鼎是中國古代的一種青銅器,三足,兩耳,通常刻有精細的紋飾。鼎最初是一種炊具,後來因用於烹飪祭祀給神的犧牲,而上升為禮器,成為國家政權中君主、大臣等權力像徵。據文獻及考古發現九鼎應為諸侯之製,七、五鼎為卿大夫,三、一鼎為士級。中國歷史博物館收藏的“司母戊”大方鼎是現存最大的商代青銅器。鼎被賦予神聖的色彩,起源於禹鑄九鼎的傳說。鼎是文明的見證,也是文化的載體。

鼎是中國古代的一種青銅器,三足,兩耳,通常刻有精細的紋飾。鼎最初是一種炊具,後來因用於烹飪祭祀給神的犧牲,而上升為禮器,成為國家政權中君主、大臣等權力像徵。據文獻及考古發現九鼎應為諸侯之製,七、五鼎為卿大夫,三、一鼎為士級。中國歷史博物館收藏的“司母戊”大方鼎是現存最大的商代青銅器。鼎被賦予神聖的色彩,起源於禹鑄九鼎的傳說。鼎是文明的見證,也是文化的載體。

鼎 – 釋義
基本字義
 鼎
dǐng ㄉㄧㄥˇ
◎ 古代烹煮用的器物,一般是三足,兩耳:銅~。 ~食(列鼎而食,指豪侈生活)。 ~鑊。
◎ 鍋:~罐。 ~鍋。
◎ 古代,視為立國的重器,是政權的象徵:~彝。九~。定~。問~。 ~祚(國運)。
◎ 象徵三方並立、互相對峙:~峙。 ~足之勢。
◎ 大:~族。 ~臣。 ~力支持。
◎ 正當,正在:~盛(shèng )。

詳細字義
◎ 鼎 dǐng 〈名詞〉
(1) (象形。甲骨文字形,上面的部分象鼎的左右耳及鼎腹,下面象鼎足。本義:古代烹煮用的器物)
(2) 同本義 [tripod caldron]。盛行於商、週。用於煮盛物品,或置於宗廟作銘功記績的禮器。統治者用作烹人的刑具
鼎,三足兩耳,和五味之寶器也。 ——《 說文》
(3) 又如:鼎峙(比喻三方並峙,如,鼎之三足);鼎鉉(指鼎);鼎鼐(鼎、鼐,均為古代炊具,用來調和五味。舊時,用以比喻宰相治理國家)
(4) 比喻帝王 [emperor]。如:問鼎;定鼎中原;鼎甲(科舉考試殿試名列一甲);鼎命(帝王之位);鼎業(帝王的大業)
(5) 指 宰相 [prime minister]。如:鼎台(宰輔大臣);鼎臣(指宰相)
(6) 喻三公、宰輔、重臣之位[high official]。如:鼎輔(三公,宰輔);鼎司(三公的職位)
(7) 指 國家 [state]。如:鼎祚(國祚,國運);鼎運(國運)

詞性變化
◎ 鼎 dǐng
〈形容詞〉
(1) 顯貴 [important]。如:鼎臣(大臣,重臣)
(2) 顯赫,盛大 [great]
高門鼎貴。 ——晉· 左思《 吳都賦》
(3) 又如:大名鼎鼎;鼎甲(豪門大族);鼎姓(豪族,大姓);鼎能(大才能。指能力超群,舉世無匹);鼎族(巨族,豪門貴族)
(4) 三方並立的,如,鼎足分立[tripartite]。如:鼎分(三分)
◎ 鼎 dǐng 〈動詞〉
變革 [change;reformation]
鼎新麾一舉,革故法三章。 ——李商隱《 贈送前劉五經映》
鼎革固天啟。 ——徐浩《 謁禹廟》
鼎 – 器具簡介
鼎是青銅器的最重要器種之一,是用以烹煮肉和盛貯肉類的器具。三代及秦漢,延續兩千多年,鼎一直是最常見和最神秘的禮器。

一般來說,鼎有三足的圓鼎和四足的方鼎兩類,又可分有蓋的,和無蓋的兩種。有一種成組的鼎,形制由大到小,成為一列,稱為列鼎,列鼎的數目,在周朝時,是代表著不同的身份等級的。列鼎,通常為單數。據文獻及考古發現,九鼎應為諸侯之製;七、五鼎,為卿大夫;三、一鼎,為士級。

天子之製為十二鼎,是雙數;至今,未見周天子之陵墓,故這個記載,是否正確,還有待證實。當然,列鼎中的九鼎,並非代表中央政權的九鼎。

鼎 – 中國的鼎文化
拼音:dǐng,
英文: Ding

鼎是青銅器的最重要器種之一,是用以烹煮肉和盛貯肉類的器具。三代及秦漢延續兩千多年,鼎一直是最常見和最神秘的禮器。

中國歷史博物館收藏的“司母戊”大方鼎,就是商代晚期的青銅鼎,長方、四足,高133厘米,重875公斤,是現存最大的商代青銅器。鼎腹內,有“司母戊”三字,是商王為祭祀他的母親戊,而鑄造的。

一般來說,鼎有三足的圓鼎,和四足的方鼎兩類,又可分,有蓋的,和無蓋的兩種。

有一種成組的鼎,形制,由大到小,成為一列,稱為列鼎,列鼎的數目,在周朝時,是代表著不同的身份等級的。列鼎,通常為單數。據文獻及考古發現,九鼎應為諸侯之製;七、五鼎為卿大夫;三、一鼎為士級。天子之製,為12鼎,是雙數;至今,未見周天子之陵墓,故這個記載,是否正確,有待證實。列鼎中的九鼎,並非代表中央政權的九鼎。

關於“鼎”的來歷及作用:鼎,本來是古代的烹飪之器,相當於現在的鍋,用以燉煮和盛放魚肉。許慎在《 說文解字》裡說:“鼎,三足兩耳,和五味之寶器也。”有三足圓鼎,也有四足方鼎。最早的鼎,是黏土燒製的陶鼎,後來,有了用青銅鑄造的銅鼎。傳說,夏禹曾收九牧之金,鑄九鼎,於荊山之下,以像徵九州,並在上面,鐫刻魑魅魍魎的圖形,讓人們警惕,防止被其傷害。自從有了禹鑄九鼎的傳說,鼎就從一般的炊器,發展為傳國重器。國滅,則鼎遷,夏朝滅,商朝興,九鼎,遷於商都亳​​(bó)京;商朝滅,周朝興,九鼎,遷於週都鎬(hào)京。歷商至週,都把定都,或建立王朝,稱為“定鼎”。

