它們的口罩😷有病毒🦠:杜克大学研究发现:某些口罩戴了比不戴更糟糕! DURHAM, N.C. — By now, when it comes to protection against the coronavirus, we all know that N-95 masks are better than surgical masks which are better than cloth masks which are better than a scarf or bandana. 到目前为止,当谈到预防冠状病毒时,我们都知道N-95口罩比外科口罩好,外科口罩比布口罩好,布口罩比围巾或手帕好。 But are they all better than nothing? 但他们都比没有好吗? “Like the common sense of just putting your hand in front of your face, we really thought that any mask would be better than nothing,” Dr. Eric Westman of Duke University said. 杜克大学的埃里克·威斯特曼博士说:“就像把手放在脸前的常识一样,我们真的认为戴口罩总比不戴好。” Westman, who specializes in internal medicine, was not having to deal with COVID-19 patients, but he still wanted to do something that might help stop the spread of the deadly virus. 韦斯特曼是内科学专家,他不必处理COVID-19患者,但他仍然想做一些可能有助于阻止这种致命病毒传播的事情。 It’s mandatory to wear a face covering in California, but are there exemptions to this mandate? We spoke to experts who say “yes,” but you would need a doctor’s note to back that up. 在加州,戴口罩是强制性的,但有例外吗?我们咨询了专家,他们说“可以”,但你需要医生的证明来支持这一点。 He realized that while they had plenty of Personal Protective Equipment or PPE at Duke Health, there were other frontline workers like bus drivers who did not. 他意识到,虽然他们在杜克健康中心有大量的个人防护装备或个人防护装备,但像公交司机这样的一线工人没有。 He believed early on that masks would help stop the spread. 他很早就相信口罩有助于阻止病毒传播。 He raised tens of thousands of dollars in an online fundraiser to buy masks for those frontline workers, but he wasn’t sure which masks would provide the best bang for his buck. 他在一次网上募捐活动中筹集了数万美元,为那些一线工人购买口罩,但他不确定哪种口罩最划算。 He didn’t necessarily need the best N-95 masks for casual use, but whatever he bought he wanted them to be as efficient as possible. 他不一定需要最好的N-95口罩来应付日常使用,但无论他买什么,他都希望口罩尽可能高效。 Westman knew researchers had already discovered that coughing and sneezing would put respiratory droplets into the air. 韦斯特曼知道研究人员已经发现咳嗽和打喷嚏会将呼吸道飞沫带入空气中。 “But what about speaking?” he asked. “那说话呢?”他问。 All masks are not created equal, and bandannas are the poorest in the group. 并非所有的口罩都是一样的,而大手帕是这类口罩中最差的。 He was especially interested in the answer to that question since at that time researchers had just started realizing the virus was super contagious because it could be spread by people who weren’t yet showing symptoms of being infected. 他对这个问题的答案特别感兴趣,因为当时研究人员刚刚开始意识到这种病毒具有超级传染性,因为它可以通过尚未表现出感染症状的人传播。 “So you might not be sick and you may be spreading the virus through these particles just by speaking,” Westman said. “所以你可能没有生病,你可能仅仅通过说话就通过这些颗粒传播了病毒,”威斯特曼说。 So he asked Duke University physics professor Martin Fischer to test several types of masks. 所以他请杜克大学物理学教授马丁·费舍尔测试了几种口罩。 Fischer built a simple box out of cardboard with an opening for a person wearing a mask to speak into. 费舍尔用硬纸板做了一个简单的盒子,盒子上有一个开口,戴着口罩的人可以对着开口说话。 He attached a green laser light to the box to illuminate the droplets and a cell phone camera to video the experiments, so they could count the droplets each mask allowed through. 他在盒子上安装了绿色激光照射液滴,用手机摄像头拍摄实验过程,这样他们就可以计算每个口罩允许通过的液滴数量。 Not only did he discover that speaking did indeed produce plenty of droplets, but that the material used in some masks, especially the neck gaiters and bandannas they tested, was so thin it actually put more respiratory particles in the air than the baseline test with no mask at all. 他不仅发现说话时确实会产生大量的飞沫,而且他们测试的一些口罩,尤其是颈部的测试,所用的材料太薄了,以致于在空气中产生的呼吸颗粒物比根本不戴口罩时的基线测试要多。 “We attribute this to the fleece, the textile, breaking up those big particles into many little particles,” Fischer said. “They tend to hang around longer in the air. They get carried away easier in the air. So this might actually be counterproductive to wear such a mask. So it’s not the case that any mask is better than nothing.” 菲舍尔说:“我们认为这是羊毛、纺织品把这些大颗粒分解成许多小颗粒造成的。”“它们往往会在空中停留更长时间。他们在空中更容易被冲昏头脑。所以戴这种口罩可能会适得其反。所以这并不是说有口罩总比没有好。” As he puts on mask after mask, the meter shows a steady, and healthy, 98-99 percent. 当他戴上一个又一个口罩时,仪表显示稳定健康的98% – 99%。 Fischer said his experiment was just a demonstration. 费舍尔说他的实验只是一个演示。 He and Dr. Westman hope more research will follow. 他和韦斯特曼博士希望接下来会有更多的研究。 “This is really a preliminary investigation into something that needs much more science wrapped around it with other types of ways of measuring particulate matter. We hope to stimulate other research into this and get away from the idea that something is better than nothing. It may not be the case,” Westman said. “这只是一个初步的调查,需要更多的科学和其他测量颗粒物的方法。我们希望能激发其他研究,摆脱“有总比没有好”的想法。但事实可能并非如此。”韦斯特曼说。 Westman said he still had plenty of choices for effective masks to provide frontline workers. He ended up using the money he raised to buy masks that weren’t made with porous materials. 威斯特曼表示,他仍有大量有效口罩可供选择,以提供给一线工人。最后,他用筹得的钱买了不是用多孔材料制成的口罩。

