历史。1919年,一战失败的德国,在《 凡尔赛和约》(即,《 协约国和参战各国对德和约》)中,被宣判必须担负无法计算的巨额赔款——根据协约国赔偿委员会决定,德国共需赔偿2260亿马克(约合113亿英镑),以黄金支付,后,减至1320亿马克(约合49.9亿英镑),支付方式,多种多样——事实上,没有任何一个战败国能付得起相当于现代战争费用的赔款数额。为了使战败的德国,能够偿还这些债务,战胜国,没收了约十亿英镑的德国资产,但在今后的几年,给德国提供了1,050,000,000英镑以上的贷款(主要由英国,美国两国),也就是说,德国之所以能够付款,全靠英国,美国给予的,为数更大得多的贷款,这种“慷慨”的做法,和整个过程,使德国在军事上,能够迅速地从战争的废墟中,复兴起来,为第二次世界大战的爆发,埋下了灾祸的隐患。为了缴付这种完全依靠“借贷债务”偿还的“战争赔款”,德国财政不得不大规模发行马克货币,巨额赤字和赔款支付,使德国陷入极为严重的通货膨胀和经济萧条,德国的政治和经济,陷入双重崩溃。1932年,为了彻底解决一战遗留下来,最复杂的国际问题之一——即,德国赔款问题,《 洛桑协定》规定:德国最后赔款额,为30亿马克,这些巨款,是德国政府无力负担的,在《 凡尔赛和约》签订之日起,就已经决定了它的性质,即,这是短暂的廿年休战。1933年,希特勒上台后,宣布完全地否定德国的赔款义务(自1926年,至1929年,美国从各方面,以分期偿还的方式,收回的赔款,大约只及没有希望得到偿还的对德国贷款的五分之一)

历史。1919年,一战失败的德国,在《 凡尔赛和约》(即,《 协约国和参战各国对德和约》)中,被宣判必须担负无法计算的巨额赔款——根据协约国赔偿委员会决定,德国共需赔偿2260亿马克(约合113亿英镑),以黄金支付,后,减至1320亿马克(约合49.9亿英镑),支付方式,多种多样——事实上,没有任何一个战败国能付得起相当于现代战争费用的赔款数额。为了使战败的德国,能够偿还这些债务,战胜国,没收了约十亿英镑的德国资产,但在今后的几年,给德国提供了1,050,000,000英镑以上的贷款(主要由英国,美国两国),也就是说,德国之所以能够付款,全靠英国,美国给予的,为数更大得多的贷款,这种“慷慨”的做法,和整个过程,使德国在军事上,能够迅速地从战争的废墟中,复兴起来,为第二次世界大战的爆发,埋下了灾祸的隐患。为了缴付这种完全依靠“借贷债务”偿还的“战争赔款”,德国财政不得不大规模发行马克货币,巨额赤字和赔款支付,使德国陷入极为严重的通货膨胀和经济萧条,德国的政治和经济,陷入双重崩溃。1932年,为了彻底解决一战遗留下来,最复杂的国际问题之一——即,德国赔款问题,《 洛桑协定》规定:德国最后赔款额,为30亿马克,这些巨款,是德国政府无力负担的,在《 凡尔赛和约》签订之日起,就已经决定了它的性质,即,这是短暂的廿年休战。1933年,希特勒上台后,宣布完全地否定德国的赔款义务(自1926年,至1929年,美国从各方面,以分期偿还的方式,收回的赔款,大约只及没有希望得到偿还的对德国贷款的五分之一)
1936年3月宣布:德国重新占领莱茵兰非军事区,1938年,宣布德国与奥地利合并;1939年,宣布占领捷克斯洛伐克,除苏台德地区的其余部分(慕尼黑协定),同年九月,德军闪电战进攻波兰,最终爆发了人类历史上,迄今为止,规模最大、伤亡最惨重、破坏性最强的,第二次世界大战。

