美国人,政治学专家萨姆·加勒特(Sam Garrett)说,仅凭大笔筹款,并不能决定候选人的得票结果。

美国人,政治学专家萨姆·加勒特(Sam Garrett)说,仅凭大笔筹款,并不能决定候选人的得票结果。

加勒特,3月16日在华盛顿的外国记者中心(Foreign Press Center)谈到竞选资金时说:“金钱绝不是在选举中取得成功的保证。”加勒特是美国国会研究室(Congressional Research Service)研究联邦政府的专家,也是美利坚大学(American University)在华盛顿的国会和总统研究中心(Center for Congressional and Presidential Studies)的研究员和讲师。

加勒特承认,美国的竞选往往耗资相当大,每轮竞选的花费越来越高。他说,2008年,美国总统欧巴马作为民主党总统候选人,其竞选班子筹集了约7.5亿美元。
他的竞选对手,共和党国会参议员约翰·麦凯恩(John McCain)筹集了3亿,到4亿美元。

加勒特说,在最近的选举中,美国参议院获胜候选人平均筹集了 700万,到800万美元;
众议院胜出的候选人平均筹集了100万,到200万美元。

要具备获得公共资金的资格,总统竞选人必须在20个州中的每一个,都筹集到5000美元以上。

在初选中具备资格的竞选人每得到一份个人捐款,其中,头250美元可以获得对等的公共资金。他们获得公共资金的总数,不得超过国家对初选花费的限额的一半。该限额在每个总统选举年,都会根据通膨率调整一次。2012年初选的限额为 4,560万美元,由总统竞选基金(Presidential Election Campaign Fund)拨款。

在2012年的大选中,对总统竞选人的个人捐款在这轮选举中,被限定在5,000美元——初选,和大选阶段各为2,500美元。每个竞选班子都要按要求-披露每位捐款200美元以上的个人的姓名。

赢得党内总统候选人提名者有资格领取一笔经费,以支付大选的一切开支。在经过通胀调整之后,这笔经费在2012年度为 9,120万美元。

政治行动委员会(PAC)在美国的选举制度中十分常见​​,这是一种民间团体,它们可以向个人筹集高达5,000元的捐款,以支持特定的候选人或议题。2012年的选举是第一次有所谓的“超级政治行动委员会”(super PAC)参加的选举,它们被允许可以从捐款人那里-筹集不设上限的资金,捐款人可以选择不透露姓名。这些组织不得直接捐钱给某个竞选人,亦不得协同竞选人或政党进行竞选
超级政治行动委员会可以大笔使用筹集到的钱,来宣传他们自己的好恶,并攻击他们的政治对手。

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Sam Garrett (Sam Garrett), the Americans, political experts said that alone the large amount of fund-raising, can not decide on the results of the votes of the candidates.

Garrett, March 16 at the Washington Foreign Press Center (Foreign Press Center) when it comes to campaign finance, said: “Money is not guarantee of success in the elections.” Garrett is the U.S. Congress Research (the Congressional Research Service) to study the experts of the federal government, but also the American University (American University) in Washington, Congress and the President of the Research Center (Center for the Congressional and Presidential Studies) researchers and lecturers.

Garrett acknowledged that the campaign of the United States tend to cost quite large, each round of the campaign to spend more and more high. He said that in 2008, U.S. President Barack Obama as the Democratic presidential candidate, the campaign has raised about $ 750 million.
His rival, Republican Senator John McCain (John McCain) to raise 300 million to $ 400 million.

Garrett said that in the recent elections, the winning candidates of the United States Senate to raise the average of seven million to eight million U.S. dollars;
Win in the House candidates raised an average of one million to two million U.S. dollars.

To have the qualifications to receive public funds in 20 states, the presidential candidate must raise more than $ 5,000.

Qualified candidates in the primaries each get a personal donation, which, the first $ 250 you can get public funding. Their access to public funds shall not exceed half of the state primary spending limits. The limit in each presidential election year, will be inflation adjusted once. Limit the election in early 2012 for $ 45.6 million funding from the presidential campaign fund (the Presidential Election Campaign Fund,).

In the 2012 general election, the presidential candidate’s personal contributions in this round of elections, is limited to $ 5,000 – primaries and general election stages to $ 2,500. Each campaign should be required – to disclose each donation of $ 200 or more names of individuals.

To win the party presidential candidate nominees are eligible to receive a sum of funds to pay all expenses of the election. After adjustment for inflation, provision is made in the year 2012 to 9,120 million U.S. dollars.

Political action committees (PACs) are very common in the American electoral system, which is a non-governmental organizations, they can raise up to $ 5,000 in donations to individuals to support a particular candidate or issue. The 2012 election is the first time the so-called “super political action committee” (the super PACs) to participate in the election, they are allowed to can raise uncapped funding from donors – donors can choose not to be named. These organizations may not directly donate money to a candidate, nor collaborative candidates or political parties campaign
Super political action committees can be a large amount of use of the money raised to promote their own likes and dislikes, and attack their political opponents.

