石油(英文、拉丁语:petroleum,拉丁语词源希腊语:petra (岩石) + 拉丁语:oleum (油)),也称原油,是一种粘稠的、深褐色(有时有点绿色的)液体。地壳上层部分地区有石油储存。它由不同的碳氢化合物混合组成,其主要组成成分,是烷烃,石油中,含硫、氧、氮、磷、钒等元素。不同的油田的石油的成分和外貌,可以区分很大。石油主要被用来作为燃油和汽油,燃料油和汽油,组成目前世界上最重要的一次能源之一。石油是许多化学工业产品如溶液、化肥、杀虫剂和塑料等的原料。今天,88%开采的石油被用作燃料,其它的12%,作为化工业的原料。石油是一种不可再生原料,许多人担心-石油用尽,会对人类带来严重的后果。石油因其价值高昂,又被称为黑金。

石油(英文、拉丁语:petroleum,拉丁语词源希腊语:petra (岩石) + 拉丁语:oleum (油)),也称原油,是一种粘稠的、深褐色(有时有点绿色的)液体。地壳上层部分地区有石油储存。它由不同的碳氢化合物混合组成,其主要组成成分,是烷烃,石油中,含硫、氧、氮、磷、钒等元素。不同的油田的石油的成分和外貌,可以区分很大。石油主要被用来作为燃油和汽油,燃料油和汽油,组成目前世界上最重要的一次能源之一。石油是许多化学工业产品如溶液、化肥、杀虫剂和塑料等的原料。今天,88%开采的石油被用作燃料,其它的12%,作为化工业的原料。石油是一种不可再生原料,许多人担心-石油用尽,会对人类带来严重的后果。石油因其价值高昂,又被称为黑金。 在中东地区波斯湾一带,有丰富的储藏;在俄罗斯、美国、加拿大、中国、墨西哥和委内瑞拉、中亚等地,也有很大量的储藏。 石油的常用衡量单位“桶”为一个容量单位,即42美制加仑。因为各地出产的石油的密度不尽相同,所以一桶石油的重量也不尽相同。一般地,一吨石油大约有7.3桶。 各国石油, 地下储藏量和各国的备用储藏,各个不同的来源,对世界上的石油储藏量的估计各不相同。2004年,艾克森美孚估计世界的总储藏量,为5.26兆(万亿)桶(1717亿吨),同年,英国石油公司的估计为1.148兆桶(1566亿吨)。 《 科学》估计世界总储藏量为3兆桶。今天,已经确定的和使用目前的技术能够经济地开采的储藏量,近年来,甚至有所上涨,2004年的数据,是目前最高的。由于每年的开采和勘探工作的不足,中东、东亚和南美洲的储藏量,有所下降,同时,非洲和欧洲的储藏量有所上升。今天的世界储藏量,仅够用50年。由于过去就已经有过类似的预言,这个预言从未实现,这个数据,被人戏称为“石油常数”。2003年,最大的石油储藏,位于沙特阿拉伯(2627亿桶)、伊朗(1307亿桶)和伊拉克(1150亿桶),其后,为阿联酋、科威特和委内瑞拉。 许多国家虽然每年开采大量原油,其数据始终不变,这些数据已经陈旧了。 21世纪初,人类将到达哈伯特顶点,这时,开采量将达到顶峰,此后,开采量无法继续提高,供给无法满足需求,油价将高涨。 许多国家备有短期的储藏,来防止短期供不应求导致的危机。欧洲联盟的国家必须拥有足够90天的备用储藏。 开采状态-石油开采国家,至今为止,人类一共开采了约0.9兆桶石油。大多数储藏是在1960年代发现的。2005年的年开采量,为304亿桶(相当于每日0.833亿桶)。 最大的石油开采国列表资料来源:美国政府能源统计 以下排表按照2007年开采量排列: 沙特阿拉伯(OPEC会员国)—每日1025万桶 俄罗斯—每日987万桶 美国1—每日846万桶 伊朗(OPEC会员国)—每日403万桶 中国1—每日391万桶 墨西哥1—每日350万桶 加拿大1—每日342万桶 阿拉伯联合酋长国(OPEC会员国)—每日295万桶 委内瑞拉(OPEC会员国) 1—每日267万桶 科威特(OPEC会员国)—每日262万桶 挪威1—每日257万桶 尼日利亚(OPEC会员国)—每日235万桶 巴西—每日228万桶 阿尔及利亚—每日217万桶 伊拉克(OPEC会员国) 2—每日210万桶 1-美国、中国、墨西哥、加拿大、委内瑞拉、挪威已过开发顶峰期 2-伊拉克虽然属于石油输出国组织,从1998年开始,其开发量,不包括在石油输出国组织的开发量中 石油出口国家 以下列表,是按照2007年石油出口量排列的: 沙特阿拉伯(OPEC会员国) 俄罗斯 阿拉伯联合酋长国 (OPEC会员国) 挪威 伊朗(OPEC会员国) 科威特(OPEC会员国) 尼日利亚(OPEC会员国) 委内瑞拉(OPEC会员国) 阿尔及利亚(OPEC会员国) 安哥拉(OPEC会员国) 利比亚(OPEC会员国) 伊拉克(OPEC会员国) 墨西哥 哈萨克斯坦 加拿大 消费-石油进口国家,目前全球石油平均日消耗量,为约8400万桶。2003年,最大的石油消耗国为-美国(每日2060万桶)、中国(每日727万桶)、日本(每日550万桶)和德国(每日270万桶)。每年石油消耗量增长率为2%。 消费国(以下均为每日消费量,2007年的统计资料) 美国:2068万桶 中国:757万桶 日本:501万桶 俄罗斯:282万桶 印度:280万桶 德国:246万桶 巴西:240万桶 加拿大:237万桶 韩国:221万桶 沙特阿拉伯:221万桶 墨西哥:211万桶 法国:195万桶 英国:174万桶 伊朗:171万桶 意大利:170万桶 工业国家的人平均石油消耗量,比发展中国家的人平均石油消耗量要高得多。2003年,美国每年人平均石油消耗量为26桶,德国为11.7桶,中国为1.7桶,印度为0.8桶,孟加拉国只有0.2桶。 重要的种类石油工业,一般使用原油的出产地,来区分不同的原油,此外比重、黏度来区分不同的原油。对于炼油厂来说原油含硫的量是一个重要的因素。含硫多的原油要达到今天的燃料标准,炼油成本比较大。 世界上常用的参考原油为: 北海布伦特原油,由北海东设得兰盆地中的15个油田的原油组成。开采出来的油首先运输到设得兰群岛的萨洛姆石油终端。欧洲、非洲和中东运往西方的原油按照北海布伦特原油标价,因此它是一个重要的价格标数。 西得克萨斯中间基原油包括所有北美洲的原油 迪拜,用作输往亚洲-太平洋地区的中东原油的价格标数 TAPIS(来自马来西亚,用来作为远东轻原油的参考标准) MINAS(来自印度尼西亚,用来作为远东重原油的参考标准) 从2005年6月15日开始石油输出国组织的使用以下原油的平均价格: 印尼的MINAS 阿尔及利亚的撒哈拉混合油 伊朗的伊朗重油 伊拉克的巴士拉轻质原油 科威特的科威特出口原油 利比亚的利比亚轻质原油 尼加拉瓜的伯尼轻质 卡塔尔的卡塔尔马林 沙特阿拉伯的阿拉伯轻油 阿联酋的穆尔本原油 委内瑞拉的BCF17 石油输出国组织试图通过提高或减少产量来使得油价保持在一个上限和一个下限之间。因此它的标价对市场分析非常重要。而且它的标价包括轻油和重油,因此比北海布伦特原油和西德州轻质原油要重要。 Oil (English, Latin: petroleum, Latin etymology Greek: petra (rock) + Latin: oleum (oil) ), also known as crude oil, is a thick, dark brown (sometimes a little green) liquid. The upper crust in some areas have oil storage. It consists of a mixture of different hydrocarbons, and its major components, alkanes, petroleum, sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, vanadium and other elements. Different fields of oil composition and appearance, much can be distinguished. Primarily used as fuel oil and gasoline, fuel oil and gasoline to form the world’s one of the most important primary energy. Oil is the solution