自然和谐,堪称构思巧妙、手法得宜的佳作。与狮子林、拙政园、留园列为苏州宋、元、明、清四大园林。   此园数易其主,历经沧桑,但多是建物的倾毁修复,而园中假山,园外池水,大多保持旧观。
狮子林
苏州狮子林小品
  狮子林为苏州四大名园之一,至今已有六百多年的历史。位于苏州城内东北部,始建于元至正二年(公元1342年)。因园内石峰林立,多状似狮子,故名“狮子林”。狮子林平面呈长方形,面积约15亩,林内的湖石假山多且精美,建筑分布错落有致,主要建筑有燕誉堂、见山楼、飞瀑亭、问梅阁等。狮子林主题明确,景深丰富,个性分明,假山洞壑匠心独具,一草一木别有风韵。   园内建筑以燕誉堂为主,堂后为小方厅,有立雪堂。向西可到指柏轩, 狮子林秋景
为二层阁楼,四周有庑,高爽玲珑。指柏轩之西是古五松园。西南角为见山楼。由见山楼往西,可到荷花厅。厅西北傍池建真趣亭,亭内藻饰精美,人物花卉栩栩如生。亭旁有两层石舫。石舫备岸为暗香疏影楼,由此循走廊转弯向南可达飞瀑亭,是为全园最高处。园西景物中心是问梅阁,阁前为双仙香馆。双香仙馆南行折东,西南角有扇子亭,亭后辟有小院,清新雅致。
网师园
  网师园位于苏州城东南部。始建于南宋时期(公元1127~1279年),当时称为“渔隐”。清代乾隆年 网师园
间(公元1736~1796年)重建,取“渔隐”旧意,改名为“网狮园”。网狮园占地约半公顷,是苏州园林中最小的一座。园内主要建筑有丛桂轩、濯缨水阁、看松读画轩、殿春簃等。网师园的亭台楼榭无不临水,全园处处有水可依,各种建筑配合得当,布局紧凑,以精巧见长,具有典型的明代风格。   网师园旧为宋代藏书家、官至侍郎的扬州文人史正志的“万卷堂”故址,至清乾隆年间,退休的光禄寺少卿宋宗元购之并重建,定园名为“网师园”。网师乃渔夫、渔翁之意,又与“渔隐”同意,含有隐居江湖的意思,网师园便意谓“渔父钓叟之园”,此名既借旧时“渔隐”之意,且与巷名“王四(一说王思,即今阔街头巷)”谐音。园内的山水布置和景点题名蕴含着浓郁的隐逸气息。
退思园位于江苏吴江同里镇东溪街,为古镇的主要风景点,由清任兰先罢官归乡所建,含“退则思过”之意,故名退思园。退思园总面积为九亩八分。此园一改以往园林的纵向结构,而变为横向建造,左为宅,中为庭,右为园。   全园格局紧凑自然,结合植物点缀,呈现出四时景色,给人以清朗、幽静之感。退思园简朴淡雅,水面过半,建筑皆紧贴水面,园如浮于水上,是全国唯一的贴水园建筑。   退思园住宅分内外两部分。外宅三进——轿厅(门厅)、茶厅、正厅,沿轴线布置,等级分明。外宅主要用于会客、婚嫁盛事、祭祖典礼。内宅建有南北两幢五楼五底的跑马楼,名曰“畹香楼”,楼间由双重廊贯通。廊下设梯,既遮风雨,又主仆分开。内、外宅可分可合,布局紧凑。
环秀山庄
  环秀山庄位于苏州城中景德路262号,今苏州刺绣博物馆内。此园本是 环秀山庄
五代吴越钱氏金谷园旧址,明、清时期成为私家园林。现占地面积2179平方米,其中建筑面积754平方米。园景以山为主,池水辅之,建筑不多。园虽小,却极有气势。   该园园内湖石假山为中国之最,为叠石名家戈裕良所作。占地仅半亩,而峭壁、峰峦、洞壑、涧谷、平台、磴道等山中之物,应有尽有,极富变化。池东主山,池北次山,气势连绵,浑成一片,恰似山脉贯通,突然断为悬崖。   而于磴道与涧流相会处,仰望是一线青天,俯瞰有几曲清流;壮哉美哉,恰如置身于万山之中,全山处理细致,贴近自然,一石一缝,交代妥贴,可远观亦可近赏,无怪有“别开生面、独步江南”之誉。
造园手法
  游苏州园林,最大的看点便是借景与对景在中式园林设计中的应用。中国园林讲究“步移景异”,对景物的安排和观赏的位置都有很巧妙的设计,这是区别与西方园林的最主要特征。中国园林试图在有限的内部空间里完美地再现外部世界的空间和结构。园内庭台楼榭,游廊小径蜿蜒其间,内外空间相互渗透,得以流畅、流通、流动。透过格子窗,广阔的自然风光被浓缩成微型景观。题词铭记无处不在,为园林平添了浓郁的人文气息。涓涓清流脚下而过,倒映出园中的景物,虚实交错,把观赏者从可触摸的真实世界带入无限的梦幻空间。就技法来说,借景或把园外的美景,通过精心选择和剪裁,收纳到园林中来,这称为远借;或用一处景致映衬另一处景致,这称为互借,等等。这样不仅使得面积有限的苏州园林能够提供更丰富的景观,更深远的层次,而且还极大地扩展了欣赏者的空间感受。在拙政园“倚虹亭”中能看到园外的北寺塔;沧浪亭的花窗中,能欣赏到屋外的竹林,这都是常用的借景手法。可在叶圣陶先生的<拙政诸园寄深眷——谈苏州园林>(8上语文教科书21课)一文中,领略园林的魅力。   中国的造园艺术与中国的文学和绘画艺术具有深远的历史渊源,特别受到唐宋文人写意山水画的影响,是文人写意山水模拟的典范。中国园林在其发展过程中,形成了包括皇家园林和私家园林在内的两大系列,前者集中在北京一带,后者则以苏州为代表。由于政治、经济、文化地位和自然、地理条件的差异,两者在规模、布局、体量、风格、色彩等方面有明显差别,皇家园林以宏大、严整、堂皇、浓丽称胜,而苏州园林则以小巧、自由、精致、淡雅、写意见长。由于后者更注意文化和艺术的和谐统一,因而发展到晚期的皇家园林,在意境、创作思想、建筑技巧、人文内容上,也大量地汲取了私家花园的“写意”手法。
生活环境
  苏州古典园林宅园合一,可赏,可游,可居,这种建筑形态的形成,是在人口密集和缺乏自然风光的城市中,人类依恋自然,追求与自然和谐相处,美化和完善自身居住环境的一种创造。拙政园、留园、网师园、环秀山庄这四座古典园林,建筑类型齐全,保存完整,系统而全面地展示了苏州古典园林建筑的布局、结构、造型、风格、色彩以及装修、家具、陈设等各个方面内容,是明清时期(14~20世纪初)江南民间建筑的代表作品,反映了这一时期中国江南地区高度的居住文明,曾影响到整个江南城市的建筑格调,带动民间建筑的设计、构思、布局、审美以及施工技术向其靠拢,体现了当时城市建设科学技术水平和艺术成就。是伟大的历史建筑物!   苏州古典园林的重要特色之一,是它不仅是历史文化的产物,同时也是中国传统思想文化的载体。表现在园林厅堂的命名、匾额、楹取、书条石、雕刻、装饰,以及花木寓意、叠石寄情等,不仅是点缀园林的精美艺术品,同时储存了大量的历史、文化、思想和科学信息、物质内容和精神内容都极其深广。其中有反映和传播儒、释、道等各家哲学观念、思想流派的;有宣扬人生哲理,陶冶高尚情操的;还有借助古典诗词文学,对园景进行点缀、生发、渲染,使人于栖息游赏中,化景物为情思,产生意境美,获得精神满足的。而园中汇集保存完好的中国历代书法名家手迹,又是珍贵的艺术品,具有极高的文物价值。另外,苏州古典园林作为宅园合一的第宅园林,其建筑规制又反映了中国古代江南民间起居休亲的生活方式和礼仪习俗,是了解和研究古代中国江南民俗的实物资料。
旅游建议
精品线路
  (苏州园林一日游)早上6:40杭州旅游集散(黄龙)中心出发,经浙江展览馆散客拼团后乘旅游班车至苏州,跟随当地导游游览狮子林30元、盘门景区48元,中餐后游览藕园35元、姑苏水上游45元、寒山寺20元、虎丘(自理)60元,观看江南丝竹表演、紫砂陶艺制作,结束愉快苏州之旅,晚上乘车返回杭州。