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《美国人,政治学专家萨姆·加勒特(Sam Garrett)说,仅凭大笔筹款,并不能决定候选人的得票结果。》有一个想法

  1. 全球著名唐人街,时间:2012-03,英国旅游业搜索引擎cheapflights评选结果-
    中国以外地区的十大唐人街,排名不分先后,上榜原因各有特色。
    纽约最古老商业区
    坐落于纽约曼哈顿区的唐人街,已有100多年历史。自形成规模以来,纽约唐人街一直是纽约华人最重要的商业活动中心,其中,最早的华人店铺,可以追溯到19世纪中叶。事实上,这里是除亚洲之外海外华人最早设立起来的华人商业街之一,具有“示范”作用。纽约的唐人街被政府列入国家史迹名录。
    旧金山,华人第一落点
    旧金山唐人街,不是传统意义上的一条街道,而是形成多街道纵横交错的街区,是亚洲地区外最大的中国城,也是北美地区最古老的华人聚居区。
    旧金山是华人漂洋过海,穿越太平洋,登陆美洲大陆的第一落点,也是美洲大陆中国元素最集中的地区之一。统计显示,每年,前往旧金山唐人街观光的游客,超过金门大桥的游客。
    伦敦,传统味道最浓
    唐人街在英国伦敦,又叫中国城,坐落在市中心威斯敏斯特地区的索霍区。
    伦敦唐人街是中国传统味道最足的唐人街之一。每年除夕夜,伦敦唐人街都会举办倒计时活动,期盼新年到来,并以一声爆竹声响,揭开为期数日的新年庆祝活动。
    过去几年,伦敦唐人街及周边地区,在春节期间,会上演舞龙舞狮、杂技、武术、舞蹈、地方戏等中国传统民俗活动。
    巴黎,观光客选择多
    法国巴黎十三区唐人街,是欧洲最大的中国城,坐落在巴黎市中心地带。
    与其他城市不同的是,近些年来,巴黎城内逐步出现多个华人聚居区,其中,比较著名的有三区和四区的“温州街”,以及十九区的“美丽城”。每逢春节,几处华人聚居区同时举行庆祝活动,热情洋溢全城。对于观光客而言,在巴黎品味中国年的选择性多。

    3月24日,美国邮政局发行一组二连方的新邮票,纪念日本向美国赠送3,000株樱花树100周年。这两枚邮票的图案相连,组成一幅华盛顿市潮汐湖(Tidal Basin)四周樱花盛开的标志性全景图。

    1912年,东京市长尾崎行雄(Yukio Ozaki)将樱花树赠送给霍华德·塔夫脱总统(Howard Taft)。
    当年3月27日,第一夫人海伦·赫伦·塔夫脱(Helen Herron Taft)和日本大使夫人珍田女士(Viscountess Chinda)首先将日本赠送的两棵樱花树,种植在托马斯·杰斐逊(Thomas Jefferson)纪念堂附近的潮汐湖北岸。

    左方的邮票以华盛顿纪念碑为背景,前景是樱花树构成的弧形构图,两名身穿和服的少女与家人在花海中徜徉。右方的邮票是杰斐逊纪念堂,粉红色的树冠鳞次栉比,游客络绎不绝,流连忘返。

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    World-renowned Chinatown, time :2012-03, the British tourism industry search engine cheapflights selection results –
    Ten Chinatown outside China, in alphabetical order, list the reasons to have their own characteristics.
    The most ancient commercial district of New York
    Chinatown is located in Manhattan, New York, more than 100 years history. Since the formation of scale, New York’s Chinatown has been the center of the Chinese in New York’s most important business activities, one of the earliest Chinese shops can be traced back to the mid-19th century. In fact, one of the Chinese Commercial Street here except Asia, overseas Chinese, which was established up to the role of the “demonstration”. Chinatown in New York by the government included in the National Register of Historic Places.
    San Francisco, the first placement of the Chinese
    San Francisco Chinatown, the street in the traditional sense, but the formation of the multi-neighborhood of streets criss-cross, is the largest Chinatown in Asia, North America’s oldest Chinese neighborhoods.
    San Francisco is the Chinese across the oceans, across the Pacific, landing the first placement of the American continent, is also one of the most concentrated areas of the Americas, mainland Chinese elements. Statistics show that each year, visitors to San Francisco Chinatown sightseeing tourists over the Golden Gate Bridge.
    London, the traditional taste of the most concentrated
    Chinatown in London, England, also known as China Town, located in the city center in Westminster, Soho.
    London Chinatown is a traditional Chinese flavor foot Chinatown. An annual New Year’s Eve, London’s Chinatown will be held in the countdown to look forward to the New Year arrives, and the sound of firecrackers sound to reveal the phases of Japanese New Year celebrations.
    In the past few years, London’s Chinatown and the surrounding areas during the Spring Festival will be staged at the dragon and lion dances, acrobatics, martial arts, dance, local opera and other traditional Chinese folk activities.
    Paris

    Tourists to select multiple
    Paris, France, 13 District, Chinatown, is Europe’s largest city, is located in the heart of the center of Paris. However, it is different from other cities in recent years, the Paris city the gradual emergence of a number of Chinese neighborhood, one of the famous three districts and four districts of Wenzhou Street and Area 29 “Beautiful City”. During the Spring Festival, several Chinese neighborhoods at the same time to celebrate ebullient throughout the city. For tourists, the taste more selective in the Chinese New Year in Paris.