民间投资者看到了医疗系统的投资机会,政府表示:允许外资进入医疗领域。

  保健公司Chindex的执行长(CEO)利普逊(Roberta Lipson)称,“中国人过去,对就医的印象是,他们不得不-挤进拥挤的公共场所,与医生见面时间很短,并为此,需要从清晨五点,就去排队。”

  “那些出门住五星级酒店,远赴欧洲旅行,穿着入时,在高级饭店就餐的人,最终认识到:就医也可以有自己的选择。”

  利普逊在中国开设的四家医院,吸引了日益增加的当地富人,他们愿意付更高的费用,享受更好的关照。

  中国医疗领域的潜在外国投资者,包括了从西方国家大型医疗集团到私募股权基金,他们寻求从中国医院中获利。

  其他可能的受益者,包括那些先行者,他们已经在中国运营着100家外资诊所和医院,如,新加坡百汇(Parkway)控股公司。

  私募股权投资者陈**(音译)表示,“成功的投资者获利回报,可以达到20%左右。”陈**和中国合伙人,正在寻找8,000万,到1亿美元资金,投资一家医院。

  “中国的医疗体制改革,将是最大的私有股权投资机会之一。中国现在有1.3万家医院,无一例外,都需要发展资本。”

  去年年底前,中国表示:将鼓励外资进入医院领域。多数投资者在等待政府出台实施细则,例如,如何划定投资结构。

  中国国务院副总理李克强,今年夏天召开特别会议,召集医疗政策顾问,商讨如何推进改革。此後,政府部门,开始到几家合法的私立医院,参观调研。

  研究公司IMS称,中国医疗支出,最近始终处于较快增长中,未来几年,药品销售,预计每年将增长,超过20%。

  目前,中国医疗开支,占国内生产总值(GDP)的5%左右;全球平均水平,为9%。

History. In 1919, the failure of the First World War Germany, “the Treaty of Versailles” (ie, “Allies and the war on the German peace treaty countries”), was sentenced to be responsible for the huge compensation can not be calculated – according to the Compensation Committee determined the Allies, Germany would require a total compensation 226 billion marks (about 11.3 billion pounds), paid in gold, later, reduced to 132 billion marks (about 4.99 billion pounds), payment methods, varied – in fact, no one can afford to pay defeated equivalent to the amount of compensation cost of modern warfare. In order to defeat Germany, to repay the debt, the victors, about one billion pounds of confiscated assets in Germany, but in the next few years, to Germany provides more than 1,050,000,000 pounds of loans (mainly from the United Kingdom, the United States two), In other words, Germany has been able to pay, thanks to the United Kingdom, the United States given, much larger number of loans, this “generous” approach, and the entire process, so that the German military, to recover quickly from the war the ruins, renaissance up to the outbreak of World War II that laid the disaster risks. In order to completely rely on to pay the “loan debt” to repay “war reparations” Germany has to a large-scale financial issue Mark currency, a huge deficit and compensation payments, the German into a very serious inflation and recession, Germany’s political and economy, into a double collapse. In 1932, in order to solve the legacy of a war, one of the most complex international issues – that is, German reparations, “the Lausanne Agreement,” states: Germany, the final compensation amount of 30 billion marks, these large sums of money, the German government can not afford, in the “Treaty of Versailles,” the date of signing, has decided it’s nature, that is, this is a short twenty years truce. In 1933, Hitler came to power, that completely negate the German indemnity obligations (from 1926 to 1929, the United States in all aspects, in order to amortize the way to recover the amount of compensation, and did not want to get only about repayment of the German one-fifth of the loan)
March 1936 declared: Germany reoccupied the Rhineland demilitarized zone in 1938, announced the merger of Germany and Austria; 1939, announced the occupation of Czechoslovakia, the Sudetenland in addition to the rest (Munich Agreement), in September, the German blitzkrieg offensive Poland, finally broke out in human history, so far, the largest, deadliest, most damaging, World War II.

Private investors see investment opportunities in the health system, the government said: to allow foreign investment in the medical field.