《让我们一起,再次创建更强大,更好的新美国!》有2个想法

  1. Let us together again to create a stronger, better New American

    Thank the American people, government, the State is responsible to give the world the generous pay …

    To build a new era of time …

    Capital of the U.S. state state name and capital of the Chinese state name, the English state abbreviation Chinese English capital of the help the United States of America to create a Chinese-style gardens in Suzhou city of the feasibility of a partnership program (partnership capital contribution commitments: budget funding needs: more than 100 million yuan; for space rental costs, materials costs, labor costs, design fees, freight, etc.; functions: leisure, distribute, romance, the sun, watching, tours, meetings, etc.; partners Deposit: 5 million yuan)

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    Alabama State of Alabama AL Montgomery Montgomery
    Alaska of Alaska AK Juneau Juneau
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    Arkansas, Arkansas AR Little Rock, Little, rock
    California CA Sacramento, Sacramento, California
    Colorado, the Colorado CO Denver Denver
    State, Connecticut CT Hartford, Hartford, Connecticut
    Delaware DE Dover Dover, Delaware to help the United States of America to create a Chinese-style gardens in Suzhou city of the feasibility of a partnership program (musharaka commitment: budget funding needs: more than 100 million yuan; for space rental fees, material costs, labor costs, design costs and transportation; functions: leisure, distribute, romance, the sun, watching, tours, meetings, etc.; partners Deposit: 5 million yuan)

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    Florida State of Florida, FL Tallahassee Tallahassee
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    Idaho Idaho, ID Boise, Boise
    State of Illinois, Illinois IL Springfield Springfield
    Indiana, Indiana IN Indianapolis Indianapolis
    Iowa State, Iowa IA have to plum for Des Moines to help the United States of America to create a Chinese-style gardens in Suzhou city of the feasibility of a partnership program (partnership capital contribution commitments: budget funding needs: more than 100 million yuan; for the space rental costs, materials costs, labor costs, design fees, and transportation; functions: leisure, distribute, romance, sun, watching, tours, meetings, etc.; partners Deposit: 5 million yuan)

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    Kansas, Kansas KS Topeka Topeka
    Kentucky KY Frankfort Frankfort, Kentucky
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    Maine of Maine ME Augusta Augusta
    Maryland Maryland, MD Annapolis Annapolis
    Massachusetts of MA Boston Boston, Massachusetts
    Michigan the Michigan MI Lansing Lansing
    Minnesota State of Minnesota MN Sao Paulo, St. Paul
    Mississippi of Mississippi MS Jackson Jackson
    Of Missouri Jefferson City, MO Jefferson City, Missouri to help the United States of America to create a Chinese-style gardens in Suzhou city of the feasibility of a partnership program (partnership capital contribution commitments: Budget funds: more than 100 million yuan; for venue rental fees, material costs, labor costs, design fees, and transportation; functions: leisure, distribute, romance, the sun, watching, tours, meetings, etc.; partners Deposit: 5 million yuan)

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    Montana, Montana, MT Helena Helena
    Nebraska of Nebraska NE Lincoln
    Nevada State of Nevada NV Carson City Carson City
    New Hampshire, New Hampshire NH Concord Concord
    New Jersey, New Jersey NJ Trenton Trenton
    Santa Fe, NM Santa Fe, New Mexico, the New Mexico
    New York State New York NY Albany Albany
    North Carolina, North Carolina NC the Na Luoli Raleigh to help the United States of America to create a Chinese-style gardens in Suzhou city of the feasibility of a partnership program (partnership capital contribution commitment: Budget funds: more than 100 million yuan; used for space rental costs, materials costs, labor costs, design charges, freight, etc.; functions: leisure, distribute, romance, the sun, watching, tours, meetings, etc.; partners Deposit: 5 million yuan)

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    North Dakota, North Dakota ND Bismarck Bismarck
    Ohio, Ohio, OH Columbus Columbus
    Oklahoma State of the Oklahoma OK Oklahoma City Oklahoma City
    Oregon OR, Salem, Salem, Oregon
    Harrisburg Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania PA
    State of Rhode Island, Providence, Rhode Island RL Providence
    South Carolina, South Carolina SC Columbia Columbia
    Pierre Pierre, South Dakota, South Dakota, SD
    Tennessee, the Tennessee TN Nashville Nashville to help the United States of America to create a Chinese-style gardens in Suzhou city of the feasibility of a partnership program (musharaka commitment: budget funding needs: more than 100 million yuan; for venue rental fees, material costs, labor costs, design fees, and transportation; functions: leisure, distribute, romance, the sun, watching, tours, meetings, etc.; partners Deposit: 5 million yuan)

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    Texas TX Austin, Austin, Texas
    UT Salt Lake City Salt Lake City, Utah, the Utah
    Vermont, the Vermont VT Montpelier Montpelier
    Virginia State of Virginia, VA Richmond Richmond
    Washington WA Olympia, Olympia, Washington State
    Charleston Charleston, West Virginia, West Virginia, the WV
    Of Wisconsin WI Madison, Madison, Wisconsin
    Of Wyoming WY Cheyenne, Cheyenne, Wyoming to create a Chinese-style gardens in Suzhou city of the feasibility of a partnership program to help the United States of America (partnership capital contribution commitments: budget funding needs: more than 100 million yuan; for space rental fees, material costs, labor costs, design costs, freight ; function: leisure, distribute, romance, the sun, watching, tours, meetings, etc.; partners Deposit: 5 million yuan)

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    Federal Territory – Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana. Overseas territories inhabited: the United States is Samoa, Guam, Midway Island, Johnston Island, the U.S. Virgin the Virgin Islands; uninhabited: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Kingman Reef, Navassa Island Pall Mill Island, Wake Island (now only a U.S. missile test base)
    The city – across the United States about 77 percent of the population living in urban areas, where more than half concentrated in 37 major metropolitan areas. These cities has shaped American culture, traditions and economy. In 2004, a total of 251 across the United States more than 100,000 people of the city, and nine more than one million people metropolis, including a number of important global cities such as New York City, Los Angeles and Chicago. If the center of the metropolitan area stats, U.S. 50 more than a million people metropolis. The United States is a country in the selection of each year the world’s best cities to live, most domestic cities on the list.
    In 2010, U.S. metropolitan area population ranking metropolitan area ranking central city City metropolitan area population areas to help the United States of America to create a Chinese-style gardens in Suzhou city of the feasibility of a partnership program (partnership capital contribution commitments: budget funding needs: more than 100 million yuan; for space rental costs, materials costs, labor costs, design fees, freight, etc.; functions: leisure, distribute, romance, the sun, watching, tours, meetings, etc.; partners Deposit: 5 million yuan)

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    New York City New York City;; Chicago, Chicago; Dallas in Dallas; Philadelphia, Philadelphia; Houston, Houston, Los Angeles; Washington Washington, D. C. ; Miami, Miami; Atlanta; Boston, Boston help the United States of America to create a Chinese-style gardens in Suzhou city of the feasibility of a partnership program (musharaka commitment: budget funding needs: more than 100 million yuan; for space rental fees, material costs, labor costs, design costs and transportation; functions: leisure, distribute, romance, the sun, watching, tours, meetings, etc.; partners Deposit: 5 million yuan)

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    Suzhou gardens, the landscape architecture of the city of Suzhou, China, mainly private gardens began in the Spring and Autumn Period, Wu capital of Suzhou (514 BC), formed in the Five Dynasties and mature in the Song Dynasty, prosperous in the Ming Dynasty, flourishing in the clear generation. To the beginning of 70 100 multiple has been colored garden in Suzhou, now preserved 60 multiple nineteen gardens opening to the outside world. Covers an area of ​​small, but the mood known for distinctive artistic practices in the limited space within the dotted arrangements, the venue for King, endless variations. In 1997, the classical gardens of Suzhou as the representatives of the Chinese gardens are included in the World Heritage List. Is the leader of the Chinese garden culture and pride.

