北约-利比亚支出

北约-利比亚支出

战争初期,根据华盛顿智库“战略与预算评估中心”(CSBA)的评估,美军首轮作战行动的费用,约8亿美元;今后,平均每周的花销,都将高达1亿美元。据五角大楼8月22日宣布,截至7月31日,美军对利比亚的军事干预,已经花费纳税人大约8.96亿美元。

北约,财团。
据英国媒体统计,在空袭行动的前4天,英国已经花费了2850万英镑(约合4700万美元)。
法国政府是联军主力,空袭开始以来,法国每天的花费,为120万欧元(约合170万美元)。
意大利提供的是驱逐舰和护卫舰,每天的维护,在10万欧元以上。军费开支

在利比亚拥有大量利益的法国和意大利等国损失。随着利比亚内战的爆发,利比亚石油的东家——意大利埃尼集团(Eni)、西班牙雷普索尔公司(Repsol)、法国道达尔公司(Total)、挪威国家石油公司(Statoil)等国际原油巨头们,纷纷撤出了利比亚,损失惨重。

法国石油巨头道达尔集团-道达尔集团第二季度和上半年油气日均产量,分别降至231万桶,和234万桶,同比均下降2%。
法国外长朱佩说:“你们也知道:法国为了帮助利比亚人民从独裁中解放出来,进行了多么大的投入,法国承担了很大的风险。”

意大利-利比亚第一大外国产油公司,埃尼集团,意大利原油进口,对利比亚的依赖,最大,达到每日37.6万桶。

欧美,意大利外长弗拉蒂尼,8月24日,宣称,埃尼集团的技术人员,已动身前往利比亚东部,以重启当地的石油生产。埃尼集团,将在利比亚,占有“第一的位置”。

利比亚战争,让利比亚人民遭遇巨大的财产损失。据悉,利比亚去年国内生产总值,大约900亿美元,公共开支,接近400亿美元,人均国民收入1.5万美元。

原油产出方面,战前,利比亚日产原油160万桶,国内日消费量,为27万桶,其余,均为出口,持续半年的激烈内战,已经导致利比亚油田全面停产,经济陷入瘫痪。

根据石油输出国组织(OPEC),在战前作统计-利比亚,是世界第12大、非洲第三大产油国,已探明石油储量440亿桶,拥有非洲最大的原油储备。日产原油160万桶,国内日消费量,仅为27万桶,其余,均为出口。内战前,利比亚日产石油160万桶,半年的内战,使其锐减至5万桶/日。

7月21日,利比亚政府财政计划部长-阿布杜哈非茨·泽里塔尼对外宣布,利比亚军事冲突,已给该国造成大约500亿美元经济损失。“冲突代价巨大,大部分损失,源于石油和天然气出口停顿,仅停止出口石油所放弃的收入,约有200亿美元。”

高盛报告显示,利比亚石油生产恢复工作,要比预想的更快,将在12,到18个月内,恢复日产量58.5万桶。根据以往的经验来看,政治动荡造成的石油生产中断,需要相当长的时间才能恢复。以2003年伊拉克战争为例,其石油基础设施,大体未受影响,但其出口,直到2008年政治混乱局面结束时,才恢复至战前水平。

利比亚的情况,可能更糟。在战争中,占利比亚原油产量约2/3的最主要石油产地锡尔特盆地,和利比亚一些石油重要出口港,均遭到不同程度的损毁,加之国际石油企业员工撤出,截至目前,这些地区的产量,接近零。

利比亚央行和利比亚主权财富基金“利比亚投资局”,共拥有约1680亿美元海外资产,其中,约有500亿美元,是以银行存款的形式,存放于包括德国、英国、法国、意大利、葡萄牙、西班牙、瑞典、比利时和荷兰在内的欧洲国家。同时,这两家机构,持有约400亿美元的美国和欧洲政府债券。但目前,这些资产,已经基本上,被西方国家冻结。

石油资源-利比亚拥有非洲最丰富的油气资源,去年,石油日产量,达到180万桶。
利比亚的石油输出,有85%销往欧洲,德国是主要进口国。
德国《 商务日报》早前的报道说,去年,德国自利比亚进口原油的总值,估计达30亿欧元;
德国出口到利比亚产品的总值,仅为大约10亿欧元

德国工商大会国际处副处长-费里加特·诺伊加特

google将中文译成英语

NATO – Libya expenses

Beginning of the war, according to a Washington think tank, “Strategic and Budgetary Assessments” (CSBA) assessment of U.S. military operations in the first round of the cost, about $ 800 million; the future, the average weekly spending, will be up to $ 100 million. August 22, according to the Pentagon announced that as of July 31, the U.S. military intervention against Libya, has cost taxpayers about $ 896 million.