of many chemical products such as industrial, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and plastics raw materials. Today, 88% of the recoverable oil is used as fuel, the other 12%, as a chemical raw material. Oil is a non-renewable raw materials, many people worry about – the oil run out, mankind will have serious consequences. Oil because of its high-value, also known as black gold. In the Middle East Gulf area, has a wealth of storage; in Russia, the United States, Canada, China, Mexico and Venezuela, Central Asia and other places, there is also a lot of storage. Unit of measure commonly used oil “bucket” as a unit of capacity, or 42 U.S. gallons. Because the density of the oil produced around different, so the weight of a barrel of oil are not the same. In general, a ton about 7.3 barrels of oil. The national oil underground storage reserves and national reserve, various sources, the world’s oil reserves estimates vary. In 2004, Exxon Mobil is estimated that the total world reserves, 526 trillion (trillion) barrels (1717 tons), the same year, BP’s estimate of 1.148 trillion barrels (1566 tons). “Scientific” estimates of total world reserves of 3 trillion barrels. Today, have been identified and the use of current technology to the economic exploitation of reserves in recent years, or even higher, the data in 2004, is the highest. As the annual shortage of mining and exploration work, the Middle East, East Asia and South America reserves, declined at the same time, Africa and Europe reserves increased. Today’s world reserves, enough for only 50 years. As in the past has had a similar prediction, this prediction has never been achieved, the data, was dubbed the “oil constant.” In 2003, the largest oil reserves in Saudi Arabia (2627 barrels), Iran (1307 billion barrels) and Iraq (1150 barrels), followed, as the United Arab Emirates, Kuwait and Venezuela. Although many countries a large number of crude oil per year mined, the data remains unchanged, the data is now stale. The early 21st century, mankind will go to Daha Bert vertex, then, extraction will peak, after which extraction can not continue to improve, the supply can not meet demand, oil prices will rise. Many countries with short-term storage, to prevent short-term shortage caused by the crisis. European Union countries must have sufficient reserve of 90 days storage. Mining state – oil country, so far, a total exploitation of human beings, about 0.9 trillion barrels of oil. Most storage is found in the 1960s. 2005 annual extraction volume of 304 million barrels (equivalent to 0.833 million barrels per day). List of the largest oil countries Source: U.S. government energy statistics The following row of the table arranged according to the amount of mining in 2007: Saudi Arabia (OPEC Member States) – 1025 barrels per day Russia – 987 million barrels per day USA 1 – 846 million barrels per day Iran (OPEC Member States) – 403 million barrels per day China 1 – 391 million barrels per day Mexico 1 – 3.5 million barrels per day Canada 1 – 342 million barrels per day United Arab Emirates (OPEC Member States) – 295 million barrels per day Venezuela (OPEC Member States) 1 – 267 million barrels per day Kuwait (OPEC member countries) – 262 million barrels per day Norway 1 – 257 million barrels per day Nigeria (OPEC member countries) – 235 million barrels per day Brazil – 228 million barrels per day Algeria – 217 million barrels per day Iraq (OPEC Member States) 2– 2.1 million