鼎被視為傳國重器、國家和權力的象徵,“鼎”字,被賦予“顯赫”、“ 尊貴”、“盛大”等引申意義,如:一言九鼎、大名鼎鼎、鼎盛時期、鼎力相助,等等。鼎,是旌功記績的禮器。周代的國君,或王公大臣,在重大慶典,或接受賞賜時,都要鑄鼎,以記載盛況。這種禮俗,至今,仍然有一定影響。為慶賀聯合國50華誕,中華人民共和國,於1995年10月21日,在聯合國總部,向聯合國贈送一尊青銅巨鼎——世紀寶鼎。西藏和平解放50週年慶典之際,中央政府向西藏自治區贈送“民族團結寶鼎”,矗立於拉薩人民會堂廣場,象徵民族團結和西藏各項事業鼎盛發展。此舉,意義深遠,文化內涵豐厚。

鼎是中國青銅文化的代表。它是文明的見證,也是文化的載體。根據禹鑄九鼎的傳說,可以推想,中國遠在4000多年前,就有了青銅的冶煉和鑄造技術;從地下發掘的商代大銅鼎,確鑿證明,中國商代,已是高度發達的青銅時代。中國歷史博物館收藏的“司母戊”大方鼎,就是商代晚期的青銅鼎,長方、四足,高133厘米,重875公斤,是現存最大的商代青銅器。鼎腹內,有“司母戊”三字,是商王為祭祀他的母親戊,而鑄造的。清代出土的大盂鼎、大克鼎、毛公鼎和頌鼎等,都是西周時期的著名青銅器。鼎和其他青銅器上的銘文,記載了商周時代的典章制度和冊封、祭祀、征伐等史實,把西周時期的大篆文字,傳給了後世,形成了具有很高審美價值的金文書法藝術,鼎,因此更加身價不凡,成為比其他青銅器更為重要的歷史文物。美學家李澤厚認為,中國青銅器,以其“特有的三足器——鼎為核心代表,器製沉雄厚實,紋飾獰厲神秘,刻鏤深重凸出”,是中國青銅藝術成熟期,最具審美價值的青銅藝術品。

鼎為中國古代炊食器。中國鼎文化的起源,可以一直追溯到原始社會新石器時代,早在7000多年前,就出現了陶製的鼎。其真正的發展最高峰,出現在商朝和西周時期,尤其是商代,以鼎為代表的祭祀用容器的製作,盛行於商周時期,延續到漢代。在奴隸制鼎盛時代,被用作“別上下,明貴賤”,是一種標明身份等級的重要禮器。文獻記載:“天子九鼎,諸侯七鼎,大夫五鼎,元士三鼎或一鼎”,又載“鑄九鼎,像九州”。又有成語一言九鼎、問鼎中原、三足鼎立等。青銅鼎的前身,是原始社會的陶​​鼎,本來,是日用的飲食容器,後來,發展成祭祀天帝和祖先的“神器”,並被籠罩上一層神秘,威嚴的色彩。在古代,鼎是貴族身份的代表。典籍載有天子九鼎、諸侯七鼎、大夫五鼎、元士三鼎,或一鼎的用鼎制度。鼎是國家政權的象徵,《 左傳》有載:“桀有昏德,鼎遷於商;商紂暴虐,鼎遷於週”。鼎大多為三足圓形,有四足的方鼎。

現代漢字中的“鼎”字,經過了甲骨文、金文、小篆、隸書等多次變化,仍然保留著“鼎”這一事物的風範和形體特點,其物,其字,幾乎融為一體,都有著豐富的文化內涵。

鼎 – 發展歷程
最初的鼎,是由遠古時期陶製的食具,演變而來的。鼎的主要用途,是烹煮食物,鼎的三條腿,便是灶口和支架,腹下燒火,可以熬煮油烹食物。自從青銅鼎出現後,它多了一項功能,成為祭祀神靈的一種重要禮器。青銅鼎,多為圓腹三足,也有方腹四足的。鼎口處,有兩耳。對銅鼎的擁有和使用,是奴隸主身份等級差別的標誌之一。
在周代,就有“天子九鼎,諸侯七鼎,卿大夫五鼎,元士三鼎”等使用數量的規定。隨著這種等級、身份、地位標誌的逐漸演化,鼎逐漸成為了王權的象徵、國家的重寶。統治者往往以舉國之力,來鑄造大鼎。秦代以後,鼎的王權象徵意義,逐漸失去。以後,伴隨著佛教在中國的傳播,鼎的形式,得以延續。後代的鼎,通常安放在寺廟大殿前,既是裝飾物,又是焚香的容器。

鼎 – 鼎與古代青銅器
自從發現了青銅材質,人類文化,從原始社會,躍入一個新的文明階段,青銅,遂成為一個時代鮮明的標誌。

五千年的中華文明史,有一半,是由羽羽生輝的青銅器鑄造出來的。從公元前二千年之前,由黃河流域中原二里頭文化(即,十三朝古都洛陽東郊),和其上游齊家文化為代表的,最早面世的青銅器來看,距今,已有四千多年的歷史,成為延續二千多年的青銅器時代,在中華文明史冊上,佔據著重要的位置。在青銅器早期,為新石器時代,散見的,只有陶器製品,青銅器時代後期,被瓷器和鐵器製品所代替。在二千多年的青銅器歷史長河中,其製品,五光十色,其工藝,流光異彩。既有權力像徵的各種銅鼎,重器,也有尊、壺、鬲、觥、觚、鐘、燈、爐等各種宮廷禮器、祭器、酒器、盛器和生活用品、陳設品、工藝品,其造型也遍及龍、虎、牛、馬、羊、鹿、象、人、鳥等各種形態和飾物,僅紋飾,就有獸面紋、乳行紋、蚊紋、風紋雷紋、龍形紋、龜魚紋、曲折紋、雲雷紋、蟠螭紋、幾何紋、竹節紋、菱形紋、直紋、斜紋、六山紋、葉紋等,幾十種。從生活用品,到樂器,從飾品,到戰爭武器。可以說,如繁星滿天,品種之多,不勝枚舉,充分記錄了中華文明史的輝煌時代,也是歷代王室、宮廷、候門、伯爵們,生前,陳設豪華璀璨耀目;死後,追求不朽,陪葬昂貴富麗和考究的佐證。

