美国穷人喜迎中国便宜智能手机, 时间:2012-01-27 在《 华尔街日报》的网站上，输入“Huawei(华为)”一词,进行搜索，从2010年1月15日,到2012年1月18日(《 华尔街日报》网站能搜索的最长时限,是两年)共有337条结果，几乎都是关于华为在海外扩张的新闻。从搜索结果可以看到，华为海外扩张,覆盖了五大洲，既有印度、尼日利亚、阿尔及利亚等不发达国家，也有美国、德国、英国等传统经济强国。 这家全球极负声望的财经媒体，给了华为这家中国企业前所未有的重点关注。另外3家中国的“世界品牌”——“Haier(海尔)”、“ZTE(中兴)”和“Lenovo(联想)”在该网站上的新闻条数，分别是42、160和316。跟报道华为在世界范围内的“大动作”,以及由此引发的争议不同，有关这3家的报道内容,通常只是产品信息。 用时下最流行的一句话来说,就是，“美国人是有多爱华为？”其实不然。从2008年开始，华为在美国,先后进行了4次收购，出价均最高，但均以失败告终。 于是，华为吸取了教训，不再在美国市场上谈“收购”，甚至在去年年底,宣称“计划缩减”被美国视为“眼中钉”的伊朗业务。也许正因如此，当华为低价智能手机在美国市场上热销时，《 华尔街日报》给了其久违的正面评价：“它们(指华为低价智能手机)在一定程度上,使得美国低收入家庭,迅速用上了智能手机，同时,让这个美国阶层,实现了手机上网。” “Huawei”一词,似乎没几个西方人能念得出来 圣地亚哥一家廉价手机服务供应商的销售人员诺玛 梅嘉,在去年10月,一个生意清淡的晚上,抱怨说，手机运营商Cricket Wireless开在街对面的营业厅门庭若市，把她的客户全抢走了。那个营业厅的亮点，就是在出售一款新型的低价智能手机——中国电信设备生产商华为技术有限公司制造的低价手机。 据《 华尔街日报》报道，华为价廉物美的智能手机，在一定程度上,使得美国低收入家庭,迅速用上了智能手机，同时,让这个美国阶层实现了手机上网。最新数据显示，华为手机已在2011年底,跻身美国智能手机销售排行的第7名。 的确，如果没有一部能查邮件、发微博、上网,甚至消费的智能手机，似乎有落伍之嫌。以苹果iPhone为行业领航的智能手机，是目前移动通信业的发展趋势。但苹果等品牌价格不菲,近3年来的金融动荡,让很多西方消费者,将目光转向中国品牌——华为。 随着电信运营商把目光投向美国电信业最后几个增长来源之一——让低收入消费者使用智能手机，华为眼疾手快地“奉上”了一些最便宜的手机。 据研究机构Gartner Inc.统计，在截至去年9月30日的一年里，华为全球市场份额从1.3%,增至2.4%，几乎增加了一倍，其增长是因为吞蚀了诺基亚等企业的市场份额。同样在截至去年9月30日的一年里，诺基亚虽在低端手机市场中-仍占据主导地位，但市场份额却从28.2%,跌至23.9%。 就目前而言，华为的手机产品,一半以上都是卖给家庭收入在3.5万美元,或以下的人群，NPD数据统计公司说,这个收入阶层,占智能手机购买总人数的比例,仅为1/4。 据皮尤研究中心去年的一项调查发现，低收入智能手机拥有者,使用手机作为主要上网工具的可能性，远高于其他用户。 美国手机服务提供商MetroPCS的总裁汤姆 凯斯，前不久,在和分析人士谈到其公司新提供的手机依赖华为的产品时,开玩笑说，他的护照里,有中国签证。 看上去,华为手机在美国市场的业绩蒸蒸日上，但这个品牌,在美国消费者那里,几乎没有任何认知度——“Huawei”一词,似乎没有几个西方人能念得出来。在《 华尔街日报》的采访中，一些顾客甚至将“Huawei”,误说成“Hawaii(夏威夷)”、“Maui(毛伊：夏威夷的一个岛屿)”。 有趣的是，这和上世纪60年代,日本三菱公司(Mitsubishi)刚刚进入美国市场时候的情形，几乎一模一样。不过,Mitsubishi,今天,已是全球家喻户晓的品牌，所有人都能准确地叫出这个绕口的日本名字。 国际化道路采取“农村包围城市”战略 两万元人民币起家，成立于1988年的华为，如今,已是世界第二大通讯设备制造商，也是为数不多的中国“世界品牌”。华为的国际化道路,采取了“农村包围城市”战略。首先，华为在国内生产总值较低的东南亚,及拉美国家,建立销售网络。在这些欠发达市场占领先机后，它逐渐向较富裕的中东国家展开攻势。最终，华为将目标锁定在发达国家，并在这些竞争激烈的市场上,分得一杯羹。 在品牌国际化的道路上，华为成了多家跨国企业的设备供应商，比如,IBM、英特尔、微软、摩托罗拉等,都和华为有战略合作伙伴关系。这些行业巨擘给华为提供了很好的学习借鉴机会，使华为的运营管理更国际化。不仅如此，华为不惜花重金,聘请知名管理咨询公司，来协助其制定长期策略。 科技创新和价格优势，也许是华为在短时间内,成为通讯设备及方案领域强手的最主要原因。在公司设立之初，华为的研发投入,只占到销售额的很小份额。但如果想和(诸如诺基亚、摩托罗拉之类的)大企业竞争，就必须在不降低产品性能的同时，提供价格优势。目前，华为和主要竞争对手的销售额，及研发投入的差距正在缩小。 在研发方面，华为有一个高招,就是“反向创新”——将为发展中国家设计的科技创新，介绍到发达国家来。在给发展中国家设计通讯基础设施建设时，成本控制非常重要。因此，给发展中国家的方案,效率往往更具优势。 比如,华为在给印度设计无线网络站时，就大大提高了技术利用效率，最终,该技术被欧洲通讯企业购买采用。在2008年，华为成为全世界申请专利数最多的企业。同年，它在挪威奥斯陆,成为世界上第一家赢得4G设备生产合同的企业。这都显示出华为的科技优势和价格优势。 美国《 商业周刊》当年,把华为誉为“世界最具影响力”的公司之一。在西方商学院的教科书里，华为常被作为一个发展中国家企业,成为全球跨国企业的典型成功案例。 不难想象，当华为成为一家能用低价,提供世界一流设备和服务的公司时，发达国家在这个领域的霸主地位,就会受到严重威胁。这些威胁,不仅在于华为的技术和价格竞争，还在于谁能来占领未开垦市场的先机。很显然,华为在新兴市场的优势,无可比拟。 隐形贸易壁垒,和“在中国根本不存在”的各种被诉理由，让华为在海外很受伤 但是，作为高科技产业的通讯业，通常具有较高的隐形贸易壁垒。比如,美国就以“保护数据安全和国家安全”为由，为难华为在美国的市场化进程。尽管华为在世界范围的光纤领域,具有24%的市场占有率，在北美,它只取得0.9%。 在2008年，华为因“数据安全”,被迫放弃用22亿美元竞标收购一家美国高科技企业3Com。美国和伊朗之间的危机，给华为的北美业务蒙上阴影，因为,美国指责华为向伊朗提供通讯技术。美国商务部取消了华为为美国警察、消防以及医疗部门，提供急救无线网络技术的资格。实际上，很多西方公司(如诺基亚和西门子)在伊朗的业务都非常活跃。 另一方面，华为及很多其他中国企业,都因为在国际市场经验不足，屡吃官司。这显示出中国企业经营管理的一些问题。中国企业的管理模式与管理经验，和上个世纪相比，都具有了历史性飞跃；但和西方国家相比，China国法律基础是相当不健全。因此,从中国走出的企业，法律意识比较淡薄。有的公司缺乏用法律保护自己的意识， 也有的公司,用中国的“常规”来接轨世界，反而,频遭起诉。 比如,最近华为英国分公司的一名英籍员工，就因种族歧视理由起诉了华为，原因是,华为在英国雇佣的中国籍员工太多,英国法律不允许企业因为种族、肤色、性别和年龄等原因，对任何一个员工产生偏好。这显示出:China国企业在国际化时，对当地,尤其是对发达国家法律体系理解的缺失。 英国霍金路伟律师事务所称，中国企业在法律服务方面的投入极少，约是美国公司的2%。因此,当中国公司来到法律制度较健全的西方国家时，常常会因为各种缘由被起诉。这些被起诉的理由，在中国根本不存在。 在21世纪，几乎所有中国制造企业,都希望走向 “中国创造”。创造和制造虽仅一字之差，给企业、员工、经济及环境带来的影响,天壤之别。苹果iPhone和iPad背面,赫然写着“加利福尼亚州设计，中国组装”。这短短一句话背后的含义，是中国工人夜以继日的工作，仅拿到1.8%的利润。为此，华为在英国伦敦成立了设计中心，因为,欧洲有很多年轻又有创意的设计师，这对提高华为未来的核心竞争力很有必要。 