    March 24, the United States Post Office issued a set of the Erlian side of the new stamps to commemorate the gift of 3,000 cherry trees the 100th anniversary of Japan to the United States. The patterns of these two stamps connected to form a Washington, DC Tidal Basin Tidal Basin, the cherry blossoms around the iconic panorama.

    In 1912, the mayor of Tokyo Ozaki Yukio Yukio Ozaki, a cherry tree donated to Howard Taft, President Howard Taft.
    March 27 that year, First Lady Helen Herron Taft (Helen Herron, a Taft,) and the Japanese ambassador’s wife, Jane Miss Tian (Viscountess Chinda) the first two donated by Japanese cherry trees, planted in Thomas Jefferson (Thomas Jefferson tides near the northern shore of Lake of) Memorial Hall.

    Stamp on the left to the Washington Monument, prospects arc composition of cherry trees, two girls wearing kimono with his family wandering around in the flowers. The stamp on the right is the Jefferson Memorial, row upon row of pink crown of visitors linger.

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    全球著名唐人街,時間:2012-03,英國旅遊業搜索引擎cheapflights評選結果-
    中國以外地區的十大唐人街,排名不分先後,上榜原因各有特色。
    紐約最古老商業區
    坐落於紐約曼哈頓區的唐人街,已有100多年曆史。自形成規模以來,紐約唐人街一直是紐約華人最重要的商業活動中心,其中,最早的華人店鋪,可以追溯到19世紀中葉。事實上,這裡是除亞洲之外海外華人最早設立起來的華人商業街之一,具有“示範”作用。紐約的唐人街被政府列入國家史蹟名錄。
    舊金山,華人第一落點
    舊金山唐人街,不是傳統意義上的一條街道,而是形成多街道縱橫交錯的街區,是亞洲地​​區外最大的中國城,也是北美地區最古老的華人聚居區。
    舊金山是華人漂洋過海,穿越太平洋,登陸美洲大陸的第一落點,也是美洲大陸中國元素最集中的地區之一。統計顯示,每年,前往舊金山唐人街觀光的遊客,超過金門大橋的遊客。
    倫敦,傳統味道最濃
    唐人街在英國倫敦,又叫中國城,坐落在市中心威斯敏斯特地區的索霍區。
    倫敦唐人街是中國傳統味道最足的唐人街之一。每年除夕夜,倫敦唐人街都會舉辦倒計時活動,期盼新年到來,並以一聲爆竹聲響,揭開為期數日的新年慶祝活動。
    過去幾年,倫敦唐人街及周邊地區,在春節期間,會上演舞龍舞獅、雜技、武術、舞蹈、地方戲等中國傳統民俗活動。
    巴黎,觀光客選擇多
    法國巴黎十三區唐人街,是歐洲最大的中國城,坐落在巴黎市中心地帶。
    與其他城市不同的是,近些年來,巴黎城內逐步出現多個華人聚居區,其中,比較著名的有三區和四區的“溫州街”,以及十九區的“美麗城”。每逢春節,幾處華人聚居區同時舉行慶祝活動,熱情洋溢全城。對於觀光客而言,在巴黎品味中國年的選擇性多。

    3月24日,美國郵政局發行一組二連方的新郵票,紀念日本向美國贈送3,000株櫻花樹100週年。這兩枚郵票的圖案相連,組成一幅華盛頓市潮汐湖(Tidal Basin)四周櫻花盛開的標誌性全景圖。

    1912年,東京市長尾崎行雄(Yukio Ozaki)將櫻花樹贈送給霍華德·塔夫脫總統(Howard Taft)。
    當年3月27日,第一夫人海倫·赫倫·塔夫脫(Helen Herron Taft)和日本大使夫人珍田女士(Viscountess Chinda)首先將日本贈送的兩棵櫻花樹,種植在托馬斯·杰斐遜(Thomas Jefferson )紀念堂附近的潮汐湖北岸。

    左方的郵票以華盛頓紀念碑為背景,前景是櫻花樹構成的弧形構圖,兩名身穿和服的少女與家人在花海中徜徉。右方的郵票是杰斐遜紀念堂,粉紅色的樹冠鱗次櫛比,遊客絡繹不絕,流連忘返。

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