世界各文明古國,都經歷過青銅時代,唯有古代中國,賦予青銅器,以重要的社會意義、深厚的精神內涵,以及高度完美的藝術形式。中國古代青銅藝術的成就,主要體現在夏、商、週三個朝代,前後,延續了2,000多年。近代以來,青銅器大量出土,使長久處於朦朧的中國古代史,面貌逐漸清晰起來。

中國從夏代開始,進入階級社會,象徵國家政治權勢和軍權、神權的青銅製造業,完全為貴族壟斷,這些青銅器的製造,均是以貴族的意志、需要和審美意願為依歸。中國青銅器,歷經20多個世紀的發展衍變,可以分為以下幾個時期:
發展時期
時間分野
初期
夏代
商代風格盛行期
商代遷都殷(今河南安陽)以後,至西周前期,約為商王武丁,到西周穆王時期。
西周風格成熟期
西周後期至春秋前期
東周風格盛行期
春秋中期至戰國時期
青銅器中的鼎,原是上古時候,極為普遍的烹飪器,其後,實用意義逐漸減弱,成為權勢的象徵物。夏鑄九鼎的傳說,表明了青銅器,在古人心目中的重要地位。發生於春秋時代的“問鼎中原”事件,是這種觀念的延續。現今,已發現的中國古代體量最大的青銅器──商代司母戊鼎,感受到鼎予人的精神震撼。

鼎 – 意義
在古代,人們都認為,黃帝在戰勝炎帝的後代蚩尤後,曾鑄三鼎,象徵天地人;夏禹鑄九鼎,象徵九州。在古代,鼎是鎮國之寶,傳國重器。鼎上的花紋,古人認為:有鎮邪的作用,有時,將法律條文刻在鼎上,以顯示法律的莊嚴。改朝換代後,新登位的君王,第一件工作,就是鑄鼎,頒訂法律,以像徵新時代的開始,並表示吉祥。所以,朝代改變,稱作鼎革。現在,鼎的造型,主要用來象徵吉祥。在家中擺設銅鼎,寓意一切將有新的開始。

鼎 – 歷史地位
鼎是中國青銅文化時期的代表。鼎在古代,被視為立國重器,是國家和權力的象徵。直到現在,中國人仍然有一種鼎崇拜的意識,“鼎”字,被賦予“顯赫”、“ 尊貴”、“盛大”等引申意義,如:一言九鼎、大名鼎鼎、鼎盛時期、鼎力相助,等等。鼎,是旌功記績的禮器。周代的國君或王公大臣,在重大慶典,或接受賞賜時,都要鑄鼎,以旌表功績,記載盛況。

鼎被賦予神聖的色彩,起源於禹鑄九鼎的傳說。鼎本來是古代的烹飪之器,相當於現在的鍋,用以燉煮和盛放魚肉。許慎在《 說文解字》裡說:“鼎,三足,兩耳,和五味之寶器也。”有三足圓鼎,也有四足方鼎。最早的鼎,是黏土燒製的陶鼎,後來,有了用青銅鑄造的銅鼎。傳說,夏禹曾收九牧之金,鑄九鼎,於荊山之下,以像徵九州,並在上面,鐫刻魑魅魍魎的圖形,讓人們警惕,防止被其傷害。自從,有了禹鑄九鼎的傳說,鼎就從一般的炊器,發展為傳國重器。歷商至週,都把定都,或建立王朝,稱為“定鼎”。國滅,則鼎遷,夏朝滅,商朝興,九鼎遷於商都亳​​(bó)京;商朝滅,周朝興,九鼎,遷於週都鎬京。

歷史上有“問鼎”的典故,語出《 左傳宣公三年》,大意是:楚莊王為討伐外族入侵者來到洛陽,在周天子境內,檢閱軍隊。周定王派大夫王孫滿去慰勞,楚莊王藉機詢問周鼎的大小輕重。王孫滿說:政德清明,鼎小也重;國君無道,鼎大也輕。周王朝定鼎中原,權力天賜。鼎的輕重不當詢問。楚莊王問鼎,大有欲取周王朝天下而代之的意思,結果,遭到定王使者王孫滿的嚴詞斥責。後來,就把圖謀篡奪王位,叫做“問鼎”。

鼎是文明的見證,也是文化的載體。根據禹鑄九鼎的傳說,可以推想,中國遠在4000多年前,就有了青銅的冶煉和鑄造技術;從地下發掘的商代大銅鼎,確鑿證明中國商代,已是高度發達的青銅時代。中國歷史博物館收藏的“司母戊”大方鼎,就是商代晚期的青銅鼎,長方、四足,高133厘米,重835公斤,是現存最大的商代青銅器。鼎腹內,有“司母戊”三字,是商王為祭祀他的母親戊,而鑄造的。清代出土的大盂鼎、大克鼎、毛公鼎和頌鼎等,都是西周時期的著名青銅器。鼎和其他青銅器上的銘文,記載了商周時代的典章制度和冊封、祭祀、征伐等史實,把西周時期的大篆文字,傳給了後世,形成了具有很高審美價值的金文書法藝術,鼎,因此更加身價不凡,成為比其他青銅器更為重要的歷史文物。美學家李澤厚認為,中國青銅器,以其“特有的三足器——鼎為核心代表,器製沉雄厚實,紋飾獰厲神秘,刻鏤深重凸出”,是中國青銅藝術成熟期,最具審美價值的青銅藝術品。

現代漢字中的“鼎”字,經過了甲骨文、金文、小篆、隸書等多次變化,仍然保留著“鼎”這一事物的風範和形體特點,其物,其字,幾乎融為一體,都有著豐富的文化內涵。
周代的鼎,分為三大類:
鑊鼎、升鼎、羞鼎。
鑊鼎形體巨大,多無蓋,用來煮白牲肉。
升鼎也稱正鼎,是盛放從鑊鼎中取出的熟肉的器具。
羞鼎,是盛放佐料的肉羹,與升鼎相配使用,所以,叫“陪鼎”。