它們的口罩😷有病毒🦠

.

杜克大学研究发现:某些口罩戴了比不戴更糟糕!

DURHAM, N.C. — By now, when it comes to protection against the coronavirus, we all know that N-95 masks are better than surgical masks which are better than cloth masks which are better than a scarf or bandana.

到目前为止,当谈到预防冠状病毒时,我们都知道N-95口罩比外科口罩好,外科口罩比布口罩好,布口罩比围巾或手帕好。

But are they all better than nothing?

但他们都比没有好吗?

“Like the common sense of just putting your hand in front of your face, we really thought that any mask would be better than nothing,” Dr. Eric Westman of Duke University said.

杜克大学的埃里克·威斯特曼博士说:“就像把手放在脸前的常识一样,我们真的认为戴口罩总比不戴好。”

Westman, who specializes in internal medicine, was not having to deal with COVID-19 patients, but he still wanted to do something that might help stop the spread of the deadly virus.

韦斯特曼是内科学专家,他不必处理COVID-19患者,但他仍然想做一些可能有助于阻止这种致命病毒传播的事情。

It’s mandatory to wear a face covering in California, but are there exemptions to this mandate? We spoke to experts who say “yes,” but you would need a doctor’s note to back that up.

在加州,戴口罩是强制性的,但有例外吗?我们咨询了专家,他们说“可以”,但你需要医生的证明来支持这一点。

He realized that while they had plenty of Personal Protective Equipment or PPE at Duke Health, there were other frontline workers like bus drivers who did not.

他意识到,虽然他们在杜克健康中心有大量的个人防护装备或个人防护装备,但像公交司机这样的一线工人没有。

He believed early on that masks would help stop the spread.

他很早就相信口罩有助于阻止病毒传播。

He raised tens of thousands of dollars in an online fundraiser to buy masks for those frontline workers, but he wasn’t sure which masks would provide the best bang for his buck.