Poor Americans celebrate the Chinese cheap smart phones, time :2012 -01-27 In “The Wall Street Journal” website, enter “Huawei (Huawei)” word search, from January 15, 2010, to January 18, 2012 (“The Wall Street Journal” Web site to search for the longest time, two years) Total 337 results, almost all of Huawei’s overseas expansion on the news. From the search results can be seen, Huawei overseas expansion, covering five continents, both in India, Nigeria, Algeria and other developed countries, but also the United States, Germany, Britain and other traditional economic power. The world’s most prestigious financial media, to the Chinese company Huawei unprecedented focus. The other three of China’s “world brand” – “Haier (Haier)”, “ZTE (ZTE)” and “Lenovo (Lenovo)” in the number of news items on the site, respectively, 42,160 and 316. Huawei with reported worldwide “big action”, and the resulting controversy caused different reports about the contents of three, usually only the product information. With the most popular word, it means, “How Americans love Huawei?” Is not. Starting in 2008, Huawei in the U.S., has conducted four acquisitions were the highest bid, but failed. Thus, Huawei learned a lesson, not to talk about in the U.S. market, “acquisitions”, even in the last year, declared that “plans to reduce” the United States as a “thorn” Iran business. Perhaps because of this, when the low-cost smart phones Huawei in the U.S. market selling, the “Wall Street Journal” to the positive assessment of their long absence: “They (referring to Huawei’s low-cost smart phone) to a certain extent, making the U.S. low-income family, quickly spend the smart phone, the same time, so that the U.S. level, to achieve the mobile Internet. ” “Huawei” word, it seems that few Westerners can not read out at San Diego, a low-cost mobile phone service provider’s sales staff Norma Meijia, in October last year, a business light at night, complained that mobile phone operators Cricket Wireless to open in the operating room across the street crowds away all her customers the. Office of the highlights of that business is the sale of a new type of low-cost smart phones – Chinese telecom equipment maker Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. manufacture low-cost handsets. According to “The Wall Street Journal” reported that Huawei cheap smart phones, to a certain extent, making the U.S. low-income families, quickly spend the smart phone, the same time, so that the United States to achieve a level of mobile Internet. Latest data show that Huawei cell phone in the end of 2011, ranked among the U.S. smart phone sales the first seven. Indeed, if no one can check e-mail, sent to it, and the Internet, and even consumer smart phone, seems to have left behind the horse. Apple iPhone for the industry leader in smart phones, is the mobile communications industry trends. But Apple and other brands expensive, nearly three years of financial turmoil, so many Western consumers, turning to brand China – Huawei. With carriers looking to the U.S. telecommunications industry, one of the last several sources of growth – the low-income consumers to use smart phones, Huawei eye grassland to “offer” some of the most expensive mobile phone. According to research firm Gartner Inc. Statistics, as of September 30 last year, Huawei’s global market share from 1.3% to 2.4%, almost doubled its growth since that engulfs the Nokia and other companies the market share. Also in the end of last September 30 year, although at the low end Nokia mobile phone market – is still dominant, but the market share of 28.2% but never fell to 23.9%. For now, Huawei’s mobile phone products, selling more than half of all household income $ 35,000 or less population, NPD statistics the company said that income, accounting for the total number of smart phone buy ratio, only 1 / 