王子午鼎
王子午鼎1977年,河南省淅川縣發現了中國古代楚國墓葬,從墓中,發掘出青銅禮器、樂器、兵器,以及玉器等極其豐富的陪葬物品,80%以上,都是國家一級文物。在這些國寶重器當中,2號墓出土的一套列鼎,讓專家們更是驚嘆不已。列鼎,共有七件,它們造型與紋飾完全相同,只是大小不同,由大到小,依次排列,氣勢雄偉,霸氣十足。根據鼎內的銘文:“王子午自鑄銅鼎……望子孫後代,以此為準則。”專家一致認為,這是敢於“問鼎中原”的楚莊王的兒子——王子午,七大列鼎,被後人稱為王子午鼎。

司母戊鼎
司母戊大方鼎,是1939年3月,在河南安陽侯家莊武官村吳玉瑤家的農田中發現的。這裡,距武官村大墓西南隅,大約80米。大鼎出土後,太重,太大,移動困難,人們便想鋸斷大鼎,然後,運出。但是,由於日本侵略者多次勒索和強購,當時,恐怕被日寇掠取,便把大鼎,重新埋在地下。 1946年6月,抗戰勝利後,大鼎重新掘出,已失去一耳。大鼎出土後,先存放在安陽縣政府,同年10月,移到南京博物院。 1959年,將方鼎運到北京中國歷史博物館展出。現在,中國歷史博物館展出的,是原鼎的複製品,真品,早已作為珍貴的歷史文物保護起來了。

司母戊鼎是世界上罕見的青銅器貴重文物,它是迄今為止,所有出土的鼎中,最大最重的。鼎重832.84公斤,高133厘米,口長110厘米,寬78厘米,足高46厘米,壁厚6厘米。鼎大得可以做馬槽,人們又叫它“馬槽鼎”。

司母戊鼎,紋飾美觀莊重,工藝精巧,一向為世人所欽羨。它的價值,更高。鼎身四周,鑄有精巧的盤龍紋和饕餮紋,增​​加了文物本身的威武凝重之感。
饕餮,是傳說中,好吃的野獸,把它鑄在青銅器上,表示吉祥、豐年足食。耳廓紋飾,俗稱虎咬人頭紋,這種紋飾,是在耳的左右作虎形,虎頭繞到耳的上部,張口相向,虎的中間有一人頭,好像被虎所吞噬。耳的上面,有兩尾魚形。足上鑄的蟬紋,圖案表現蟬體,線條清晰。

大鼎的腹內長壁上,有三個銘文“司母戊”。關於這三個銘文,如何解釋,目前,學術界有三種說法:(1)一般的解釋認為,這鼎是商王為祭祀他的母親戊而鑄造的。 “司”解釋為職司、官司、典司。 (2)另一種解釋認為,這是一個氏族的名稱。 (3)第三種解釋,把“司”,釋為祠。 “祠”,就是祭祀的意思。還有把“司”,釋作王后的“後”字的。 “母戊”是誰呢?最早的推測,母戊是殷王武乙的配偶妣戊,即,文丁的母親,作器者,為文丁。卜辭記載,文丁的配偶為批癸,帝乙的配偶,不見記載,因此,有人認為,“母戊”可能是帝乙的配偶。據此,大鼎力殷墟晚期的器物。另一種意見認為,“母戊”,可能是指武丁的法定配偶或祖甲的法定配偶。因此,作器者,可能為祖庚、祖甲、或廩辛、康丁。這樣,該鼎,就是殷墟前期的遺物。

司母戊鼎是中國殷代青銅器的代表作,有人曾用光譜定性,分析它的合金成份,結果表明,大鼎的成份和殷代一般銅器的成份,基本相同。人們,對銅、錫、鉛三元素,用化學分析的沉澱法,進行了定量分析,結果表明,大鼎的合金成份是:銅佔84.77%,錫佔11.64%,鉛佔2.79%,這一分析,與《 周禮考工記》上說的“六分其金,而錫居一”的記載,基本是相符的。

關於大鼎的鑄造方法,根據考古工作者的觀察分析,認為,大鼎是採用組芯的造型方法,即,先用土塑造泥模,用泥模翻製陶範,再把陶範,合到一起,灌注銅液。從鑄造痕跡來看,司母戊鼎,是用20塊範鑄成的。司母戊鼎出色的鑄造技術,標誌著商代青銅鑄造技術的發展水平。

世紀寶鼎
世紀寶鼎是為慶賀聯合國50華誕,具有商周青銅風格的藝術精品,採用整體鑄造,一次澆注成功。它的設計和製作,經過多次論證,是在國內專家、文物考古學者的悉心指導下完成的。 “世紀寶鼎”,高2.1米,象徵21世紀;口徑1.5米,重1.5噸。它姿呈三足鼎立,雙耳高聳,滿身紋飾。鼎內壁,鑄有金文:“鑄贈世紀寶鼎,慶賀聯合國五十華誕。”
鼎禁(底座)高0.5米,2米見方,上鑄56條夔龍紋飾,象徵中華民族,都是龍的傳人。禁前後,分別以金文鑄有“世紀寶鼎”,和“中華人民共和國贈,一九九五年十月”字樣。鼎圓禁方,造型雄偉祥和,氣勢宏大,古樸典雅,美觀莊重。充分體現了中華民族悠久的歷史和燦爛文化。

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《鼎是中國古代的一種青銅器,三足,兩耳,通常刻有精細的紋飾。鼎最初是一種炊具,後來因用於烹飪祭祀給神的犧牲,而上升為禮器,成為國家政權中君主、大臣等權力像徵。據文獻及考古發現九鼎應為諸侯之製,七、五鼎為卿大夫,三、一鼎為士級。中國歷史博物館收藏的“司母戊”大方鼎是現存最大的商代青銅器。鼎被賦予神聖的色彩,起源於禹鑄九鼎的傳說。鼎是文明的見證,也是文化的載體。》有一个想法

  1. Ding is a kind of ancient Chinese bronzes, three feet, ears, usually engraved with fine decoration. Ding was originally a kitchen, which was later used for cooking ritual sacrifice to God, and rose to the ritual, a state power in the monarch, ministers and other symbol of power. According to the literature and archaeological findings Jiuding should be princes of the system, seven, five tripod for the Bureaucrats, three and one tripod for the disability level. Chinese History Museum’s “Si Mu Wu” generous Ding Shang bronzes is the largest remaining. Ding was given the sacred color, originated in the Yu-cast Jiuding legend. Ding is the witness of civilization, but also the carrier of culture.