Healthcare Chindex’s chief executive (CEO) Philip Johnson (Roberta Lipson), said, “the Chinese people in the past, the doctor the impression that they had – squeezed into crowded public places, to meet with the doctor a short time, and this need from five in the morning, went to line up. ”

“Those who go to live five-star hotel, went to Europe, travel, silk-stocking, dining at upscale hotels who finally realize: medical treatment can also have their own choice.”

Philip Johnson opened in China’s four hospitals to attract increasing local rich people, they are willing to pay higher fees, to enjoy better care.

Chinese medical field potential foreign investors, including from Western countries, a large medical group to private equity funds, they seek to profit from Chinese Hospital.

Other possible beneficiaries, including those pioneers, they have been operating in China with 100 foreign-funded clinics and hospitals, such as Singapore Parkway (Parkway) holding company.

Private equity investors Chen ** (phonetic) said, “Successful investors profit returns, up to 20%.” Chen ** and the Chinese partner are looking for 80 million to $ 100 million investment in a hospital .

“China’s health care reform, will be the largest private equity investment opportunities in one of China now has 13,000 hospital, without exception, require the development of capital.”

End of last year, China said: will encourage foreign investment into the hospital area. Most investors are waiting for the government introduction of implementation details, for example, how to draw the investment structure.

Chinese Vice Premier Li Keqiang, a special meeting this summer to bring together health care policy adviser, to discuss how to promote reform. Since then, the government began to several legitimate private hospital, visit the research.

Research firm IMS, said China’s medical expenses, the recent rapid growth is always in the next few years, drug sales, expected to grow annually, more than 20%.

At present, China’s medical expenses, the gross domestic product (GDP) of about 5%; global average of 9%.

English由谷歌翻译

《历史。1919年,一战失败的德国,在《 凡尔赛和约》(即,《 协约国和参战各国对德和约》)中,被宣判必须担负无法计算的巨额赔款——根据协约国赔偿委员会决定,德国共需赔偿2260亿马克(约合113亿英镑),以黄金支付,后,减至1320亿马克(约合49.9亿英镑),支付方式,多种多样——事实上,没有任何一个战败国能付得起相当于现代战争费用的赔款数额。为了使战败的德国,能够偿还这些债务,战胜国,没收了约十亿英镑的德国资产,但在今后的几年,给德国提供了1,050,000,000英镑以上的贷款(主要由英国,美国两国),也就是说,德国之所以能够付款,全靠英国,美国给予的,为数更大得多的贷款,这种“慷慨”的做法,和整个过程,使德国在军事上,能够迅速地从战争的废墟中,复兴起来,为第二次世界大战的爆发,埋下了灾祸的隐患。为了缴付这种完全依靠“借贷债务”偿还的“战争赔款”,德国财政不得不大规模发行马克货币,巨额赤字和赔款支付,使德国陷入极为严重的通货膨胀和经济萧条,德国的政治和经济,陷入双重崩溃。1932年,为了彻底解决一战遗留下来,最复杂的国际问题之一——即,德国赔款问题,《 洛桑协定》规定:德国最后赔款额,为30亿马克,这些巨款,是德国政府无力负担的,在《 凡尔赛和约》签订之日起,就已经决定了它的性质,即,这是短暂的廿年休战。1933年,希特勒上台后,宣布完全地否定德国的赔款义务(自1926年,至1929年,美国从各方面,以分期偿还的方式,收回的赔款,大约只及没有希望得到偿还的对德国贷款的五分之一)》有2个想法

  1. 这个世界上,增长最快的主要经济体的扩张,仅去年,就使中国全国,新增了50.2万名百万富翁。中国政府上月表示,其国有及私人投资,使得第二季度国内生产总值,比上年同期,增长9.5个百分点,工业总产值及零售业销售收入增长速度,比预计加快。

    据6月份,美林公司等的全球财富管理报告显示,去年,中国百万富翁,由原来的53.4万人,增长了12个百分点。在世界排名中,中国百万富翁人数,位列第四,排在美,日,德之后。