4. According to the Pew Research Center survey last year found that low-income smart phone owners use mobile as their main tool for the possibility of the Internet, much higher than other users. U.S. cell phone service provider MetroPCS, President Tom Mukai Si, long ago, and analysts about the company’s new offering of its phone dependent Huawei products, joked that his passport, with Chinese visa. Look, Huawei cell phone’s performance in the booming U.S. market, but the brand, consumers in the United States, where almost no recognition – “Huawei” word, it seems that few Westerners can recite it. In “Wall Street Journal” interview, some customers even “Huawei”, mistakenly say “Hawaii (Hawaii)”, “Maui (Maui: Hawaii’s an island).” Interestingly, this and the 1960s, Japan’s Mitsubishi Corporation (Mitsubishi) just entering the U.S. market when the situation is almost exactly the same. However, Mitsubishi, today is a global household name, everyone can accurately call out the convoluted Japanese name. International road to take, “encircling the cities” strategy Twenty thousand yuan started, Huawei was founded in 1988, and today is the world’s second largest telecommunications equipment manufacturer, is one of the few China “brand in the world.” Huawei’s international road, take the “encircling the cities” strategy. First, Huawei in lower gross domestic product in Southeast Asia, and Latin American countries, the establishment of sales network. In these less developed markets grab opportunities, it gradually to the more affluent countries of the Middle East offensive. Ultimately, Huawei will be targeted in developed countries, and in these highly competitive market, a slice. Internationalization of the brand on the road, Huawei has become a number of multinational equipment suppliers, such as, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Motorola, and Huawei have a strategic partnership. The industry giant Huawei to provide a good opportunity to learn, Huawei’s operational management to make more international. Moreover, Huawei has spent a large amount of money, to hire well-known management consulting firm, to assist in its development of long-term strategy. Technological innovation and price advantage, perhaps Huawei in a short time, become a field of strong competitors, communications equipment and the main reason for the program. In the company’s start-up, Huawei’s R & D investment, only to a small share of sales. But if you want, and (such as Nokia, Motorola and the like) big business competition, it must not reduce performance, while providing a price advantage. Currently, Huawei’s sales and major competitors, and R & D investment gap is narrowing. In R & D, Huawei has a brilliant idea, is the “reverse innovation” – the design of technological innovation for developing countries, to developed countries to introduce. In developing countries the building of communication infrastructure design, cost control is very important. Therefore, to programs in developing countries, efficiency is often an advantage. For example, Huawei to Indian designs in the wireless network station, greatly improving the technical efficiency, and ultimately, the technology used by the European telecommunications companies to buy. In 2008, Huawei has become the world’s largest number of patent applications for the enterprise. In the same year, it is in Oslo, Norway, the world’s first 4G device to win a production contract enterprises. All this shows that Huawei’s technological advantage and price advantage. United States, “Business Week” In the past, the Huawei as the “world’s most influential” one of the companies. In Western