    Ding – Interpretation
    The basic meaning of words
    Tripod
    dǐng ㄉ ㄧ ㄥ
    ◎ cooking with ancient artifacts, usually three feet, ears: Copper ~. ~ Eat (and eat Ding column means extravagant life). ~ Wok.
    ◎ pot: ~ tank. ~ Pot.
    ◎ ancient times, as founded on the weighing machine, a symbol of political power: ~ Yi. Nine ~. Be ~. Q ~. ~ Jo (fortune).
    ◎ symbol of three side by side, each confrontation: – Zhi. – Full of potential.
    ◎ Large: ~ family. ~ Chen. ~ Force support.
    ◎ legitimate, are: – Sheng (shèng).

    Detail the meaning of words
    ◎ Ding dǐng
    (1) (pictograms. Oracle-shaped, like the top part of the left and right ear and Ding Ding abdomen, below, as rival powers. The original meaning: using ancient cooking utensils)
    (2) with the original meaning [tripod caldron]. Popular in the Shang and Zhou. Sheng items for cooking, or placed in the ancestral temple for Ming functions in mind the ritual performance. Rulers were instruments of torture used cooking
    Ding, three-legged ears, and flavors of the jewels also. – “Said the text”
    (3) Another example: Ding Zhi (metaphor three Kaleidoscopic, such as the three-legged tripod); Ding-hyun (referring to Ding); Ding Nai (Ding, Nai, are ancient cooking utensils, to reconcile the flavors. Old, compared to prime minister govern the country)
    (4) an analogy king [emperor]. Such as: aspirations; Dingding Central Plains; Ding A (examination successful candidates ranked a); tripod life (the emperor’s position); Dingye (the cause of the emperor)
    (5) refers to the prime minister [prime minister]. Such as: tripod table (Saisuke Minister); Ding Chen (referring to the prime minister)
    (6) Yu Sangong, Saisuke, minister of state of the bit [high official]. Such as: Ding Fu (Excellencies, Saisuke); Ding Secretary (Excellencies post)
    (7) refers to the state [state]. Such as: Ding Zuo (Zuo country, fortune); Ding Yun (fortune)

    Changes in speech
    ◎ Ding dǐng

    (1) distinguished [important]. Such as: Ding Chen (Minister, minister of state)
    (2) prominent, grand [great]
    Ding your high door. – Jin Zuo Si “Wudu Fu”
    (3) Another example: the famous; Ding A (wealthy Han); Ding surname (Gentry, the most common surname); ting energy (large order. Refers to the ability of superior, peerless); Ding family (huge family, wealthy aristocrats)
    (4) three side by side, such as tripartite division [tripartite]. Such as: Ding points (third)
    ◎ Ding dǐng
    Change [change; reformation]
    ASDC rejoice in one fell swoop, reforming the law of three chapters. – Li Shang-yin, “presented before the Five Classics Liu Ying”
    Ding leather solid apocalypse. – Xu Hao, “Ye Yu Temple”
    Ding – Profile appliances
    Bronze Ding is one of the most important device types, is used to cook meat and meat filled storage apparatus. Three generations and Han, extending two thousand years, Ding has been the most common and most mysterious ritual.

    In general, Ding Ding round three and four-foot square foot tripod types, and can be divided into covered and uncovered two. There is a grouping of ting, descending shape, becoming one, called the column Ding, ding the number of columns in the Zhou dynasty, representing different levels of identity. Row Ding, usually singular. According to the literature and archaeological findings, Jiuding should be princes of the system; seven, five tripod, the Bureaucrats; third, a tripod, level of disability.

    Ding emperor of the system is twelve, is double the number; so far, no Zhou emperor’s tomb, so the record is correct, yet to be confirmed. Of course, the Jiuding column tripod, does not mean that the central government’s Jiuding.

    Ding – Ding culture in China
    Pinyin: dǐng,
    English: Ding

    Bronze Ding is one of the most important device types, is used to cook meat and meat filled storage apparatus. Han continued two thousand years and three generations, Ding has been the most common and most mysterious ritual.

    Chinese History Museum’s “Si Mu Wu” generous Ding, is the late Shang Dynasty bronze tripod, rectangular, four-legged, high 133 cm, weight 875 kg, is the largest remaining Shang dynasty bronzes. Ting intra-abdominal, the “Si Mu Wu” words, is to sacrifice his mother Shang E, and casting.

    In general, there are three-legged tripod tripod circle, square and four feet two tripod, and can be divided, covered, and uncovered two.

    There is a grouping of ting, shape, descending, as one, called the column Ding, ding the number of columns in the Zhou dynasty, representing different levels of identity. Row Ding, usually singular. According to the literature and archaeological findings, Jiuding should be princes of the system; seven, five tripod for the Bureaucrats; third, a tripod for the disability level. Emperor of the system, 12 tripod, is double the number; so far, no Zhou emperor’s tomb, so the record is correct, yet to be confirmed. Ding column in Jiuding, does not mean that the central government’s Jiuding.

    On the “Ding” the origin and role: Ding, originally an ancient cooking of the device, equivalent to the current pot to stew, and fish in full bloom. Xu Shen in the “Dictionary” says: “Ding, three-legged ears, and flavors of the jewels also.” Tripod of three feet round, there are four feet square tripod. The first tripod, tripod pottery is fired clay, and later, with cast bronze tripod. Legend, Yu has received nine animal husbandry of gold, cast Jiuding, in Jingshan under the symbol of Kyushu, and on top, engraved with demons and monsters of the graphics, so that people alert, to prevent its damage. Ever since Yu cast Jiuding legend, tripod cooking device from the general development of the country for the re-transmission device. Destroy the country, the tripod to move off the Xia, Shang Xing, Jiuding, moved in the business are mm (bó) Beijing; off Shang, Zhou Zhaoxing, Jiuding, moved in the week are ho (hào) in Beijing. Calendar business Zhizhou, regard the capital in, or create a dynasty, known as “Dingding.”