    Chinese Name: Suzhou gardens
    Foreign Name: Suzhou Gardens
    A garden of nature: mainly in private gardens
    Garden directory: Surging Wave Pavilion, Lion Grove, Humble Administrator’s Garden, Lingering Garden, etc.
    Garden Profile
    Suzhou climate
    Garden Culture
    World Heritage-winning garden a model for
    Heritage Site process
    Heritage Site evaluation
    The gardens List Lingering Garden
    Arts and garden
    Decoupling Park
    Humble Administrator’s Garden
    Canglang
    Lion Grove
    Nets Garden
    Retreat Park
    Mountain Villa
    Gardening
    Environment
    Travel advisory boutique lines
    Travel Tips
    Garden Profile
    Suzhou climate
    Garden Culture
    World Heritage-winning garden a model for
    Heritage Site process
    Heritage Site evaluation
    The gardens List Lingering Garden
    Arts and garden
    Decoupling Park
    Humble Administrator’s Garden
    Canglang
    Lion Grove
    Nets Garden
    Retreat Park
    Mountain Villa
    Gardening
    Garden Profile
    The gardens of Suzhou, Suzhou Gardens, the use of engineering techniques and artistic methods in a certain geographical
    Suzhou Landscape (20), through the transformation of the terrain (or further build Hill, Stones, and control of water), planting trees and flowers, to create a way to creation of construction and layout of Park Road from the territorial boundaries of the natural environment and recreation, said for the garden. Suzhou is a famous national historical and cultural city in China, the reputation of “paradise on earth, the garden city”. The landscape here has always been beautiful, elegant gardens and the world famous Jiangnan garden heaven gardens in Suzhou Jiangnan A “reputation. The classical gardens of Suzhou “Within the city walls were the hills and Yi, a bustling city and addressed to the” Lingquan of. In 1985, the Suzhou gardens is rated as one of China’s top ten beauty, the famous West Lake in Hangzhou, Jinan Baotu famous landscape. As a remarkable historical and cultural city, Suzhou precipitation rhyme the end of the Wu culture of 2,500 years. About the eleventh century BC, the local tribes since the number of “hook Wu, Suzhou, known as” Miss “. The Helv king in 514 BC capital in this, its scale position has not changed so far, is rare in the world. Both lakes and mountains, the vastness of the momentum, but also the south of Yangtze River bridges Swank – known as Suzhou Jiangnan land of plenty, “said a rich and beautiful, is one of the first published 24 historical and cultural city. Since ancient times, Suzhou is the economic and cultural center of southern, urban patterns remain intact, picturesque, unique natural landscape, is a famous tourist destination. The famous gardens in Suzhou King-reduction techniques, see the art effects to give a small Suzhou to win the reputation of the “garden city”. As a typical example of the classical gardens of Suzhou Humble Administrator’s Garden, Lingering Garden, the Nets Garden and the Mountain Villa, resulting in the heyday of the development of private gardens in Suzhou, Suzhou garden the natural beauty of its artistic conception, to build a sophisticated, elegant art, cultural connotations The rich become role models and representatives of a number of classical gardens in Suzhou. Suzhou gardens known, people lamented the gardening and intricate natural fine. To the Humble Administrator’s Garden, Lingering Garden, Master of the Nets Garden, Mountain Villa, represented by the classical gardens in December 1997 was included in the “World Cultural and Natural Heritage List” (2000 additions Canglang). Lion Grove Garden decoupling, skill garden retreat Park World Heritage Site. Which Surging Wave Pavilion, Lion Grove, Humble Administrator’s Garden and Lingering Garden on behalf of the Song Dynasty (AD 960 to 1276), Yuan (1271 ~ 1368), Ming (1368 ~ 1644)
    Suzhou garden environment (19) and Qing (1644 to 1911), the artistic style of the four dynasties, known as the Suzhou “the four famous gardens. Suzhou garden list: private garden: Surging Wave Pavilion, Lion Grove, Humble Administrator’s Garden, Lingering Garden, Master of the Nets Garden art garden, Mountain Villa, coupled Park Buddhist garden: Porcelain (North Temple), West Park, Cold Mountain Temple twin towers, the Ruiguang Tower Royal Gardens: Tiger Hill (the tomb of king lu), Yeongam Hill (palace of king)
    Edit this paragraph Suzhou climate
    Suzhou is located in the temperate zone with four distinct seasons, mild climate, abundant rainfall. Northern subtropical humid monsoon climate, average annual rainfall of 1100 mm, the average annual temperature of 15.5 ° C average temperature 2.5 ° C in January. July average temperature 28 ℃. City’s low and flat plains of the total area of ​​55 percent, over the water network, fertile land, rich resources and abundant rainfall, the Hirano Daoxiang, blue water diving, agricultural and sideline the property is very rich, the people passed down through the “Over the last straw of Aromatic know red Lotus “,” peach water mandarin fish fertilizer, “market buy Mitsubishi by spring shipboard Qiluo verse poets praise and eulogize the property wealth of Suzhou. Suzhou gardens
    The main planting rice, wheat, canola, produced cotton, sericulture, horticulture, specialty Biluochun tea, saury Yangtze River, Taihu whitebait, Yangcheng Lake hairy crabs. Suzhou is famous “land of plenty”, and “silk”, is known as “paradise” reputation. Terrain part of Suzhou City, the two provinces, a natural geographical area: the delta plain along the Yangtze River and Taihu plain areas, which belong to four two natural areas: plains along the sandbar area, Su Xiping the original district, Taihu Lake, and Lakeside hilly region, Yang Cheng precipitate in Mao low areas. Geomorphological features to the flat plains, the flat terrain of the city from west to east glacis plains altitude of 3 to 4 meters, the Yangcheng Lake and Wujiang area is only about 2 meters.
    Garden Culture
    The history of the classical gardens of Suzhou can be traced back to the garden of the king when the Spring and Autumn to the 6th century BC, private garden was first seen in the records the Pijiang Garden of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (4th century), Chronicles made garden flourished, Garden. Ming and Qing Dynasties, Suzhou has become China’s most prosperous areas, private gardens throughout the city inside and outside. 16th to 18th century heyday, Suzhou gardens are more than 200 preservation is still good, and now there are dozens and, therefore, Suzhou is known as the “paradise” in the world. Heyday as a typical example of classical gardens of Suzhou’s Humble Administrator’s Garden, Lingering Garden, Master of the Nets Garden and the Mountain Villa, resulting in the development of private gardens in Suzhou, with its artistic conception, to build a sophisticated, artistic and elegant, rich cultural connotation of Suzhou, a number of role models and representatives of the classical gardens. Impressionistic landscape art thinking of Chinese garden art and literature and art of painting in China has far-reaching historical origins, in particular by the impressionistic landscape paintings of the Tang and Song literati literati impressionistic landscapes simulation model. Chinese garden in its development process, including the royal gardens and private gardens, including two series, the former concentrated in the vicinity of Beijing, the latter Suzhou as the representative. Due to differences in political, economic and cultural status, and the natural, geographical conditions, both in size, layout, massing, style, color, etc. There are significant differences, the Royal Garden ambitious, rigorous, and stately, Nong Li said the win, while the Suzhou while small garden, free, refined, elegant, long written opinions. The latter to pay more attention to the harmony and unity of culture and art, which developed to the late imperial garden, in mood, creative thinking, building skills, humanities content, but also large numbers to learn the “impressionistic” approach of the private garden. Perfect living conditions and living environment of Suzhou Classical Garden Residence Garden, one can enjoy, you can swim, and livable, the formation of this architectural form, in the densely populated and lack of natural scenery of the city, the human attachment to nature, the pursuit and nature harmony, landscaping and a creation of their own living environment. The four classical gardens of the Humble Administrator’s Garden, Lingering Garden, Master of the Nets Garden, Central, Mountain Villa, the type of construction is complete, intact, systematic and comprehensive display of the classical gardens of Suzhou architecture, layout, structure, shape, style, color and decoration, furniture , furnishings, and other aspects, Jiangnan Construction of representative works of the Ming and Qing Dynasties (14 to the early 20th century), reflecting high living civilization of this period south of the Yangtze River, has influenced the architectural style of the southern cities, driven by civil architectural design, idea, layout, aesthetics and construction technology to its close, urban construction, scientific and technological level and artistic achievements. One of the important feature of the Suzhou gardens of the rich social and cultural connotations, is that it is not only a product of history and culture, but also the gardens of Suzhou
