英联邦 1,2,3,…

英联邦 1,2,3,…

英联邦会旗

英联邦成员
创立时间 1926年11月18日
性质 国际组织
总部 英国伦敦马尔伯勒大楼(英语:Marlborough House)
成员 54个主权国家
官方语言 英语
英联邦元首 伊丽莎白二世
网站 thecommonwealth.org

英联邦英联邦(英语:Commonwealth of Nations,原名:British Commonwealth of Nations)是一个以英国为主导的国家联合体,由54个主权国家(含属地)组成,成员大多为前大英帝国的殖民地,或附属国。该组织元首,为英国女王伊丽莎白二世,同时,身兼英联邦王国内的16国的国家元首。基于其历史渊源,人们常常以“British Commonwealth”(英联邦)称之,用以区分世界其它联邦。

目录
概况
成员国(依英文字母排列)
特别成员
英联邦以外的,前英国属地
准会员
符合条件的主权国家
独立运动地区
其他国家

概况
第一次世界大战后,大英帝国的版图,逐渐崩解,各殖民地争相独立。1920年代,英国开始考虑放宽政策,允许各殖民地自主。1931年,国会通过《 威斯敏斯特修道院法令》,创设“英联邦”(British Commonwealth of Nations),要求其成员国,基于共同的历史背景,彼此独立,但维持自由平等的关系。1946年,其名称,被改为“Commonwealth of Nations”(共和联邦),并沿用至今。

成员国(依英文字母排列)
安提瓜和巴布达:安提瓜和巴布达
澳大利亚:澳大利亚联邦
巴哈马:巴哈马联邦
孟加拉国:孟加拉人民共和国
巴巴多斯:巴巴多斯
伯利兹:伯利兹
博茨瓦纳:博茨瓦纳共和国
文莱:文莱达鲁萨兰国
喀麦隆:喀麦隆共和国
加拿大:加拿大
塞浦路斯:塞浦路斯共和国
多米尼克:多米尼加共和国
斐济:斐济共和国
冈比亚:冈比亚共和国
加纳:加纳共和国
格林纳达:格林纳达
圭亚那:圭亚那合作共和国
印度:印度
牙买加:牙买加
肯尼亚:肯尼亚共和国
基里巴斯:基里巴斯共和国
莱索托:莱索托王国
马拉维:马拉维共和国
马来西亚:马来西亚联邦
马尔代夫:马尔代夫共和国
马耳他:马耳他共和国
毛里求斯:毛里求斯共和国
莫桑比克:莫桑比克共和国
纳米比亚:纳米比亚共和国
瑙鲁:瑙鲁共和国
新西兰:新西兰自治领
尼日利亚:尼日利亚联邦共和国
巴基斯坦:巴基斯坦伊斯兰共和国
巴布亚新几内亚:巴布亚新几内亚独立国
圣基茨和尼维斯:圣基茨和尼维斯联邦
圣卢西亚:圣卢西亚
圣文森特和格林纳丁斯:圣文森特和格林纳丁斯 圣文森
萨摩亚:萨摩亚独立国
塞舌尔:塞舌尔共和国
塞拉利昂:狮子山共和国
新加坡:新加坡共和国
所罗门群岛:所罗门群岛
南非:南非共和国
斯里兰卡:斯里兰卡民主社会主义共和国
斯威士兰:斯威士兰王国
坦桑尼亚:坦桑尼亚联合共和国
汤加:汤加王国
特立尼达和多巴哥:特立尼达和多巴哥共和国
图瓦卢:图瓦卢
乌干达:乌干达共和国
英国:大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国 英国
瓦努阿图:瓦努阿图共和国
赞比亚:赞比亚共和国
津巴布韦:津巴布韦共和国

特别成员
以下国家(地区),在历史上,和英国均没有任何关系:

莫桑比克:原为葡萄牙在非洲的殖民地,于1995年,以特殊身份加入。
卢旺达:因毗邻各国皆为该组织成员,于2009年11月28日加入。

英联邦以外的,前英国属地以下国家(地区),曾经为大英帝国的领土和殖民地,但,在过去或现在,不是英联邦的成员。

国家/地区, 备注
马萨诸塞、新罕布什尔、罗得岛、康涅狄格、纽约、宾夕法尼亚、新泽西、特拉华、马里兰、弗吉尼亚、北卡罗来纳、南卡罗来纳、佐治亚 原为大英帝国在北美洲的殖民地范围之一,现为美国的13个州,参看北美十三州。
埃及,
苏丹,
缅甸, 于1948年独立,退出。
爱尔兰, 独立初期仍为会员国,1949年,改制为共和国,退出。
南也门, 于1990年,与北也门统一,退出,后由新成立的也门,重新提出加入申请。
香港, 1997年7月1日,香港主权移交予中国,其会籍,因而失效。
津巴布韦, 2002年,被暂停会籍1年,理由是,其执政者藐视人权、纵容大选舞弊;对此,津巴布韦政府表示不满,并主动退出。
斐济, 2006年12月,发生军事政变,因而,被取消会籍。
巴基斯坦, 曾被中止会籍4年,后于2004年5月,被恢复。2007年,发生国家紧急状态事件,故被再度中止会籍。2008年5月,恢复会籍。