    Ding is considered the country re-transmission device, the state and a symbol of power, “Ding”, which was given “outstanding”, “noble”, “grand” and extended meaning, such as: authoritative, famous, heyday, assisted us in , and so on. Ding, Jing Gong is a record performance of the ritual. Zhou dynasty monarch, or his ministers, in a major celebration, or accept reward, we need to cast tripod to document the event. Such customs, so far, still have a certain influence. To celebrate the fiftieth birthday of the People’s Republic, on October 21, 1995, at United Nations Headquarters, to the United Nations presented a giant bronze tripod – Century Baoding. 50th anniversary of Tibet’s peaceful liberation of the occasion, the central government presented to the Tibet Autonomous Region “national unity JACK”, stands in the Lhasa People’s Hall Square, a symbol of national unity and the height of the development of various undertakings in Tibet. This far-reaching, rich cultural connotation.

    Ding is a Chinese bronze culture representatives. It is the testimony of civilization is the carrier of culture. According to the legend of Yu Jiuding cast, it can be inferred, far away in China 4,000 years ago, there is a bronze smelting and casting technology; from large underground excavation of the Shang Dynasty bronze tripod, conclusive proof of the Chinese Shang Dynasty, is highly developed bronze time. Chinese History Museum’s “Si Mu Wu” generous Ding, is the late Shang Dynasty bronze tripod, rectangular, four-legged, high 133 cm, weight 875 kg, is the largest remaining Shang dynasty bronzes. Ting intra-abdominal, the “Si Mu Wu” words, is to sacrifice his mother Shang E, and casting. Yu Qing Dynasty unearthed a large tripod, Dake tripod, Maogong Ding Ding and Song, are well-known Western Zhou Dynasty bronze. Ding and other inscriptions on bronze, Shang and Zhou dynasties recorded in the laws and institutions and canonized, ritual, conquest and other facts, the Western Zhou Dynasty Seal text passed to future generations, forming a high aesthetic value possessed the art of calligraphy, tripod, so the more extraordinary worth, become more important than other bronze historical relics. Esthetician hou that Chinese bronze, with its “unique three-legged device – Ding core representative control system SHEN Xiong thick, ornamentation Ning Li mysterious carvings deep bulge” is the Chinese Bronze Art maturity, the most aesthetic value of the bronze works of art.

    Ding is the ancient Chinese food cooking device. Chinese Ding cultural origins can be traced back to primitive society Neolithic, as early as 7,000 years ago, there have been earthenware tripod. The development of its real peak in the Shang and Western Zhou Dynasty, especially the Shang Dynasty to worship with a tripod as the representative of the production of container, popular in the Shang and Zhou dynasties, extended to the Han Dynasty. Peak in the slavery era and was used as a “Do not up and down, that are equal” is a level indicating the importance of ritual status. Literature: “Son of Heaven Jiuding, Zhu Hou Qiding, doctor five Ding, Yuan Shi-sanding or a tripod,” also contains “cast Jiuding, like Kyushu.” Idioms have kept their promises, aspirations to the Central Plains, the three pillars and so on. The predecessor of bronze tripod, tripod pottery is primitive society, originally, is a daily diet containers, and later developed into houses of worship and ancestor of the “artifact”, and was cast a shadow over the mysterious, majestic colors. In ancient times, the tripod is the representative of nobility. Jiuding books containing the emperor, Zhu Hou Qiding, doctor five Ding, Yuan Shi-Sanding, or a tripod with a tripod system. Ding is a symbol of state power, “Zuo Zhuan” load: “There are faint De Jie, Ding moved on business; tyrannical Shang Zhou, Ding moved in weeks.” Most of the round three-legged tripod, tripod four feet square.

    Modern Chinese characters in the “Ding” word, after Oracle, Jin, Xiao Zhuan, official script and so many changes, still retains a “tripod” of this style and physical characteristics of things, its objects, its characters, almost integrated, have a rich cultural connotations.

    Ding – History
    The original tripod, by ancient ceramic utensils, evolved. Ding’s main use is cooking food, the three-legged tripod, is the stove and stand, belly light a fire, cooked food can be boiled oil. Since the bronze tripod appears, it is more a feature that became an important worship the gods of ritual. Bronze tripod, mostly three-legged round belly, but also well-abdominal four-footed. Ding mouth, have ears. Ownership and use of the tripod is level difference as a sign of the slave one.
    In the Zhou Dynasty, there, “the emperor Jiuding, Zhu Hou Qiding, Bureaucrats five Ding, Yuan Shi-Sanding” using the number of such provisions. With this class, identity, status symbol of the gradual evolution, Ding has become a symbol of royal power, the country’s treasures. The power of the rulers tend to the whole country, to cast a large tripod. After the Qin Dynasty, Ding royal symbolism, gradually lost. Later, along with the spread of Buddhism in China, Ding form, can survive. Ding offspring, usually placed in the temple hall before, both ornaments, but also incense container.

    Ding – Ding and ancient bronze
    Since the discovery of bronze, human culture, from the primitive society, leap into a new stage of civilization, bronze, became a distinctive sign of the times.

    Five thousand years of Chinese civilization, half, feather by feather out of the brilliance of the bronze casting. From before 2000 BC, by the Yellow River Central Plains Erlitou (ie, the ancient capital of 13 dynasties, Luoyang eastern suburbs), and their representatives into the upper reaches of Qijia Wen, the first launch of the bronze point of view, dating, more than four thousand years history, a continuation of two thousand years of the Bronze Age, in the annals of Chinese civilization, occupies an important position. In the early Bronze Age, the Neolithic, scattered, and only pottery products, the late Bronze Age, was replaced by porcelain and iron products. Bronze two thousand years of history, its products, colorful, and its process, Streamer. Both a symbol of power a variety of tripod, weighing equipment, but also respect, pots, Ge, Gong, goblets, clocks, lamps, heaters and other court ritual, sacrificial utensils, drinking vessels, containers and household items, furnishings, handicrafts its shape is also over the dragon, tiger, cow, horse, sheep, deer, elephants, people, birds and other forms and ornaments, decoration only, there is Animal Mask, milk line pattern, mosquito patterns, wind patterns thunder pattern, dragon-shaped pattern, turtle Yu Wen, winding pattern, Yunlei Wen, Pan Chi pattern, geometric pattern, bamboo pattern, diamond pattern, ruled, twill, six mountain pattern, leaf patterns, etc., dozens of species. From household items to musical instruments, from jewelry to weapons of war. It can be said, such as starry, many varieties, too numerous to mention, the full record of the history of the golden age of Chinese civilization, but also the ancient royal family, palace, waiting door, Earl who, during his lifetime, bright and magnificent luxury furnishings; death, the pursuit of immortal, splendid funerary expensive and sophisticated evidence.