    Carrier of Chinese traditional thought and culture. Naming performance in the garden hall, plaques, couplets, the book of stone, sculpture, decorative, as well as flowers and moral Stones have always focussed on and so on, not only is the fine art of embellishment garden, at the same time save a lot of historical, cultural, ideological and scientific information, content of their material and spiritual content is extremely broad and deep. Which reflect and disseminate the various philosophical concept of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and other schools of thought; to promote the philosophy of life to cultivate the noble sentiments; with the classical poetry literary embellishment of the landscape, germinal, rendering people in habitat tour tour of the scene as the mind sees, resulting in the beauty of artistic conception, spiritual meet. The garden brings together well-preserved ancient Chinese calligraphy handwriting, is a precious work of art, has a high heritage value. In addition, the classical gardens of Suzhou gardens of the Residence Garden unity Dizhai building regulations to reflect the ancient Chinese Jiangnan living off-pro lifestyle and ritual practices, is the kind of information for the understanding and study of ancient Chinese Jiangnan folk. [1] the classical gardens of Suzhou, has always been known as the “literati garden. Bai in the “Cottage”, said: “covered basket for carrying soil soil units, poly fist stone mountain, Central bucket of water for the pool, which is the paradigm of the literati garden. Suzhou garden fully reflects the “natural beauty” thrust in the design build, according to local conditions, by King, King, the sub-scene, every scene, various techniques to organize the space caused by the tortuous and varied gardens, small in the big, the actual situation and white landscape artistic effect. Through the stack of mountains and water, planting flowers and trees, configuration, landscape architecture, the formation of poetic literati impressionistic landscape garden in the city to create a harmony with nature “urban forest”. Suzhou gardens have absorbed the essence of the architectural art of the southern gardens, is the outstanding cultural heritage in China
    Suzhou garden architecture (16), of course, as human beings and the natural and cultural heritage by the United Nations. Suzhou gardens are good at the limited space cleverly composed of the scenery changing many, the structure of small and win. Nets Garden, Lion Grove, Humble Administrator’s Garden, Lingering Garden, collectively referred to as the “Suzhou four Garden, known as the” southern gardens best in the world, Suzhou gardens A Jiangnan “reputation. Suzhou gardens represent the style and artistic level of the private garden, is an incredible tourist destination. Suzhou garden is the time of art, history of art. Large amount of plaque in the garden, Couplets, calligraphy, painting, sculpture, steles, furniture, all kinds of ornaments, etc., and both are dotted with gardens, exquisite works of art, and all contain the ancient Chinese philosophical concept of cultural awareness and aesthetic taste. Rain poem dream scared to Banana Leaf “, which is a vivid portrayal of the Suzhou gardens;” wind load Shusheng Ouhua “This is the best landscaping conception described Mount. Side surface of the classical window to the door of a Road years, leading us into the gardens of Suzhou.
    World Heritage awards
    Garden a model for
    Humble Administrator’s Garden
    (English name:, Classical Gardens, of Suzhou) World Heritage Committee, commented on the classical gardens of Suzhou: garden reflect the ideal quality of the Chinese classical garden design garden better than the historic city of Suzhou, heaven and earth swept inwards. Suzhou garden is recognized as a model of this design idea. These construction 11 to the 19th century garden, with its carved design, reflects the profound artistic conception of Chinese culture, borrowing from the natural and transcend nature. The gardens of Suzhou’s Humble Administrator’s Garden, Lingering Garden, the Nets Garden and the Central Mountain Villa, Heritage selection in 1997, according to the standard C (I) (II) (III) (IV) (Ⅴ) included in the World Heritage List , 2000 Surging Wave Pavilion, Lion Grove, art garden, coupled Park, Retreat Park as an extension of the classical gardens of Suzhou project was approved for inclusion in the World Heritage List.
    Heritage Site process
    In 1997, the Humble Administrator’s Garden, Lingering Garden, the Nets Garden and the Central Mountain Villa as a representative of the classical gardens of Suzhou, is listed as a World Heritage Site. 2000, Surging Wave Pavilion, Lion Grove Garden decoupling, skill garden and retreat garden as an extension of the classical gardens of Suzhou project has also been listed as world cultural heritage.
    Heritage Site evaluation
    Login: Suzhou gardens meet the following assessment standards of the World Cultural Heritage
    (1) represents a unique artistic achievement, a creative genius masterpiece; (2) within a certain period of time or a cultural regions of the world, the art of architecture, monumental arts, town planning or landscape design too large; (3) provide a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a dead civilization or cultural tradition; (4) development of human history – an outstanding example of architectural style; (5) can be used as an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement or use of land, on behalf of one (or several) of culture, especially the impact of irreversible change becomes easy to damage.
    Garden directory
    Lingering Garden
    Lingering Garden is one of the four famous gardens in China. Lingering Garden is located in Suzhou Chang door, was founded in
    Ming Dynasty. During the Qing Dynasty, “Han Bi Village”, commonly known as “Liu Garden”, after the words “the Lingering Garden. Lingering Garden, covering about 50 acres, central to the landscape-based, is the essence of the whole park. The main building has a Han the Bishan room, the Mincer floor, far Chui Kok Quxi, House, the wind pool hall, etc.. Stay in the park construction, the number of ranks in various gardens in Suzhou crown, outstanding processing in space, fully reflects the superb and outstanding wisdom of the ancient gardeners. Building space properly the door to the crown of the Suzhou gardens. Lingering Garden Park, divided into four parts, in a garden can appreciate the landscape, countryside, mountains, gardens, four different views: the central water feature known, is the essence of the whole park; the eastern part of the construction of the song hospital corridors win the eastern part of the park fast famous good sunny Rain in Snow Hall at Lent the Linquan Society for the Master of the Museum, also I am reading at the crown head crown Guoyunlou ten, Xuan, the hospital pool, stand three pinnacle of center by the name of Dan Guanyun peaks on both sides of the two peaks Ruiyun, Xiu-yun; north with rural scenery, and on new bonsai garden; the Western is the highest point of the entire park, the rustic charm, rockery surprising, debris and white, a pile of natural . Pool South Han the Bishan room with Mincer F, Lingering Garden, the main viewing building. Stay in the park’s architectural landscape performance of indifferent attitude of life, frankly, “Taoyuan (small Penglai) and far Tsui Court, Qu River House, the wind pool hall and so on.
    Arts and garden
    Arts garden is one of the Ming Dynasty Garden. Initially for Ming Dynasty learned constitution Yuan Zugeng built by the beginning of the “drunk Ying Tong” Suzhou Arts and garden
    Great-grandson of Wen Zhengming, after the return to the late Ming and the Ministry of Rites left assistant minister of the Eastern Court scholar (equivalent to deputy prime minister) Wen Zhen Meng, renamed the “medicine garden. Mining (King Pavilion), renamed the “Jingting Sanbanggulsa fall of the Ming and early Qing Jiang, Chong Chin, his son, Jiang real festival was renamed the” Arts and garden. To Daoguangnianjian seven Xianggong for the silk industry is located. Skill garden for a small garden quite the artistic features of the Ming Dynasty, the whole park layout is concise and cheerful, natural and simple style, no The cumbersome piled Johnson pinch artificial sense of its artistic value is far better than the garden work of the late Qing Dynasty. Layout from the landscape, pavilions bay to the one stone a wood detail treatment of dialysis are all simple and elegant style features a concise approach, and sketched out the basic idea of ​​the garden. Skill garden before the Ming Dynasty, medicine garden, the early Qing Dynasty replaced by the skill garden.
    Decoupling Park
    Is located in Suzhou city, Jiangsu Province, Xingang Lane, due East, West Park, hence the name. East Park was founded in the early Qing coupled Park
    , Formerly involved in the park, and expansion from the current situation. Residential door in the south, through the foyer, sedan hall, to the Western Wall, a small door in the hall before you can enter the West Garden. Park in the main hall woven curtain of the old house, north and south have their own courtyard, are set to the rockery. North House northeastern corner of the library building, connected with housing, combined with a good example of book room and courtyard. From the residence hall east, the double of the small courtyard and a small living room, that is up to the East Park. East Park area about twice as large than the West Park, Northwest set stone rockery, the Southeast for the pool. The northern end of the main hall city song Cottage, a double eaves and floor housing, there are three main hall, for the re-floor complex Road, with residential adjoining the rare cases of the Suzhou gardens. In front of the Yellowstone rockery stack superb craftsmanship. Divided into two: the eastern part of the larger stone steps boarding pool Shek Pik, imposing steep Wei; western small, gradual decline in the distant valley between two mountains,
    Humble Administrator’s Garden
    Humble Administrator’s Garden