准会员
符合条件的主权国家
巴林:1971年前,是英国保护国
缅甸:1948年前,是英国殖民地
埃及:1922年前,是英国保护国
爱尔兰
伊拉克:1922年前,是英国托管地
以色列:曾是英属巴勒斯坦托管地之一部份
约旦:曾是英属巴勒斯坦托管地之一部份
科威特:1961年前,是英国保护国
阿曼:已申请加入英联邦
卡塔尔:1971年前,是英国保护国
苏丹:已申请加入英联邦
也门:已申请加入英联邦
利比亚: 曾是由联合国委托的英国托管地
索马里:已申请加入英联邦
南苏丹

独立运动地区,下列地区一旦成功独立,将有资格,以独立国身份,加入英联邦。

北爱尔兰:目前,为联合王国的成员之一
苏格兰:目前,为联合王国的成员之一
魁北克:目前,为加拿大的一省,参见魁北克独立运动
索马里兰:现时,国际认可为索马里的自治地区。该政权宣称,已经独立,但,并未获得国际普遍承认;占有索马里原有18个州份的其中5个
西巴布亚:目前,为印尼的巴布亚省和西巴布亚省
巴勒斯坦地区:巴勒斯坦地区,曾是英属巴勒斯坦托管地之一部份。目前,为以色列的自治地区,下辖西岸和加沙地带,同时,是联合国的观察员。巴勒斯坦自治政府,已经表示有兴趣在完全独立后,加入英联邦,参见巴勒斯坦国

其他国家,由于在1997年后,加入英联邦的标准,有所改变,各成员国认为,必须拒绝该国的申请。

柬埔寨
不少国家已表示,有兴趣加入英联邦,征求有关资料。尽管这些国家不符合现时的入会标准。然而,随着申请标准正在被重新检视,他们可能成为英联邦的未来成员。

阿尔及利亚:已申请加入英联邦
安哥拉
刚果民主共和国
厄立特里亚
东帝汶
马达加斯加:已申请加入英联邦
格鲁吉亚

Commonwealth 1,2,3, …

Commonwealth flag

Member of the Commonwealth
Founded November 18, 1926
Nature of the international organizations
Headquarters in Marlborough House in London UK (English: Marlborough House)
Members of the 54 sovereign states
English the official language
Commonwealth heads of state Queen Elizabeth II
Website thecommonwealth.org

Commonwealth Commonwealth (English: Commonwealth of Nations, formerly known as: British Commonwealth of Nations) is a British-led Commonwealth, consists of 54 sovereign states (including territories), with most members of the former colony of the British Empire, or dependencies. Heads the organization, the British Queen Elizabeth II at the same time, the Kingdom of the Commonwealth who is also head of state of 16 countries. Based on its history, people often “British Commonwealth” (Commonwealth) termed, to distinguish between rest of the world federation.

Catalog
Overview
Members (in alphabetical order)
Particularly members of the
Outside the Commonwealth of former British possessions
Associate Member
Eligible sovereign state
Regional independence movements
Other countries

Overview
After World War I, the British empire, the gradual disintegration, competing in the colonies independent. 1920s, the British began to consider relaxing the policy to allow the colonies independent. In 1931, Congress passed the “Westminster Abbey Act”, the creation of “Commonwealth” (British Commonwealth of Nations), requires its member states, based on common historical background, independent of each other, but to maintain the relationship between freedom and equality. In 1946, its name was changed to “Commonwealth of Nations” (Commonwealth), and still in use.