    The world’s ancient civilizations, have experienced the Bronze Age, the only ancient China, giving bronze to important social significance, profound spiritual connotation, and highly perfect art form. Achievements of ancient Chinese bronze art, mainly in the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties three, before and after, and continued 2,000 years. In modern times, a large number of bronzes unearthed so long in the hazy ancient Chinese history, the face gradually clear up.

    China from the Xia Dynasty started to enter the class society, a symbol of national political power and military power, the divine right of bronze manufacturing, complete monopoly of the nobility, the manufacture of these bronzes are based on the will of the nobility, needs and wishes of the aesthetic. Chinese bronzes, after more than 20 century evolve, can be divided into the following periods:
    Period of development
    Time differences between the
    Beginning
    Xia
    Period of the Shang Dynasty style popular
    Shang Dynasty moved the capital to Yin (Anyang, Henan Province today) later, to the early Western Zhou Dynasty, Wang Wuding about business, to King Mu of the Western Zhou period.
    Western Zhou Dynasty style maturity
    The late spring and early Western Zhou Dynasty
    Eastern Zhou period style popular
    Spring and Autumn Period to the Warring States period
    The bronze tripod, it was in ancient times, a very popular cooking device, then, practical significance gradually weakened, become powerful symbols. Hsia Chu Jiuding legend, that of the bronzes, the important position in the eyes of the ancients. Occurred in the Spring and Autumn Period “aspirations to the Central Plains” event is a continuation of this concept. Today, the body has been found in ancient Chinese bronzes ─ ─ largest Shang Si Mu Wu Ding, Ding felt the shock to the human spirit.

    Ding – meaning
    In ancient times, people believed that the descendants of the Yellow Emperor in the fight against Yan Chi, took the cast Sanding, symbolizing the people; Yu cast Jiuding, a symbol of Kyushu. In ancient times, the town of Ding is a national treasure, the country re-transmission device. Ding on the pattern, that the ancients: the role of a town of evil, sometimes, the law inscribed on the tripod, to show the solemn law. Regime change, the new king came to the throne, the first task is to ZD, awarded to laws, to symbolize the new era, and said good luck. Therefore, dynasties change, called tripod leather. Now, the tripod shape, mainly used to symbolize good luck. Home furnishings tripod, meaning everything will be a new beginning.

    Ding – historical status
    Ding is the representative of Chinese bronze culture period. Ding in ancient times, was founded as a weighing machine, a symbol of the state and power. Until now, China still has a sense of worship Ding, “Ding”, which was given “outstanding”, “noble”, “grand” and extended meaning, such as: authoritative, famous, heyday, help, etc. and so on. Ding, Jing Gong is a record performance of the ritual. Zhou Dynasty monarch or his ministers, in a major celebration, or accept the reward, we need to ZD, with Commendation achievements recorded event.

    Ding was given the sacred color, originated in the Yu-cast Jiuding legend. Ding was originally an ancient cooking of the device, equivalent to the current pot to stew, and fish in full bloom. Xu Shen in the “Dictionary” says: “Ding, three feet, ears, and flavors of the jewels also.” Tripod of three feet round, there are four feet square tripod. The first tripod, tripod pottery is fired clay, and later, with cast bronze tripod. Legend, Yu has received nine animal husbandry of gold, cast Jiuding, in Jingshan under the symbol of Kyushu, and on top, engraved with demons and monsters of the graphics, so that people alert, to prevent its damage. Since, with the legend of Yu cast Jiuding, tripod cooking device from the general development of the country for the re-transmission device. Calendar business Zhizhou, regard the capital in, or create a dynasty, known as “Dingding.” Destroy the country, the tripod to move off the Xia, Shang Xing, Jiuding providers have moved in mm (bó) Beijing; off Shang, Zhou Zhaoxing, Jiuding, moved in the week are Gao Jing.

    The history of the “aspirations” of the story, a phrase from “Zuo Xuan Gong three years” to the effect that: King Zhuang of Chu for the crusade against alien invaders came to Luoyang, in the Zhou territory, to review the military. Chou and Wang were Sun-full to reward the doctor, King Zhuang of Chu Zhou Ding took the opportunity to ask the size of the severity. Sun-Man said: Cheng-te Ching Ming, a small tripod is also important; monarch is no way, a large tripod is also light. Zhongyuan Zhou Dynasty Dingding, a heaven-sent power. Ting the severity of the misconduct inquiry. King Zhuang of Chu aspirations, much the intention of seizing the Zhou Dynasty and on behalf of the world the meaning of the results, was given the king’s messenger Sun-filled stern rebuke. Then, put the plot to usurp the throne, called the “aspirations.”

    Ding is the witness of civilization, but also the carrier of culture. According to the legend of Yu Jiuding cast, it can be inferred, far away in China 4,000 years ago, there is a bronze smelting and casting technology; from large underground excavation of the Shang Dynasty bronze tripod, conclusive proof of Chinese Shang Dynasty, is highly developed Bronze Age . Chinese History Museum’s “Si Mu Wu” generous Ding, is the late Shang Dynasty bronze tripod, rectangular, four-legged, high 133 cm, weight 835 kg, is the largest remaining Shang dynasty bronzes. Ting intra-abdominal, the “Si Mu Wu” words, is to sacrifice his mother Shang E, and casting. Yu Qing Dynasty unearthed a large tripod, Dake tripod, Maogong Ding Ding and Song, are well-known Western Zhou Dynasty bronze. Ding and other inscriptions on bronze, Shang and Zhou dynasties recorded in the laws and institutions and canonized, ritual, conquest and other facts, the Western Zhou Dynasty Seal text passed to future generations, forming a high aesthetic value possessed the art of calligraphy, tripod, so the more extraordinary worth, become more important than other bronze historical relics. Esthetician hou that Chinese bronze, with its “unique three-legged device – Ding core representative control system SHEN Xiong thick, ornamentation Ning Li mysterious carvings deep bulge” is the Chinese Bronze Art maturity, the most aesthetic value of the bronze works of art.