    The Humble Administrator’s Garden and Summer Palace in Beijing, Chengde Mountain Resort, Suzhou Lingering Garden and called the four classical gardens, known as the “mother of gardens” is a national key cultural relics protection units. The Humble Administrator’s Garden is located in Suzhou Lou Men, a Suzhou garden, made by the representatives of the Suzhou gardens. Before the Ming Masanori years. The Humble Administrator’s Garden is divided into three parts of East Park, Park, West Park. East Park Hill pool white, dotted with the building of the kaoliang Hong Hall, Lan Xue Church. The water west roundabout, compact layout, yard built to pavilion, the main building mandarin duck hall park owner was the place of dinner guests and listen to the song, elegant hall furnished. Garden “and who is sitting in the same Landmark is fan Pavilion, the fan on both sides of the real wall open two fan-shaped empty windows, one facing down the studio, and the other facing the” Mandarin Duck Hall, while the back surface of the mountain that just vague shapes in the window into the mountains Li Pavilion, enterprises the roof of the pavilion and happens to be dubbed a complete fan. In the Park is the best part of the Humble Administrator’s Garden, and its overall layout of the pool, pavilions, by built by the water, with the characteristics of the Yangtze River Delta. The main building is far Xiang Tong at the south bank of the pool, the island across the two mountains separated from the pool with the main King thing. Hill built a pavilion on the island, the west Xuexiang cloud Wei Ting, East is to be the cream kiosk, the four seasons from time to time. The layout of the Humble Administrator’s Garden in the Park to the lotus pond, far Xiang Tong as the main building, pool the two islands as its main scene, most of the other building near the water and facing the far Xiang Tong name from the architectural point of view, most of the lotus related. Wang Xianchen reason why such touted lotus, in order to express the lofty character of his aloof group. [2] west of the original “fill the park, covering an area of ​​approximately 12.5 acres of water surface circuitous and compact layout of the yard was built to pavilion. Much alteration, Qianlong after the formation of Handicraft, artificial style of art prevailed, but the water stone part of the central scenic still closer to the ups and downs, twists and turns, Limbo Gallery of water, streams, Suzhou gardens made the masterpiece of garden art.
    Canglang
    Surging Wave Pavilion is located in the south of the city of Suzhou, Suzhou, the oldest of a garden, was built in the Northern Song Dynasty Qing Canglang
    Calendar year (AD 1041 to 1048), Southern Song Dynasty (12th century) who the famous Hanshizhong residential. The Canglang the art of gardening different, into the garden door to a pool of green water around in the garden outside. The park rocks-based King, head of a soil Hill, the Canglang shiting it is located on. Yamashita chisel pool, landscape, connected to a winding complex Gallery. The rockery southeast Ming Tong is the main building of the garden, in addition there are five hundred of Famous People in Temple, to see Shan Building, Chui exquisite Museum, Yangchih kiosks and Royal Pavilion and other buildings with and reflected. The whole layout of the park, natural and harmonious, called ingenious techniques well masterpiece. As Suzhou, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing four Garden and Lion Grove, Humble Administrator’s Garden, Lingering Garden. Park, the number of its owners, the vicissitudes, but many buildings were destroyed and repaired, garden rockery garden outside the water, mostly to keep the old look.
    Lion Grove
    Suzhou Lion Grove Pieces
    Lion Forest, one of the four famous gardens in Suzhou has been 600 years of history. Located in the northeast of the city of Suzhou, built in the Yuan positive years (AD 1342). Shi Feng Lin, due to the park more than the shape of a lion, hence the name “Lion”. Lion Grove flat rectangular area of ​​about 15 acres of forest lake stone rockery and beautiful, building distribution patchwork, major construction Yan Yu Tang, the floor of the mountain, waterfalls Pavilion, asked Mei Court. Lion Forest theme clear, rich depth of field, distinct personality, rockery Donghe Originality, plants and trees do not have charm. Park building to Yan Yu Church Hall after the small square hall, Li Xue Tong. West may be to refer to Bo Xuan, lion Lin Qiujing
    For the two-story loft, surrounded by a veranda, GAO exquisite. Refers to the west of Bo Xuan ancient Pine. Southwest corner to see Shan Building. Floor, west, you see, to the Lotus Hall. Office of the northwest near the pool to build really interesting booths, kiosks and algae decorated beautifully, the characters of flowers lifelike. Two layers of stone boat next to the Pavilion. The Marble Boat prepare the shore for Fragrance Sparse floor, which through the corridor turn south up waterfalls Pavilion, is the highest point for the whole park. Park West scenery is asked Mei Court, Court Gemini Hong Hall. Dual Hong Koon southbound fold to the east and the southwest corner of the fan pavilion, Pavilion Piyou small courtyard, fresh and elegant.
    Nets Garden
    Nets Garden is located in the southeast of the city of Suzhou. Was founded in the Southern Song Dynasty (AD 1127 to 1279), then known as the “Fisherman”. Qianlong of Qing Dynasty Master of the Nets Garden
    (1736 to 1796) reconstruction, take the “Fisherman” old Italy and renamed it as “Lions Park”. Nets Garden covers an area of ​​about half a hectare, is a Suzhou gardens. The main building of the park have The Kwei Xuan Ying Zhuo Shuige the look loose to read s Art Gallery, Hall of spring house connected. Nets Garden pavilions are all near the water, the whole garden is full of water according to the various types of construction with the proper layout is compact, in order to elaborate known, has a typical style of the Ming Dynasty. Nets Garden Old Song bibliophile, rose to the rank of assistant minister of Yangzhou literati History Masashi rolls Hall displace Copper Coin Guanglu Temple Shaoqing Song were purchased retirement and rebuild, given the park called “Master of the Nets Park. ” Master of the Nets is a fisherman, fisherman meaning the consent of the Fisherman, containing the seclusion of the meaning of the rivers and lakes, the Nets Garden will means “the Fisherman Diaosou Park, Italy, both by the old Fisherman” Lane name “king of four (some say Wong Sze, now the width of the street Lane)” homonym. The park landscape layout and attractions title contains a rich hermit breath.
    Retreat Park is located in Wujiang, Jiangsu Province town Dongxi Street, the main scenic spots of the old town, to dismiss from office come home built by the Qing Ren Lan, containing retreat to think about the meaning, hence the name Retreat Park. Retreat Park total area of ​​nine acres of eighth. The garden past the vertical structure of the garden, and into a horizontal construction, left the house, for the tribunal, the right for the garden. Compact natural pattern of the whole park, combined with plants dotted, showing the four o’clock scenery, giving a cool and bright, quiet sense of. Retreat Park simple and elegant, the water more than half of the building are close to the water park afloat, is the only premium garden buildings. Retreat Park homes both inside and outside parts. Outside the house into the – the sedan Hall (foyer), tea room, main hall, along the axis of the layout, hierarchical. Outside the house is mainly used for the parlor, wedding events, ancestor worship ceremony. Built Happy Valley floor in the north and south, the bottom two, fifth floor, five in the inner chamber, it is called “Wan-Hong House,” through the floor between the double Gallery. Porch set up the ladder, both cover the storm, but also master and servant separate. , Outside the house can be divided can be combined and compact layout.
    Mountain Villa
    Mountain Villa is located in Suzhou city Jingde Road 262, Suzhou Embroidery Museum today. This park this is the Mountain Villa
    The former site of the Five Dynasties and Wu Yue Qian Valley Park, the Ming and Qing Dynasties to become a private garden. Now covers an area of ​​2179 square meters, construction area of ​​754 square meters. Landscaped mountain-based water and auxiliary building few. Park is small, extremely impressive. The Park, Park Lake rockery stone is the highest in China, the Stones famous Ge Yue Liang made. Occupies only half an acre, the mountains, cliffs, ridges and peaks, Donghe, Jian Gu, platform, Dengdao and other things, everything, full of change. Pool proprietor mountain, pool North Mountain, the momentum rolling into a muddy one, like the mountains through suddenly cut off for the cliff. Meet at in Dengdao and stream flow, looking at the first-line blue sky, overlooking a few songs a clean; strong Kazuya Beautiful, just as exposure to Wan mountains, careful handling of the whole mountain, close to nature, a stone and a seam, timely and accountable distance can also be recent tours, no wonder there are “spectacular nowhere else in the South” reputation.
    Gardening
    Tour Suzhou gardens, the biggest surprise is by the King with the King in the Chinese garden design. Chinese garden pay attention to the scenes in different steps, the arrangement of the scene and viewing the location has a very clever design, which is the most important characteristics of the difference with the West garden. The Chinese garden trying to perfect reproduction of the limited internal space of the space and structure of the outside world. Park court Terrace House Terrace, Veranda meandering trails the meantime, both inside and outside space, the mutual penetration, able to smooth circulation flow. Through the latticed windows, the vast natural beauty is concentrated into a miniature landscape. Inscription bearing in mind the ubiquitous garden adding to the rich cultural atmosphere. Trickling clear stream at the foot too, reflecting the garden scene, the actual situation staggered into the viewer from the real world can touch the infinite space fantasy. Techniques for, by the beauty of the King or the Park, through carefully selected and cut, admission to the garden, which is called by far; or with a view against the background of the views of another, which is known as interlibrary loan, etc. . This not only makes a limited area of ​​Suzhou gardens can provide a richer landscape, a more profound level, but also greatly expand the space of the viewer experience. The Humble Administrator’s Garden “leaning rainbow Pavilion Park, outside the North Temple Pagoda; of Canglang the rose window, views to the outside of the bamboo, which are commonly used by King practices. Mr. Ye Shengtao