barrels per day 1 – United States, China, Mexico, Canada, Venezuela, Norway passed the peak period of development 2– Iraq, although part of OPEC, since 1998, the amount of its development, not including the amount of development in OPEC Oil-exporting countries The following list is based on oil exports in 2007 arranged: Saudi Arabia (OPEC Member States) Russia United Arab Emirates (OPEC Member States) Norway Iran (OPEC Member States) Kuwait (OPEC Member States) Nigeria (OPEC Member States) Venezuela (OPEC Member States) Algeria (OPEC Member States) Angola (OPEC Member States) Libya (OPEC Member States) Iraq (OPEC Member States) Mexico Kazakhstan Canada Consumption – the oil importing countries, the current average daily global oil consumption is about 84 million barrels. In 2003, the largest oil consuming country is – the United States (2060 barrels per day), China (727 million barrels per day), Japan (5.5 million barrels per day) and Germany (2.7 million barrels per day). Annual oil consumption growth rate of 2%. Consumer (the following are the daily consumption statistics for 2007) United States: 2068 million barrels China: 757 million barrels Japan: 501 million barrels Russia: 282 million barrels India: 280 million barrels Germany: 246 million barrels Brazil: 240 million barrels Canada: 237 million barrels South Korea: 221 million barrels Saudi Arabia: 221 million barrels Mexico: 211 million barrels France: 195 million barrels United Kingdom: 174 million barrels Iran: 171 million barrels Italy: 1.7 million barrels Industrial countries, the average oil consumption, compared with an average oil consumption in developing countries is much higher. In 2003, the United States each year an average of 26 barrels of oil consumption in Germany is 11.7 barrels, 1.7 barrels of China, India 0.8 barrels, Bangladesh, only 0.2 barrels. Important types of oil industry, the general use of crude oil origin, to distinguish between different crude oil, in addition to gravity, viscosity to distinguish between different crude oil. For the amount of sulfur crude oil refinery is an important factor. Multi-sulfur crude oil to reach today’s fuel standards, refining cost is relatively large. World crude oil commonly used reference is: Brent North Sea crude oil from the North Sea in the East Shetland Basin oil fields of the form 15. Mined oil first transported to the Shetland Islands Salom oil terminal. Europe, Africa and the Middle East oil shipped to the West by the North Sea Brent crude oil price, so it is a significant price tag number. West Texas intermediate base crude oil, including all of North America Dubai, as exports to the Asia – Pacific region the number of Middle East crude oil price tag TAPIS (from Malaysia, Far East light crude oil used as the reference standard) MINAS (from Indonesia, the Far East heavy crude oil used as the reference standard) From June 15, 2005 beginning OPEC average price of crude oil using the following: Indonesia MINAS Algeria’s Saharan Blend oil Iran, Iran Heavy Iraq’s Basra light crude oil Kuwait Kuwait export crude oil Libya Libyan light crude Nicaragua’s Bonny Light Marin Qatar Qatar Saudi Arabia’s Arab Light The UAE’s crude Moore Venezuela BCF17 OPEC attempts to increase or reduce production to make the oil price stays at an upper and a lower limits. So its price is very important for market analysis. And its price includes light oil and heavy oil, so more than Brent crude and West Texas light crude oil to be important.