NATO consortium.
According to British media, statistics, air strikes in the first four days, the UK has spent £ 28.5 million (about $ 47 million).
French government is the main coalition air strikes since the beginning of the French daily cost for 120 million euros (U.S. $ 1.7 million).
Italy is provided by destroyers and frigates, the daily maintenance of 10 million euros. Military expenditure

Libya has a lot of interest in France and Italy lost. With the outbreak of civil war, Libya, Libyan oil the club – Italian Eni (Eni), Spain’s Repsol (Repsol), France’s Total (Total), Norway’s national oil company (Statoil) and other international oil giants who have pulled out of Libya, with heavy losses.

French oil giant Total Group – Total Group second quarter and first half of the average daily production of oil and gas, were reduced to 231 million barrels and 234 million barrels, down 2% year on year.
French Foreign Minister Alain Juppe said: “You know: France to help the Libyan people freed from dictatorship, was how much of the investment, the French take a great risk.”

Italy – Libya’s biggest foreign-made oil company, ENI, the Italian oil imports, dependence on Libya, the largest, reaching 37.6 million barrels a day.

European, Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini, August 24, claimed that ENI’s technical staff has left for eastern Libya, to restart the local oil production. ENI, in Libya, occupied “first position.”

Libyan war, so the Libyan people suffered a huge loss of property. It is reported that Libya’s gross domestic product last year, about $ 90 billion in public spending, nearly $ 40 billion, per capita income of $ 15,000.

Crude oil output, the pre-war, 160 million barrels of Libyan crude oil production, domestic daily consumption of 27 million barrels, the rest, are exported last six months of intense civil war, has led to Libya halted oil economy to a standstill.

According to Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), as in the pre-war statistics – Libya, is the world’s 12th largest, Africa’s third largest oil producer, has 440 billion barrels of proven oil reserves, has Africa’s largest crude oil reserves. Nissan 160 million barrels of crude oil, domestic daily consumption of only 27 million barrels, the rest, are exported. Before the Civil War, Libya Nissan 160 million barrels of oil, half a year of civil war, it dropped to 5 million barrels / day.

July 21, the Libyan Minister of the Government’s fiscal plan – Abu Doha non 茨泽里塔尼 announced that Libya military conflict has been caused to the country about 500 billion U.S. dollars economic loss. “Costly conflict, most of the losses, from oil and gas exports pause, stop oil exports by only giving up income, about $ 20 billion.”

Goldman Sachs report, Libya’s oil production back to work, faster than expected, will be 12 to 18 months to restore the daily output of 58.5 million barrels. Based on past experience, political turmoil caused by the disruption of oil production, will take a long time to recover. In 2003, the war in Iraq, for example, its oil infrastructure, generally unaffected, but its exports until the end of 2008, when political chaos, was restored to prewar levels.

Case of Libya, may be worse. During the war, Libya crude oil production accounts for about 2 / 3 of the most important oil-producing Sirte Basin, Libya and a number of important oil export port, all in varying degrees of damage, coupled with international oil companies to withdraw staff, as of now, these production area, close to zero.

Central Bank of Libya and Libyan sovereign wealth funds, “the Libyan Investment Authority,” a total of approximately $ 168 billion of overseas assets, of which about $ 50 billion in bank deposits in the form, stored in Germany, Britain, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Belgium and the Netherlands and other European countries. Meanwhile, the two institutions, holding about 400 billion of U.S. and European government bonds. But, these assets have basically been frozen in Western countries.

Petroleum Resources – Libya has Africa’s most abundant oil and gas resources, last year, daily oil production reached 180 million barrels.
Libya’s oil output, 85% exported to Europe, Germany is the main importing countries.
Germany, “Business Times” earlier reports said that last year, Germany’s total crude oil imports from Libya, an estimated 30 million euros;
German exports to Libya, the total value of the product, only about 1 billion euros

International Conference of German Industry and Commerce, Deputy Director – 费里加特诺伊加 special