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    苏州园林是指中国苏州城内的园林建筑,以私家园林为主,起始于春秋时期的吴国建都姑苏时(公元前514年),形成于五代,成熟于宋代,兴旺于明代,鼎盛于清代。到清末苏州已有各色园林一百七十多处,现保存完整的有六十多处,对外开放的园林有十九处。占地面积不大,但以意境见长,以独具匠心的艺术手法在有限的空间内点缀安排,移步换景,变化无穷。1997年,苏州古典园林作为中国园林的代表被列入《世界遗产名录》。是中华园林文化的翘楚和骄傲。

    中文名: 苏州园林
    外文名: Suzhou Gardens
    园林性质: 以私家园林为主
    园林名录: 沧浪亭、狮子林、拙政园、留园等
    园林简介
    苏州气候
    园林文化
    世遗殊荣园林典范
    遗产登录过程
    遗产登录评价
    园林名录留园
    艺圃
    耦园
    拙政园
    沧浪亭
    狮子林
    网师园
    退思园
    环秀山庄
    造园手法
    生活环境
    旅游建议精品线路
    旅游贴士
    园林简介
    苏州气候
    园林文化
    世遗殊荣 园林典范
    遗产登录过程
    遗产登录评价
    园林名录 留园
    艺圃
    耦园
    拙政园
    沧浪亭
    狮子林
    网师园
    退思园
    环秀山庄
    造园手法
    园林简介
      苏州园林(Suzhou Gardens)在一定的地域运用工程技术和艺术手段
    苏州园林景观(20张),通过改造地形(或进一步筑山、叠石、理水)、种植树木花草、营造建筑和布置园路等途径创作而成的美的自然环境和游憩境域,就称为园林。   苏州是中国著名的国家级历史文化名城,有“人间天堂,园林之城”的美誉。这里素来以山水秀丽,园林典雅而闻名天下,有“江南园林甲天下,苏州园林甲江南”的美称。苏州古典园林“不出城郭而获山水之怡,身居闹市而有灵泉之致”。1985年,苏州园林即被评为中国十大美景之一,成为与杭州西湖、济南趵突泉齐名的著名景观。   作为举世瞩目的历史文化名城,苏州沉淀了二千五百余年吴文化底韵。约在公元前十一世纪,当地部族自号“勾吴”,苏州称“吴”。公元前514年吴王阖闾建都于此,其规模位置迄今未变,为世界少有。   既有湖光山色、烟波浩淼的气势,又有江南水乡小桥流水的诗韵——素有“江南鱼米之乡”之称的苏州富饶美丽,是中国首批公布的24个历史文化名城之一。苏州自古以来就是江南的经济文化中心,城市格局保持完整,山明水秀,自然景观独具特色,是著名的旅游胜地。闻名遐迩的苏州园林采用缩景的手法,给人以小中见大的艺术效果,为苏州赢得“园林之城”的美誉。   作为苏州古典园林典型例证的拙政园、留园、网师园和环秀山庄,产生于苏州私家园林发展的鼎盛时期,苏州园林的自然美以其意境深远、构筑精致、艺术高雅、文化内涵丰富而成为苏州众多古典园林的典范和代表。苏州以园林见长,让人感叹园艺的巧夺天工与自然精致。以拙政园,留园,网师园,环秀山庄为代表的古典园林于1997年12月被列入“世界文化与自然遗产名录”( 2000年增补沧浪亭)。   狮子林,耦园,艺圃,退思园为世界文化遗产。其中沧浪亭、狮子林、拙政园和留园分别代表着宋(公元960~1276年)、元(公元1271~1368年)、明(公元1368~1644年)
    苏州园林环境(19张)、清(公元1644~1911年)四个朝代的艺术风格,被称为苏州“四大名园”。   苏州主要园林列表:   私家园林:沧浪亭、狮子林、拙政园、留园、网师园、艺圃、环秀山庄、耦园   佛教园林:报恩寺(北寺塔)、西园、寒山寺、双塔、瑞光塔   王家园林:虎丘(吴王阖闾墓)、灵岩山(吴王行宫)
    编辑本段苏州气候
      苏州地处温带,四季分明,气候温和,雨量充沛。属北亚热带湿润季风气候,年均降水量1100毫米,年均温15.5℃,1月均温2.5℃。7月均温28℃。   全市地势低平,平原占总面积的55%,水网密布,土地肥沃,物产丰富,雨量充沛,平野稻香,碧波鱼跃,农副物产十分丰富,人们传诵的“近炊香稻识红莲”、“桃花流水鳜鱼肥”、“夜市买菱藉,春船载绮罗”的诗句,就是历代诗人对苏州物产富足的赞美和讴歌。 苏州园林
    主要种植水稻、麦子、油菜,出产   棉花、蚕桑、林果,特产有碧螺春茶叶、长江刀鱼、太湖银鱼、阳澄湖大闸蟹等。苏州是闻名遐迩的“鱼米之乡”、“丝绸之府”,素有“人间天堂”之美誉。 地形 苏州市隶属于两个省一级的自然地理区:沿江三角洲平原地区和太湖平原地区,分属于4个二级自然区:沿江平原沙洲区、苏锡平原区、太湖及湖滨丘陵区、阳澄淀泖低地区。地貌特征以平缓平原为上,全市的地势低平,自西向东缓慢倾斜,平原的海拔高度3~4米,阳澄湖和吴江一带仅2米左右。
    园林文化
      苏州古典园林的历史可上溯至公元前6世纪春秋时吴王的园囿,私家园林最早见于记载的是东晋(4世纪)的辟疆园,历代造园兴盛,名园日多。明清时期,苏州成为中国最繁华的地区,私家园林遍布古城内外。16~18世纪全盛时期,苏州有园林200余处,现在保存尚好的有数十处,并因此使苏州素有”人间天堂”的美誉。   作为苏州古典园林典型例证的拙政园、留园、网师园和环秀山庄,产生于苏州私家园林发展的鼎盛时期,以其意境深远、构筑精致、艺术高雅、文化内涵丰富而成为苏州众多古典园林的典范和代表。   写意的山水艺术思想   中国的造园艺术与中国的文学和绘画艺术具有深远的历史渊源,特别受到唐宋文人写意山水画的影响,是文人写意山水模拟的典范。中国园林在其发展过程中,形成了包括皇家园林和私家园林在内的两大系列,前者集中在北京一带,后者则以苏州为代表。由于政治、经济、文化地位和自然、地理条件的差异,两者在规模、布局、体量、风格、色彩等方面有明显差别,皇家园林以宏大、严整、堂皇、浓丽称胜,而苏州园林则以小巧、自由、精致、淡雅、写意见长。由于后者更注意文化和艺术的和谐统一,因而发展到晚期的皇家园林,在意境、创作思想、建筑技巧、人文内容上,也大量地汲取了私家花园的“写意”手法。   完美的居住条件与生活环境   苏州古典园林宅园合一,可赏,可游,可居,这种建筑形态的形成,是在人口密集和缺乏自然风光的城市中,人类依恋自然,追求与自然和谐相处,美化和完善自身居住环境的一种创造。拙政园、留园、网师园、环秀山庄这四座古典园林,建筑类型齐全,保存完整,系统而全面地展示了苏州古典园林建筑的布局、结构、造型、风格、色彩以及装修、家具、陈设等各个方面内容,是明清时期(14~20世纪初)江南民间建筑的代表作品,反映了这一时期中国江南地区高度的居住文明,曾影响到整个江南城市的建筑格调,带动民间建筑的设计、构思、布局、审美以及施工技术向其靠拢,体现了当时城市建设科学技术水平和艺术成就。   丰富的社会文化内涵   苏州园林的重要特色之一,在于它不仅是历史文化的产物,同时也是 苏州园林