Business School textbooks, Huawei is often as a developing country enterprises to become global multinationals typical success story. Not difficult to imagine, when Huawei can become a low-cost, world-class equipment and services company, developed countries dominance in this area would be seriously threatened. These threats, not only because of Huawei’s technology and price competition, to capture the virgin who is also the market opportunities. Obviously, the advantage in emerging markets, Huawei, unparalleled. Invisible barriers to trade, and “does not exist in China,” a variety of reasons for the defendant, so that Huawei is injured abroad However, as high-tech industry, communications industry, typically have a higher invisible barriers to trade. For example, the United States to “protect the data security and national security” grounds, Huawei in the U.S. market difficult process. Although Huawei’s optical field in the world, with 24% market share in North America, it only made 0.9%. In 2008, Huawei for “data security”, was forced to abandon its $ 2.2 billion bid for a U.S. high-tech company 3Com. Crisis between the United States and Iran, to cast a shadow over Huawei’s North American operations, because the United States accused Huawei to provide communications technology to Iran. U.S. Department of Commerce for the United States canceled the Huawei police, fire and medical departments to provide emergency wireless network technology qualifications. In fact, many Western companies (such as Nokia and Siemens) operations in Iran are very active. On the other hand, Huawei and many other Chinese companies, all because of lack of experience in the international market, repeatedly sued. This shows that Chinese enterprise management problems. Chinese enterprise management mode and management experience, and compared to the last century, has a historic leap; and Western countries, but compared to, China is a very basic law of the country is not perfect. Therefore, from the Chinese out of business, legal consciousness is rather weak. Some companies lack awareness of the legal protection of their own, and some companies, with China’s “normal” to align the world, but, frequently prosecuted. For example, recently, a British subsidiary of Huawei UK employees, sued on the grounds of racial discrimination because of Huawei, because Huawei employment in the UK too many people of Chinese nationality, British law does not allow companies because of their race, color, sex and age other reasons, have preference for any one employee. This shows that: China in the internationalization of multinational enterprises, local, especially for developed countries, the lack of understanding of the legal system. UK law firm Lovells, said Hawking, Chinese enterprises invested in legal services rarely, about 2% of U.S. companies. Therefore, when Chinese companies came to the legal system more robust in Western countries, often because of a variety of reason to be prosecuted. These are the reasons for prosecution, does not exist in China. In the 21st century, almost all Chinese manufacturers, want to “China.” Although only one word to create and manufacture, to the enterprise, employees, economic and environmental impact of different. Apple iPhone and iPad on the back, bearing the words “California Design, assembled in China.” The meaning behind this short sentence is the Chinese workers worked day and night, only got 1.8% of the profits. To this end, Huawei set up a design center in London, England, because in Europe there are many young and creative designers, which enhance the core competitiveness of Huawei’s future is necessary.