    Modern Chinese characters in the “Ding” word, after Oracle, Jin, Xiao Zhuan, official script and so many changes, still retains a “tripod” of this style and physical characteristics of things, its objects, its characters, almost integrated, have a rich cultural connotations.
    Ding Zhou Dynasty is divided into three categories:
    Wok Ding or Ding, Ding shame.
    Ding huge wok body, no more cover, used to cook white meat offerings.
    L Ding Ding is also known, is in full bloom, remove from wok cooked meat tripod apparatus.
    Shame tripod, is in full bloom seasoning Rougeng, used to match up with the tripod, so called “accompany Ding.”

    Prince Ding afternoon
    Prince Ding afternoon in 1977, Henan Province, Xichuan Chu tombs discovered in ancient China, from the tomb, unearthed bronze ritual vessels, musical instruments, weapons, and other extremely rich jade funerary items, more than 80% are national level relics. In weighing these treasures among the tomb of a 2 column tripod, let the experts are even more amazed. Row Ding, a total of seven, they shape and decoration are identical, but different sizes, from big to small, in order of priority, imposing and overbearing. According to Ding the inscription: “Prince afternoon from the bronze tripod … … hope future generations, as a criterion.” Experts agree that it is the courage to “aspirations to the Central Plains,” the King Zhuang of Chu’s son – Prince afternoon, seven out Ding, Ding was later known as Prince afternoon.

    Si Mu Wu Ding
    Si Mu Wu Ding and generous, is March 1939, Hou Zhuang Wuguan Anyang in Henan family farm in the village of Wu Yuyao found. Here, the military attache from the southwest of the village tomb, about 80 meters. Large tripod unearthed, too heavy, too difficult to move people he wanted to saw off a large tripod, and then shipped out. However, due to extortion and many Japanese aggressors strong buy, when the fear of being Japanese plunder, he gave a large tripod, re-buried in the ground. In June 1946, after the war, a large tripod to re-dug, has lost an ear. Unearthed a large tripod, the first stored in Anyang County, in October, moved to Nanjing Museum. 1959, will be shipped to Beijing Ding Fang China Museum of History. Now, the Chinese Museum of History, is a copy of the original tripod, genuine, long history as a precious heritage up.

    Si Mu Wu Ding is the world’s precious rare bronze artifacts, it is by far, all unearthed the tripod, the largest and heaviest. Ding weight 832.84 kg, 133 cm high, mouth length 110 cm width 78 cm, foot high 46 cm, wall thickness of 6 cm. Ding large enough to make the manger, people called it “Ding manger.”

    Si Mu Wu Ding, solemn and beautiful decoration, exquisite craftsmanship, has always been the envy of the world. Its value, higher. Ting body around, casting a delicate dish dragons and taotie, increasing the mighty and imposing their own cultural sense.
    Tantalizing, is legendary, delicious beast, it cast in bronze, and said good luck, harvest enough food. Ear decoration, commonly known as the tiger bites the first pattern, the ornamentation is in the left and right ear for the tiger-shaped, tiger ear around to the top, opposite mouth, in the middle of a tiger head, as if swallowed by the tiger. Ear of the above, there are two fish-shaped. Cast on the foot of cicada pattern, pattern performance cicada body, clear lines.

    Long wall of abdominal large tripod, there are three inscriptions, “Si Mu Wu.” On the three inscriptions, how to interpret, present, academia has three versions: (1) General explanation that this tripod is the Shang E for the worship of his mother, and casting. “Secretary” is interpreted as functional, lawsuits, Code Division. (2) Another explanation that this is a clan name. (3) The third explanation, the “Secretary”, interpreted as Temple. “Temple” is the meaning of worship. There is also the “Secretary”, released as the queen of the “after” word. “Mother E” is who? First speculated that the mother B E is the spouse of deceased mother Yanwang Wu E, that is, the mother of small text, for the device are, for the text small. Inscriptions record, the spouse of the text as small batch Kuei, Di Yi’s spouse, but not recorded, so it was that the “mother of E” may be Diyi spouse. Accordingly, the late great full Yin Ruins artifacts. Another view was that, “Mother E” may refer to the legal spouse or ancestral Wuding a legal spouse. So, for those devices, may be ancestral G, ancestral armor, or granary Sim, Kangding. Thus, the tripod is a relic of pre-Yin Ruins.

    Si Mu Wu Ding of the Chinese Yin bronze masterpiece, some have used qualitative spectral analysis of its alloy composition, the results show that a large tripod of bronze composition and Yin general ingredients, basically the same. People, of copper, tin, lead three elements, with the chemical analysis of precipitation, the quantitative analysis, the results showed that the alloy composition is a large tripod: Copper accounted for 84.77%, accounting for 11.64% of tin, lead, accounting for 2.79%, the analysis, and “Zhou Kao Gong Ji,” speaking of the “six points of gold, and tin-Ju,” the record, is basically consistent.

    Casting method on a large tripod, according to archaeologists of the observation and analysis, that the tripod is the use of large group of core modeling method, namely, the first building with soil clay mold, mold clay pottery turning range, then Tao Fan, combined to Together, perfusion liquid copper. Traces from the casting point of view, Si Mu Wu Ding, Fan with 20 cast. Si Mu Wu Ding excellent casting technology, marking the Shang Dynasty bronze casting technology development.

    Baoding Century
    Baoding is to celebrate the United Nations century 50th anniversary, with the Shang and Zhou bronze style of art, using the whole cast, a casting success. Its design and production, after many arguments, are experts in the country, heritage, under the guidance of archaeologists completed. “Century Baoding”, high 2.1 meters, a symbol of the 21st century; diameter 1.5 m, weight 1.5 tons. It was a tripod posture, ears tall, covered with decorations. Ding wall, cast inscriptions: “Bonding century cast gifts to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary.”
    Ding Ban (base) 0.5 m, 2 m square, cast on 56 Kuilong decorations, symbol of the Chinese nation, are descendants of the dragon. Before and after the ban, were cast in Bronze “Age of Baoding”, and “People’s Republic of gifts, October 1995” the words. Ding round cut side, majestic style harmony, the mighty, simple and elegant, beautiful and dignified. Fully embodies the Chinese long history and splendid culture.

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