他在一次网上募捐活动中筹集了数万美元,为那些一线工人购买口罩,但他不确定哪种口罩最划算。

He didn’t necessarily need the best N-95 masks for casual use, but whatever he bought he wanted them to be as efficient as possible.

他不一定需要最好的N-95口罩来应付日常使用,但无论他买什么,他都希望口罩尽可能高效。

Westman knew researchers had already discovered that coughing and sneezing would put respiratory droplets into the air.

韦斯特曼知道研究人员已经发现咳嗽和打喷嚏会将呼吸道飞沫带入空气中。

“But what about speaking?” he asked.

“那说话呢?”他问。

All masks are not created equal, and bandannas are the poorest in the group.

并非所有的口罩都是一样的,而大手帕是这类口罩中最差的。

He was especially interested in the answer to that question since at that time researchers had just started realizing the virus was super contagious because it could be spread by people who weren’t yet showing symptoms of being infected.

他对这个问题的答案特别感兴趣,因为当时研究人员刚刚开始意识到这种病毒具有超级传染性,因为它可以通过尚未表现出感染症状的人传播。

“So you might not be sick and you may be spreading the virus through these particles just by speaking,” Westman said.

“所以你可能没有生病,你可能仅仅通过说话就通过这些颗粒传播了病毒,”威斯特曼说。

So he asked Duke University physics professor Martin Fischer to test several types of masks.

所以他请杜克大学物理学教授马丁·费舍尔测试了几种口罩。

Fischer built a simple box out of cardboard with an opening for a person wearing a mask to speak into.

费舍尔用硬纸板做了一个简单的盒子,盒子上有一个开口,戴着口罩的人可以对着开口说话。

He attached a green laser light to the box to illuminate the droplets and a cell phone camera to video the experiments, so they could count the droplets each mask allowed through.

他在盒子上安装了绿色激光照射液滴,用手机摄像头拍摄实验过程,这样他们就可以计算每个口罩允许通过的液滴数量。

Not only did he discover that speaking did indeed produce plenty of droplets, but that the material used in some masks, especially the neck gaiters and bandannas they tested, was so thin it actually put more respiratory particles in the air than the baseline test with no mask at all.

他不仅发现说话时确实会产生大量的飞沫,而且他们测试的一些口罩,尤其是颈部的测试,所用的材料太薄了,以致于在空气中产生的呼吸颗粒物比根本不戴口罩时的基线测试要多。

“We attribute this to the fleece, the textile, breaking up those big particles into many little particles,” Fischer said. “They tend to hang around longer in the air. They get carried away easier in the air. So this might actually be counterproductive to wear such a mask. So it’s not the case that any mask is better than nothing.”

菲舍尔说:“我们认为这是羊毛、纺织品把这些大颗粒分解成许多小颗粒造成的。”“它们往往会在空中停留更长时间。他们在空中更容易被冲昏头脑。所以戴这种口罩可能会适得其反。所以这并不是说有口罩总比没有好。”

As he puts on mask after mask, the meter shows a steady, and healthy, 98-99 percent.

当他戴上一个又一个口罩时,仪表显示稳定健康的98% – 99%。

Fischer said his experiment was just a demonstration.

费舍尔说他的实验只是一个演示。

He and Dr. Westman hope more research will follow.

他和韦斯特曼博士希望接下来会有更多的研究。

“This is really a preliminary investigation into something that needs much more science wrapped around it with other types of ways of measuring particulate matter. We hope to stimulate other research into this and get away from the idea that something is better than nothing. It may not be the case,” Westman said.

“这只是一个初步的调查,需要更多的科学和其他测量颗粒物的方法。我们希望能激发其他研究,摆脱“有总比没有好”的想法。但事实可能并非如此。”韦斯特曼说。

Westman said he still had plenty of choices for effective masks to provide frontline workers. He ended up using the money he raised to buy masks that weren’t made with porous materials.

威斯特曼表示,他仍有大量有效口罩可供选择,以提供给一线工人。最后,他用筹得的钱买了不是用多孔材料制成的口罩。