历史。1919年，一战失败的德国,在《 凡尔赛和约》（即,《 协约国和参战各国对德和约》）中,被宣判必须担负无法计算的巨额赔款——根据协约国赔偿委员会决定，德国共需赔偿2260亿马克（约合113亿英镑），以黄金支付，后,减至1320亿马克（约合49.9亿英镑），支付方式,多种多样——事实上，没有任何一个战败国能付得起相当于现代战争费用的赔款数额。为了使战败的德国,能够偿还这些债务，战胜国,没收了约十亿英镑的德国资产，但在今后的几年,给德国提供了1,050,000,000英镑以上的贷款（主要由英国,美国两国），也就是说，德国之所以能够付款，全靠英国,美国给予的,为数更大得多的贷款，这种“慷慨”的做法,和整个过程，使德国在军事上,能够迅速地从战争的废墟中,复兴起来，为第二次世界大战的爆发,埋下了灾祸的隐患。为了缴付这种完全依靠“借贷债务”偿还的“战争赔款”，德国财政不得不大规模发行马克货币，巨额赤字和赔款支付,使德国陷入极为严重的通货膨胀和经济萧条，德国的政治和经济,陷入双重崩溃。1932年,为了彻底解决一战遗留下来,最复杂的国际问题之一——即,德国赔款问题，《 洛桑协定》规定:德国最后赔款额,为30亿马克，这些巨款,是德国政府无力负担的，在《 凡尔赛和约》签订之日起,就已经决定了它的性质，即,这是短暂的廿年休战。1933年，希特勒上台后,宣布完全地否定德国的赔款义务（自1926年,至1929年，美国从各方面,以分期偿还的方式,收回的赔款,大约只及没有希望得到偿还的对德国贷款的五分之一）
History. In 1919, the failure of the First World War Germany, “the Treaty of Versailles” (ie, “Allies and the war on the German peace treaty countries”), was sentenced to be responsible for the huge compensation can not be calculated – according to the Compensation Committee determined the Allies, Germany would require a total compensation 226 billion marks (about 11.3 billion pounds), paid in gold, later, reduced to 132 billion marks (about 4.99 billion pounds), payment methods, varied – in fact, no one can afford to pay defeated equivalent to the amount of compensation cost of modern warfare. In order to defeat Germany, to repay the debt, the victors, about one billion pounds of confiscated assets in Germany, but in the next few years, to Germany provides more than 1,050,000,000 pounds of loans (mainly from the United Kingdom, the United States two), In other words, Germany has been able to pay, thanks to the United Kingdom, the United States given, much larger number of loans, this “generous” approach, and the entire process, so that the German military, to recover quickly from the war the ruins, renaissance up to the outbreak of World War II that laid the disaster risks. In order to completely rely on to pay the “loan debt” to repay “war reparations” Germany has to a large-scale financial issue Mark currency, a huge deficit and compensation payments, the German into a very serious inflation and recession, Germany’s political and economy, into a double collapse. In 1932, in order to solve the legacy of a war, one of the most complex international issues – that is, German reparations, “the Lausanne Agreement,” states: Germany, the final compensation amount of 30 billion marks, these large sums of money, the German government can not afford, in the “Treaty of Versailles,” the date of signing, has decided it’s nature, that is, this is a short twenty years truce. In 1933, Hitler came to power, that completely negate the German indemnity obligations (from 1926 to 1929, the United States in all aspects, in order to amortize the way to recover the amount of compensation, and did not want to get only about repayment of the German one-fifth of the loan)
March 1936 declared: Germany reoccupied the Rhineland demilitarized zone in 1938, announced the merger of Germany and Austria; 1939, announced the occupation of Czechoslovakia, the Sudetenland in addition to the rest (Munich Agreement), in September, the German blitzkrieg offensive Poland, finally broke out in human history, so far, the largest, deadliest, most damaging, World War II.
Private investors see investment opportunities in the health system, the government said: to allow foreign investment in the medical field.
Healthcare Chindex’s chief executive (CEO) Philip Johnson (Roberta Lipson), said, “the Chinese people in the past, the doctor the impression that they had – squeezed into crowded public places, to meet with the doctor a short time, and this need from five in the morning, went to line up. ”
“Those who go to live five-star hotel, went to Europe, travel, silk-stocking, dining at upscale hotels who finally realize: medical treatment can also have their own choice.”
Philip Johnson opened in China’s four hospitals to attract increasing local rich people, they are willing to pay higher fees, to enjoy better care.
Chinese medical field potential foreign investors, including from Western countries, a large medical group to private equity funds, they seek to profit from Chinese Hospital.
Other possible beneficiaries, including those pioneers, they have been operating in China with 100 foreign-funded clinics and hospitals, such as Singapore Parkway (Parkway) holding company.
Private equity investors Chen ** (phonetic) said, “Successful investors profit returns, up to 20%.” Chen ** and the Chinese partner are looking for 80 million to $ 100 million investment in a hospital .
“China’s health care reform, will be the largest private equity investment opportunities in one of China now has 13,000 hospital, without exception, require the development of capital.”
End of last year, China said: will encourage foreign investment into the hospital area. Most investors are waiting for the government introduction of implementation details, for example, how to draw the investment structure.
Chinese Vice Premier Li Keqiang, a special meeting this summer to bring together health care policy adviser, to discuss how to promote reform. Since then, the government began to several legitimate private hospital, visit the research.
Research firm IMS, said China’s medical expenses, the recent rapid growth is always in the next few years, drug sales, expected to grow annually, more than 20%.
At present, China’s medical expenses, the gross domestic product (GDP) of about 5%; global average of 9%.