    中国传统思想文化的载体。表现在园林厅堂的命名、匾额、楹联、书条石、雕刻、装饰,以及花木寓意、叠石寄情等,不仅是点缀园林的精美艺术品,同时储存了大量的历史、文化、思想和科学信息,其物质内容和精神内容都极其深广。其中有反映和传播儒、释、道等各家哲学观念、思想流派的;有宣扬人生哲理,陶冶高尚情操的;还有借助古典诗词文学,对园景进行点缀、生发、渲染,使人于栖息游赏中,化景物为情思,产生意境美,获得精神满足。而园中汇集保存完好的中国历代书法名家手迹,又是珍贵的艺术品,具有极高的文物价值。另外,苏州古典园林作为宅园合一的第宅园林,其建筑规制又反映了中国古代江南民间起居休亲的生活方式和礼仪习俗,是了解和研究古代中国江南民俗的实物资料。[1]   苏州古典园林,一向被称为“文人园林”。白居易在《草堂记》中说:“覆篑土为台,聚拳石为山,环斗水为池”,这是文人园林的范式。苏州园林充分体现了“自然美”的主旨,在设计构筑中,采用因地制宜,借景、对景、分景、隔景等种种手法来组织空间,造成园林中曲折多变、小中见大、虚实相间的景观艺术效果。通过叠山理水,栽植花木,配置园林建筑,形成充满诗情画意的文人写意山水园林,在都市内创造出人与自然和谐相处的“城市山林”。   苏州园林吸收了江南园林建筑艺术的精华,是中国优秀的文化遗产
    苏州园林建筑(16张),理所当然被联合国列为人类与自然文化遗产。苏州园林善于把有限空间巧妙地组成变幻多端的景致,结构上以小巧玲珑取胜。网师园、狮子林、拙政园、留园统称“苏州四大名园”,素有“江南园林甲天下,苏州园林甲江南”之誉。苏州园林代表了中国私家园林的风格和艺术水平,是不可多得的旅游圣地。   苏州园林是时间的艺术、历史的艺术。园林中大量的匾额、楹联、书画、雕刻、碑石、家具陈设、各式摆件等等,无一不是点缀园林的精美艺术品,无不蕴含着中国古代哲理观念、文化意识和审美情趣。   “雨惊诗梦来蕉叶”,这是对苏州园林生动的写照;“风载书声出藕花”,这是对园林意境最好的描摩。一面面古典之窗,一道道岁月之门,引领着我们走进“苏州园林”。
    世遗殊荣
    园林典范
    拙政园
      (英文名称:The Classical Gardens of Suzhou)   世界遗产委员会这样评价苏州古典园林:没有哪些园林比历史名城苏州的园林更能体现出中国古典园林设计的理想品质 ,咫尺之内再造乾坤。苏州园林被公认是实现这一设计思想的典范。这些建造于11~19世纪的园林,以其精雕细琢的设计,折射出中国文化中取法自然而又超越自然的深邃意境。苏州园林中的拙政园、留园、网师园和环秀山庄,于1997年根据文化遗产遴选标准C(Ⅰ)(Ⅱ)(Ⅲ)(Ⅳ)(Ⅴ)列入《世界遗产名录》,2000年沧浪亭、狮子林、艺圃、耦园、退思园作为苏州古典园林的扩展项目被批准列入《世界遗产名录》。
    遗产登录过程
      1997年,拙政园、留园、网师园和环秀山庄作为苏州古典园林的代表被列为世界文化遗产。   2000年,沧浪亭、狮子林、耦园、艺圃和退思园作为苏州古典园林的扩展项目也被列为世界文化遗产。
    遗产登录评价
      因为满足世界文化遗产下列评定标准而登录: 苏州园林
      (1)代表一种独特的艺术成就,一种创造性的天才杰作;   (2)能在一定时期内或世界某一文化区域内,对建筑艺术、纪念物艺术、城镇规划或景观设计方面的发展产生过大影响;   (3)能为一种已消逝的文明或文化传统提供一种独特的至少是特殊的见证;   (4) 人类历史发展中某—建筑风格的杰出范例;   (5)可作为传统的人类居住地或使用地的杰出范例,代表一种(或几种)文化,尤其在不可逆转之变化的影响下变得易于损坏。
    园林名录
    留园
      留园为中国四大名园之一。留园坐落在苏州市阊门外,始建于
    明代。清代时称“寒碧山庄”,俗称“刘园”,后改为“留园”。留园占地约50亩,中部以山水为主,是全园的精华所在。主要建筑有涵碧山房、明瑟楼、远翠阁曲溪楼、清风池馆等处。留园内建筑的数量在苏州诸园中居冠, 其在空间上的突出处理,充分体现了古代造园家的高超技艺和卓越智慧。以建筑空间处理得当而居苏州园林之冠。留园全园分为四个部分,在一个园林中能领略到山水、田园、山林、庭园四种不同景色:中部以水景见长,是全园的精华所在;东部以曲院回廊的建筑取胜,园的东部有著名的佳晴喜雨快雪之厅、林泉耆硕之馆、还我读书处、冠云台、冠云楼等十数处斋、轩,院内池后立有三座石峰,居中者为名石冠云峰,两旁为瑞云,岫云两峰;北部具农村风光,并有新辟盆景园;西区则是全园最高处,有野趣,以假山为奇,土石相间,堆砌自然。池南涵碧山房与明瑟楼为留园的主要观景建筑。留园内的建筑景观还有表现淡泊处世之坦然的“小桃源(小蓬莱)”以及远翠阁、曲溪楼、清风池馆等。
    艺圃
      艺圃是一座建于明代的名园。最初为明代学宪袁祖庚所建,初名“醉颖堂” 苏州艺圃
    ,后归文征明的曾孙、明末礼部左侍郎兼东阁大学士(相当于副宰相)文震孟,改名“药圃”。明亡后,在清初为明崇祯进士姜埰(号敬亭)所有,改称“敬亭山房”,后其子姜实节更名“艺圃”。至道光年间为绸缎业七襄公所所在地。   艺圃为一颇具明代艺术特色的小型园林,全园布局简练开朗,风格自然质朴,无繁琐堆砌娇捏做作之感,其艺术价值远胜于晚清之园林作品。从山水布局,亭台开间到一石一木的细部处理无不透析出古朴典雅的风格特征,以凝练的手法,勾勒出造园的基本理念。艺圃始建于明,名药圃,清初改为艺圃。
    耦园
      位于江苏省苏州市内小新港巷,因有东、西二园,故名。东园始建于清初 耦园
    ,原名涉园,后扩建而成目前局面。住宅大门在南,经门厅、轿厅,至大厅前西墙小门,即可进入西园。园中主厅为织帘老屋,南北各有庭院,都置假山。北院东北隅有藏书楼,与住宅相通,是书室与庭院结合较好的范例。自住宅大厅往东,经小院二重和小客厅,即达东园。东园面积较西园约大一倍,西北置石假山,东南为水池。北端主厅城曲草堂,为一重檐楼屋,下有主厅三间,上为重楼复道,与住宅毗连,为苏州园林的罕例。堂前的黄石假山堆叠手艺高超。分为东西两部:东部较大,有石级可登临池石壁,气势峭伟;西部较小,逐渐下降,两山间为“邃谷”,
    拙政园
    拙政园
      拙政园与北京颐和园、承德避暑山庄、苏州留园并称为我国四大古典名园,被誉为”中国园林之母”.现为全国重点文物保护单位。拙政园位于苏州娄门内,是苏州最大的一处园林,也是苏州园林的代表作。始建于明正德年间。拙政园分为东园、中园、西园三部分。东园山池相间,点缀有秫香馆、兰雪堂等建筑。西部水面迂回,布局紧凑,依山傍水建以亭阁,其主体建筑鸳鸯厅是当时园主人宴请宾客和听曲的场所,厅内陈设考究。园中“与谁同坐轩”乃为扇亭,扇面两侧实墙上开着两个扇形空窗,一个对着倒影楼,另一个对着“鸳鸯厅”,而后面面山的那一窗中又正好映着入山的笠亭,而笠亭的顶盖又恰好配成一个完整的扇子。 中园是拙政园的精华部分,其总体布局以水池为中心,亭台楼榭借依水而建,具有江南水乡的特色。主体建筑远香堂位于水池南岸,隔池与主景东西两山岛相望。山岛上各建一亭,西为雪香云蔚亭,东为待霜亭,四季景色因时而异。拙政园中园的布局以荷花池为中心,远香堂为主体建筑,池中两岛为其主景,其他建筑大都临水并面向远香堂,从建筑名称来看,大都与荷花有关。王献臣之所以要如此大力宣扬荷花,主要是为了表达他孤高不群的清高品格。[2]   西部原为“补园”,面积约12.5亩,其水面迂回,布局紧凑,依山傍水建以亭阁。因被大加改建,所以乾隆后形成的工巧、造作的艺术的风格占了上风,但水石部分同中部景区仍较接近,而起伏、曲折、凌波而过的水廊、溪涧则是苏州园林造园艺术的佳作。
    沧浪亭
      沧浪亭位于苏州城南,是苏州最古老的一所园林,始建于北宋庆 沧浪亭