Members (in alphabetical order)
Antigua and Barbuda: Antigua and Barbuda
Australia: Commonwealth of Australia
Bahamas: The Bahamas
Bangladesh: People’s Republic of Bangladesh
Barbados: Barbados
Belize: Belize
Botswana: Botswana
Brunei: Man Darussalam
Cameroon: Cameroon, Republic of
Canada: Canada
Cyprus: Republic of Cyprus
Dominica: Dominican Republic
Fiji: Fiji, Republic of
Gambia: Gambia
Ghana: Republic of Ghana
Grenada: Grenada
Guyana: Cooperative Republic of Guyana
India: India
Jamaica: Jamaica
Kenya: Republic of Kenya
Kiribati: Kiribati
Lesotho: Kingdom of Lesotho
Malawi: Malawi, Republic of
Malaysia: Malaysia’s Federal
Maldives: Republic of Maldives
Malta: Malta Republic
Mauritius: Republic of Mauritius
Mozambique: Republic of Mozambique
Namibia: Namibia, Republic of
Nauru: Republic of Nauru
New Zealand: New Zealand’s Dominion
Nigeria: Federal Republic of Nigeria
Pakistan: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Papua New Guinea: Independent State of Papua New Guinea
Saint Kitts and Nevis: St. Kitts and Nevis
Saint Lucia: Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Samoa: Independent State of Samoa
Seychelles: Seychelles
Sierra Leone: Sierra Leone Republic
Singapore: Republic of Singapore
Solomon Islands: Solomon Islands
South Africa: Republic of South Africa
Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka, Democratic Socialist Republic of
Swaziland: Kingdom of Swaziland
Tanzania: United Republic of Tanzania
Tonga: Kingdom of Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago: Trinidad and Tobago
Tuvalu: Tuvalu
Uganda: Republic of Uganda
UK: United Kingdom of Great Britain
Vanuatu: Vanuatu
Zambia: Zambia, Republic of
Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe Republic

Particularly members of the
The following countries (regions), in history, and the United Kingdom does not have any relationship:

Mozambique: formerly Portuguese colonies in Africa, in 1995, adding a special status.
Rwanda: because neighboring countries are all members of the organization, on November 28, 2009 to join.

Outside the Commonwealth of former British possessions the following countries (regions), who is the British empire and colony, but, in the past or present, is not a member of the Commonwealth.

Country / region, Remarks
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, formerly of the British Empire, one of the areas in the North American colonies, now the United States, 13 state, see North America thirteen states.
Egypt,
Sudan,
Burma became independent in 1948, quit.
Ireland, the independent Member States is still early 1949, the restructuring of the Republic, to exit.
South Yemen, in 1990, unification with North Yemen, exit, after the newly established Yemen, re-submit their request to join.
Hong Kong, July 1, 1997, the Hong Kong handover to China, its membership, and therefore invalid.
Zimbabwe, in 2002, membership was suspended for one year on the grounds that its rulers contempt for human rights, condoned election fraud; response, expressed dissatisfaction with the government of Zimbabwe, and voluntary withdrawal.
Fiji, in December 2006, military coup, which was canceled membership.
Pakistan, the membership has been suspended for four years, after May 2004, was restored. In 2007, the occurrence of an event of national emergency, it was re-suspended membership. In May 2008, resumed membership.

Associate Member
Eligible sovereign state
Bahrain: 1971 years ago, a British protectorate
Myanmar: 1948 years ago, was a British colony
Egypt: 1922 years ago, a British protectorate
Ireland
Iraq: 1922 years ago, Britain managed to
Israel: who is part of the British trust territory of Palestine
Jordan: trust territory of Palestine was part of the British
Kuwait: 1961 years ago, a British protectorate
Oman: has applied to join Commonwealth
Qatar: 1971 years ago, a British protectorate
Sudan: has applied to join Commonwealth
Yemen: has applied to join Commonwealth
Libya: was commissioned by the United Nations trust territory of the United Kingdom
Somalia: has applied to join Commonwealth
Southern Sudan

Regional independence movements, independent of the following areas, if successful, will be eligible, as an independent country, to join the Commonwealth.

Northern Ireland: At present, a member of the United Kingdom
Scotland: At present, a member of the United Kingdom
Quebec: At present, a province of Canada, see the Quebec independence movement
Somaliland: At present, international recognition as the autonomous region of Somalia. The regime claims that have been independent, but, has not been internationally recognized; occupy Somalia’s original 18 states, five of which were
West Papua: At present, Indonesia’s Papua province and West Papua provinces
Palestine: the Palestinian territories, was part of one of British mandatory Palestine. Currently, the autonomous region of Israel, under the jurisdiction of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, while the United Nations observers. Palestinian self-government, has expressed interest in full independence, joined the Commonwealth, see a Palestinian state

Other countries, after 1997, joined the Commonwealth’s standards have changed, that Member States must reject the State’s request.

Cambodia
Many countries have expressed interest to join the Commonwealth, to seek information. Although these countries do not meet current admission standards. However, as standards are being re-examine the application, they may become a future member of the Commonwealth.

Algeria: has applied to join Commonwealth
Angola
Democratic Republic of Congo
Eritrea
East Timor
Madagascar: has applied to join Commonwealth
Georgia