  2. 历史。1919年,一战失败的德国,在《 凡尔赛和约》(即,《 协约国和参战各国对德和约》)中,被宣判必须担负无法计算的巨额赔款——根据协约国赔偿委员会决定,德国共需赔偿2260亿马克(约合113亿英镑),以黄金支付,后,减至1320亿马克(约合49.9亿英镑),支付方式,多种多样——事实上,没有任何一个战败国能付得起相当于现代战争费用的赔款数额。为了使战败的德国,能够偿还这些债务,战胜国,没收了约十亿英镑的德国资产,但在今后的几年,给德国提供了1,050,000,000英镑以上的贷款(主要由英国,美国两国),也就是说,德国之所以能够付款,全靠英国,美国给予的,为数更大得多的贷款,这种“慷慨”的做法,和整个过程,使德国在军事上,能够迅速地从战争的废墟中,复兴起来,为第二次世界大战的爆发,埋下了灾祸的隐患。为了缴付这种完全依靠“借贷债务”偿还的“战争赔款”,德国财政不得不大规模发行马克货币,巨额赤字和赔款支付,使德国陷入极为严重的通货膨胀和经济萧条,德国的政治和经济,陷入双重崩溃。1932年,为了彻底解决一战遗留下来,最复杂的国际问题之一——即,德国赔款问题,《 洛桑协定》规定:德国最后赔款额,为30亿马克,这些巨款,是德国政府无力负担的,在《 凡尔赛和约》签订之日起,就已经决定了它的性质,即,这是短暂的廿年休战。1933年,希特勒上台后,宣布完全地否定德国的赔款义务(自1926年,至1929年,美国从各方面,以分期偿还的方式,收回的赔款,大约只及没有希望得到偿还的对德国贷款的五分之一)
    1936年3月宣布:德国重新占领莱茵兰非军事区,1938年,宣布德国与奥地利合并;1939年,宣布占领捷克斯洛伐克,除苏台德地区的其余部分(慕尼黑协定),同年九月,德军闪电战进攻波兰,最终爆发了人类历史上,迄今为止,规模最大、伤亡最惨重、破坏性最强的,第二次世界大战。

    民间投资者看到了医疗系统的投资机会,政府表示:允许外资进入医疗领域。

      保健公司Chindex的执行长(CEO)利普逊(Roberta Lipson)称,“中国人过去,对就医的印象是,他们不得不-挤进拥挤的公共场所,与医生见面时间很短,并为此,需要从清晨五点,就去排队。”

      “那些出门住五星级酒店,远赴欧洲旅行,穿着入时,在高级饭店就餐的人,最终认识到:就医也可以有自己的选择。”

      利普逊在中国开设的四家医院,吸引了日益增加的当地富人,他们愿意付更高的费用,享受更好的关照。

      中国医疗领域的潜在外国投资者,包括了从西方国家大型医疗集团到私募股权基金,他们寻求从中国医院中获利。

      其他可能的受益者,包括那些先行者,他们已经在中国运营着100家外资诊所和医院,如,新加坡百汇(Parkway)控股公司。

      私募股权投资者陈**(音译)表示,“成功的投资者获利回报,可以达到20%左右。”陈**和中国合伙人,正在寻找8,000万,到1亿美元资金,投资一家医院。

      “中国的医疗体制改革,将是最大的私有股权投资机会之一。中国现在有1.3万家医院,无一例外,都需要发展资本。”