    历年间(公元1041~1048年),南宋初年(公元12世纪初)曾为名将韩世忠的住宅。沧浪亭造园艺术与众不同,未进园门便设一池绿水绕于园外。园内以山石为主景,迎面一座土山,沧浪石亭便坐落其上。山下凿有水池,山水之间以一条曲折的复廊相连。假山东南部的明道堂是园林的主建筑,此外还有五百名贤祠、看山楼、翠玲珑馆、仰止亭和御碑亭等建筑与之衬映。   全园布局,自然和谐,堪称构思巧妙、手法得宜的佳作。与狮子林、拙政园、留园列为苏州宋、元、明、清四大园林。   此园数易其主,历经沧桑,但多是建物的倾毁修复,而园中假山,园外池水,大多保持旧观。
    狮子林
    苏州狮子林小品
      狮子林为苏州四大名园之一,至今已有六百多年的历史。位于苏州城内东北部,始建于元至正二年(公元1342年)。因园内石峰林立,多状似狮子,故名“狮子林”。狮子林平面呈长方形,面积约15亩,林内的湖石假山多且精美,建筑分布错落有致,主要建筑有燕誉堂、见山楼、飞瀑亭、问梅阁等。狮子林主题明确,景深丰富,个性分明,假山洞壑匠心独具,一草一木别有风韵。   园内建筑以燕誉堂为主,堂后为小方厅,有立雪堂。向西可到指柏轩, 狮子林秋景
    为二层阁楼,四周有庑,高爽玲珑。指柏轩之西是古五松园。西南角为见山楼。由见山楼往西,可到荷花厅。厅西北傍池建真趣亭,亭内藻饰精美,人物花卉栩栩如生。亭旁有两层石舫。石舫备岸为暗香疏影楼,由此循走廊转弯向南可达飞瀑亭,是为全园最高处。园西景物中心是问梅阁,阁前为双仙香馆。双香仙馆南行折东,西南角有扇子亭,亭后辟有小院,清新雅致。
    网师园
      网师园位于苏州城东南部。始建于南宋时期(公元1127~1279年),当时称为“渔隐”。清代乾隆年 网师园
    间(公元1736~1796年)重建,取“渔隐”旧意,改名为“网狮园”。网狮园占地约半公顷,是苏州园林中最小的一座。园内主要建筑有丛桂轩、濯缨水阁、看松读画轩、殿春簃等。网师园的亭台楼榭无不临水,全园处处有水可依,各种建筑配合得当,布局紧凑,以精巧见长,具有典型的明代风格。   网师园旧为宋代藏书家、官至侍郎的扬州文人史正志的“万卷堂”故址,至清乾隆年间,退休的光禄寺少卿宋宗元购之并重建,定园名为“网师园”。网师乃渔夫、渔翁之意,又与“渔隐”同意,含有隐居江湖的意思,网师园便意谓“渔父钓叟之园”,此名既借旧时“渔隐”之意,且与巷名“王四(一说王思,即今阔街头巷)”谐音。园内的山水布置和景点题名蕴含着浓郁的隐逸气息。
    退思园位于江苏吴江同里镇东溪街,为古镇的主要风景点,由清任兰先罢官归乡所建,含“退则思过”之意,故名退思园。退思园总面积为九亩八分。此园一改以往园林的纵向结构,而变为横向建造,左为宅,中为庭,右为园。   全园格局紧凑自然,结合植物点缀,呈现出四时景色,给人以清朗、幽静之感。退思园简朴淡雅,水面过半,建筑皆紧贴水面,园如浮于水上,是全国唯一的贴水园建筑。   退思园住宅分内外两部分。外宅三进——轿厅(门厅)、茶厅、正厅,沿轴线布置,等级分明。外宅主要用于会客、婚嫁盛事、祭祖典礼。内宅建有南北两幢五楼五底的跑马楼,名曰“畹香楼”,楼间由双重廊贯通。廊下设梯,既遮风雨,又主仆分开。内、外宅可分可合,布局紧凑。
    环秀山庄
      环秀山庄位于苏州城中景德路262号,今苏州刺绣博物馆内。此园本是 环秀山庄
    五代吴越钱氏金谷园旧址,明、清时期成为私家园林。现占地面积2179平方米,其中建筑面积754平方米。园景以山为主,池水辅之,建筑不多。园虽小,却极有气势。   该园园内湖石假山为中国之最,为叠石名家戈裕良所作。占地仅半亩,而峭壁、峰峦、洞壑、涧谷、平台、磴道等山中之物,应有尽有,极富变化。池东主山,池北次山,气势连绵,浑成一片,恰似山脉贯通,突然断为悬崖。   而于磴道与涧流相会处,仰望是一线青天,俯瞰有几曲清流;壮哉美哉,恰如置身于万山之中,全山处理细致,贴近自然,一石一缝,交代妥贴,可远观亦可近赏,无怪有“别开生面、独步江南”之誉。
    造园手法
      游苏州园林,最大的看点便是借景与对景在中式园林设计中的应用。中国园林讲究“步移景异”,对景物的安排和观赏的位置都有很巧妙的设计,这是区别与西方园林的最主要特征。中国园林试图在有限的内部空间里完美地再现外部世界的空间和结构。园内庭台楼榭,游廊小径蜿蜒其间,内外空间相互渗透,得以流畅、流通、流动。透过格子窗,广阔的自然风光被浓缩成微型景观。题词铭记无处不在,为园林平添了浓郁的人文气息。涓涓清流脚下而过,倒映出园中的景物,虚实交错,把观赏者从可触摸的真实世界带入无限的梦幻空间。就技法来说,借景或把园外的美景,通过精心选择和剪裁,收纳到园林中来,这称为远借;或用一处景致映衬另一处景致,这称为互借,等等。这样不仅使得面积有限的苏州园林能够提供更丰富的景观,更深远的层次,而且还极大地扩展了欣赏者的空间感受。在拙政园“倚虹亭”中能看到园外的北寺塔;沧浪亭的花窗中,能欣赏到屋外的竹林,这都是常用的借景手法。可在叶圣陶先生的<拙政诸园寄深眷——谈苏州园林>(8上语文教科书21课)一文中,领略园林的魅力。   中国的造园艺术与中国的文学和绘画艺术具有深远的历史渊源,特别受到唐宋文人写意山水画的影响,是文人写意山水模拟的典范。中国园林在其发展过程中,形成了包括皇家园林和私家园林在内的两大系列,前者集中在北京一带,后者则以苏州为代表。由于政治、经济、文化地位和自然、地理条件的差异,两者在规模、布局、体量、风格、色彩等方面有明显差别,皇家园林以宏大、严整、堂皇、浓丽称胜,而苏州园林则以小巧、自由、精致、淡雅、写意见长。由于后者更注意文化和艺术的和谐统一,因而发展到晚期的皇家园林,在意境、创作思想、建筑技巧、人文内容上,也大量地汲取了私家花园的“写意”手法。
    生活环境
      苏州古典园林宅园合一,可赏,可游,可居,这种建筑形态的形成,是在人口密集和缺乏自然风光的城市中,人类依恋自然,追求与自然和谐相处,美化和完善自身居住环境的一种创造。拙政园、留园、网师园、环秀山庄这四座古典园林,建筑类型齐全,保存完整,系统而全面地展示了苏州古典园林建筑的布局、结构、造型、风格、色彩以及装修、家具、陈设等各个方面内容,是明清时期(14~20世纪初)江南民间建筑的代表作品,反映了这一时期中国江南地区高度的居住文明,曾影响到整个江南城市的建筑格调,带动民间建筑的设计、构思、布局、审美以及施工技术向其靠拢,体现了当时城市建设科学技术水平和艺术成就。是伟大的历史建筑物!   苏州古典园林的重要特色之一,是它不仅是历史文化的产物,同时也是中国传统思想文化的载体。表现在园林厅堂的命名、匾额、楹取、书条石、雕刻、装饰,以及花木寓意、叠石寄情等,不仅是点缀园林的精美艺术品,同时储存了大量的历史、文化、思想和科学信息、物质内容和精神内容都极其深广。其中有反映和传播儒、释、道等各家哲学观念、思想流派的;有宣扬人生哲理,陶冶高尚情操的;还有借助古典诗词文学,对园景进行点缀、生发、渲染,使人于栖息游赏中,化景物为情思,产生意境美,获得精神满足的。而园中汇集保存完好的中国历代书法名家手迹,又是珍贵的艺术品,具有极高的文物价值。另外,苏州古典园林作为宅园合一的第宅园林,其建筑规制又反映了中国古代江南民间起居休亲的生活方式和礼仪习俗,是了解和研究古代中国江南民俗的实物资料。
    旅游建议
    精品线路
      (苏州园林一日游)早上6:40杭州旅游集散(黄龙)中心出发,经浙江展览馆散客拼团后乘旅游班车至苏州,跟随当地导游游览狮子林30元、盘门景区48元,中餐后游览藕园35元、姑苏水上游45元、寒山寺20元、虎丘(自理)60元,观看江南丝竹表演、紫砂陶艺制作,结束愉快苏州之旅,晚上乘车返回杭州。

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