      去年年底前,中国表示:将鼓励外资进入医院领域。多数投资者在等待政府出台实施细则,例如,如何划定投资结构。

      中国国务院副总理李克强,今年夏天召开特别会议,召集医疗政策顾问,商讨如何推进改革。此後,政府部门,开始到几家合法的私立医院,参观调研。

      研究公司IMS称,中国医疗支出,最近始终处于较快增长中,未来几年,药品销售,预计每年将增长,超过20%。

      目前,中国医疗开支,占国内生产总值(GDP)的5%左右;全球平均水平,为9%。

    History. In 1919, the failure of the First World War Germany, “the Treaty of Versailles” (ie, “Allies and the war on the German peace treaty countries”), was sentenced to be responsible for the huge compensation can not be calculated – according to the Compensation Committee determined the Allies, Germany would require a total compensation 226 billion marks (about 11.3 billion pounds), paid in gold, later, reduced to 132 billion marks (about 4.99 billion pounds), payment methods, varied – in fact, no one can afford to pay defeated equivalent to the amount of compensation cost of modern warfare. In order to defeat Germany, to repay the debt, the victors, about one billion pounds of confiscated assets in Germany, but in the next few years, to Germany provides more than 1,050,000,000 pounds of loans (mainly from the United Kingdom, the United States two), In other words, Germany has been able to pay, thanks to the United Kingdom, the United States given, much larger number of loans, this “generous” approach, and the entire process, so that the German military, to recover quickly from the war the ruins, renaissance up to the outbreak of World War II that laid the disaster risks. In order to completely rely on to pay the “loan debt” to repay “war reparations” Germany has to a large-scale financial issue Mark currency, a huge deficit and compensation payments, the German into a very serious inflation and recession, Germany’s political and economy, into a double collapse. In 1932, in order to solve the legacy of a war, one of the most complex international issues – that is, German reparations, “the Lausanne Agreement,” states: Germany, the final compensation amount of 30 billion marks, these large sums of money, the German government can not afford, in the “Treaty of Versailles,” the date of signing, has decided it’s nature, that is, this is a short twenty years truce. In 1933, Hitler came to power, that completely negate the German indemnity obligations (from 1926 to 1929, the United States in all aspects, in order to amortize the way to recover the amount of compensation, and did not want to get only about repayment of the German one-fifth of the loan)
    March 1936 declared: Germany reoccupied the Rhineland demilitarized zone in 1938, announced the merger of Germany and Austria; 1939, announced the occupation of Czechoslovakia, the Sudetenland in addition to the rest (Munich Agreement), in September, the German blitzkrieg offensive Poland, finally broke out in human history, so far, the largest, deadliest, most damaging, World War II.

    Private investors see investment opportunities in the health system, the government said: to allow foreign investment in the medical field.

    Healthcare Chindex’s chief executive (CEO) Philip Johnson (Roberta Lipson), said, “the Chinese people in the past, the doctor the impression that they had – squeezed into crowded public places, to meet with the doctor a short time, and this need from five in the morning, went to line up. ”

    “Those who go to live five-star hotel, went to Europe, travel, silk-stocking, dining at upscale hotels who finally realize: medical treatment can also have their own choice.”

    Philip Johnson opened in China’s four hospitals to attract increasing local rich people, they are willing to pay higher fees, to enjoy better care.

    Chinese medical field potential foreign investors, including from Western countries, a large medical group to private equity funds, they seek to profit from Chinese Hospital.

    Other possible beneficiaries, including those pioneers, they have been operating in China with 100 foreign-funded clinics and hospitals, such as Singapore Parkway (Parkway) holding company.

    Private equity investors Chen ** (phonetic) said, “Successful investors profit returns, up to 20%.” Chen ** and the Chinese partner are looking for 80 million to $ 100 million investment in a hospital .

    “China’s health care reform, will be the largest private equity investment opportunities in one of China now has 13,000 hospital, without exception, require the development of capital.”

    End of last year, China said: will encourage foreign investment into the hospital area. Most investors are waiting for the government introduction of implementation details, for example, how to draw the investment structure.

    Chinese Vice Premier Li Keqiang, a special meeting this summer to bring together health care policy adviser, to discuss how to promote reform. Since then, the government began to several legitimate private hospital, visit the research.

    Research firm IMS, said China’s medical expenses, the recent rapid growth is always in the next few years, drug sales, expected to grow annually, more than 20%.

    At present, China’s medical expenses, the gross domestic product (GDP) of about 5%; global average of 9%.

    English由谷歌翻译

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